字幕列表 影片播放 自動翻譯 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 It was supposed to be humane. 應該是人道的。 You strap the condemned down to a chair, then seal him in an airtight chamber. 你把犯人綁在椅子上，然後把他封在一個密室裡。 Finally, once the time has come for the prisoner's life to come to an end, lethal gas is pumped 最後，一旦囚犯的生命走到盡頭，就會被注入致命的氣體。 into the room, ensuring a speedy, and painless death. 進入房間，確保快速、無痛的死亡。 A humane approach to the death penalty for society's most violent criminals- only turns 對社會上最凶殘的罪犯實行死刑的人道做法--只會變本加厲 out that death in the gas chamber is anything but painless, and far from humane. 在毒氣室中的死亡是毫無痛苦的，而且遠非人道。 In the early 20th century most states in the US were still hanging people, which if you've 在20世紀初，美國的大多數州還在絞刑，如果你已經 seen our previous episodes on worst punishments, you'll know that hanging very often didn't 看到我們以前的情節最嚴重的懲罰，你就會知道，絞刑往往沒有。 quite go to plan. 很順利。 On paper, it seems simple. 從紙面上看，這似乎很簡單。 You hoist the condemned up on a gallows, put a noose around their neck, and then drop them 你把犯人吊在絞刑架上，在他們的脖子上套上繩索，然後把他們扔下去。 through a trapdoor. 通過陷阱門。 Contrary to popular opinion, the condemned didn't die from asphyxiation, but rather from 與一般人的看法相反，被判刑的人並不是死於窒息，而是死於 the sudden drop snapping their neck. 突如其來的落差扭斷了他們的脖子。 A clean, fast death. 乾脆利落的死了。 Except it hardly ever went to plan, and when hanging went wrong, it went real wrong. 只不過幾乎沒有按計劃進行過，一旦掛出問題，就真的出問題了。 Like when 'Kendell Jenner solved racism by drinking Pepsi' wrong. 就像'肯德爾-詹納通過喝百事可樂解決種族主義問題'錯了。 For starters, dropping a prisoner from too large a height would end up with the head 首先，從太高的地方扔下一個犯人，最後會把頭扔掉。 being popped clean off like a champagne cork, showering curious bystanders with a fountain 像香檳酒的軟木塞一樣被彈開，向好奇的旁觀者灑下一陣陣清泉。 of gore. 的血腥。 Drop them from too low and the neck wouldn't break, leaving everyone staring awkwardly 從太低的地方掉下來，脖子就不會斷，讓大家尷尬地盯著看 for several minutes as the condemned very slowly choked to death. 幾分鐘，死刑犯非常緩慢地窒息而死。 Clearly there had to be a better solution, and this is where the government turned to 顯然，必須有更好的解決方案，這也是政府求助於的地方 gas. 氣。 Once more, on paper, it seems like a simple, clean death. 再一次，從紙面上看，這似乎是一個簡單、乾淨的死亡。 A lethal gas is pumped into an airtight room and the prisoner lapses into unconsciousness 在密閉的房間裡注入致命的氣體，犯人就會失去知覺。 and soon thereafter, a painless death. 並在此後不久，無痛地死去。 Once more, the reality was anything but the humane death that was hoped for. 再一次，現實卻完全不是人們所希望的人道的死亡。 So how does execution by lethal gas work, and how does it go so very wrong? 那麼，毒氣處決是如何進行的，怎麼會出現這麼大的問題呢？ First, you have to decide on a type of gas to be used. 首先，你必須決定要使用的氣體類型。 Executions can go with either a poisonous gas or an asphyxiant gas. 處決可以用毒氣或窒息性氣體。 A poisonous gas typically kills by causing massive organ failure, shutting down vital 有毒氣體通常會導致大量器官衰竭，關閉重要器官，從而導致死亡。 organs and bringing on death. 器官，並帶來死亡。 An asphyxiant gas simply makes it difficult for the lungs to get enough oxygen, or blocks 窒息性氣體只是讓肺部難以獲得足夠的氧氣，或者阻擋了肺部的氧氣。 the absorption of oxygen into the bloodstream. 血液中氧氣的吸收。 During World War II the Nazis, probably the most infamous mass gassers in history, used 在二戰期間，納粹，可能是歷史上最臭名昭著的大屠殺毒氣機，使用的是 carbon monoxide to asphyxiate dozens of people at a time. 一氧化碳使幾十人同時窒息。 This had the advantage of making cleanup and transportation of the gas safe and simple- 這樣做的好處是使氣體的清理和運輸變得安全和簡單。 typically the gas was created on the spot by running a large engine fed by diesel or 通常情況下，氣體是由機油或柴油機供給的大型發動機在現場產生的。 gasoline, but manufactured carbon monoxide was also produced to try and speed up the 汽油，但也生產了人造一氧化碳，以試圖加快汽油的生產速度。 killing process. 殺害過程。 It was still a slow process however, with executions sometimes taking up to a half hour 然而，這仍然是一個緩慢的過程，有時執行時間長達半個小時。 or more to complete. 或更多地完成。 Zyklon B, originally used as a pesticide, was rapidly found to be a superior solution. 原本用作殺蟲劑的齊克隆B，很快被發現是一種高級解決方案。 Unlike carbon monoxide which kills by asphyxiation, Zyklon B directly attacks the body's cells, 不同於一氧化碳的窒息致死，齊克隆B直接攻擊身體的細胞。 shutting down organs and bringing death in as little as two minutes. 關閉器官，在短短兩分鐘內帶來死亡。 At the same time that fumigators in the US were using Zyklon B to keep insect pests under 與此同時，美國的燻蒸人員也在使用齊克隆B來抑制蟲害的發生 control, the Nazis were using it to run the largest mass murder operation in history. 納粹利用它來進行歷史上最大規模的屠殺行動。 The United States opted for the use of Sodium Cyanide for its executions, which was believed 美國選擇使用氰化鈉來執行死刑，據信這是一種很好的方法。 to be a fast and pain free method of death. 是一種快速、無痛的死亡方式。 The procedure was simple: the prisoner was strapped into a chair placed in an airtight 程序很簡單：將犯人綁在一張椅子上，放在一個密閉的地方。 chamber (use photo https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8f/Santa_Fe_gas_chamber.jpg). 室（使用照片https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8f/Santa_Fe_gas_chamber.jpg）。 Underneath the chair would be a container filled with sulfuric acid and distilled water. 椅子下面會有一個裝滿硫酸和蒸餾水的容器。 Then from the safety of the outside of the chamber, the executioner would pull a lever 然後，劊子手會從密室外的安全地帶拉動一根杆子 causing sodium cyanide crystals to drop into the water-acid solution, releasing hydrocyanic 導致氰化鈉晶體落入水酸溶液中，釋放出氫氰酸。 gas. 氣。 The inmate would have been instructed to breathe in deeply, so as to hasten unconsciousness. 囚犯會被訓示深呼吸，以便加速失去知覺。 However, most inmates would hold their breath as long as they could. 不過，大多數犯人都會憋著一口氣，只要他們能做到。 Regardless, at some point the victim would go unconscious, as the cyanide entered their 無論如何，在某些時候，受害者會失去知覺，因為氰化物進入他們的身體。 body and the cyanide ions bound to the iron atoms inside the mitochondria of living cells. 體和活細胞線粒體內的鐵原子結合的氰化物離子。 This bonding would prevent cellular respiration, leading to the shutdown of the body's organs. 這種結合會阻礙細胞呼吸，導致身體器官的關閉。 Death at the cellular level, what could possibly go wrong with that? 細胞層面的死亡，這還能有什麼問題？ Turns out, a lot of things. 原來，很多事情。 As has been discovered with lethal injection, with some executions taking up to a whopping 正如注射死刑時發現的那樣，有些死刑的執行時間長達數年之久。 two hours, each person's biology is different, and people's bodies can react in extremely 兩小時，每個人的生物體質不同，人們的身體會有極度的反應。 unpredictable ways. 不可預知的方式。 Of over 600 executions by gas in the United States, so many of these would go so significantly 在美國的600多起毒氣處決中，有這麼多的毒氣處決會有這麼大的影響 wrong that at one point a prison warden commented that if he was forced to kill another inmate 有一次，一位監獄長說，如果他被迫殺死另一個囚犯，他就會被強迫殺死。 with gas, he would quit his job. 有了汽油，他就會辭掉工作。 Inmates would be seen drooling and moaning long after they should've been unconscious. 犯人在本該昏迷的時候，早就會看到他們流著口水呻吟。 On september 2nd, 1983, Jimmy Lee Gray was executed by lethal gas, and after eight minutes 1983年9月2日，吉米-李-格雷被處以毒氣，8分鐘後。 of moaning and banging his head against a pipe, the viewing room was cleared by prison 的呻吟和敲打著他的頭的管道，觀看室被清除由監獄 officials. 官員。 It's unknown just how long it took for him to actually die. 不知道他到底死了多久。 In 1960, Caryl Chessman told reporters he would nod his head if he felt pain during 1960年，卡里爾-切斯曼告訴記者，如果他感到疼痛時，他會點頭。 his execution. 他的處決。 Chessman would nod his head for several minutes as he moaned behind the thick glass, until 棋人在厚厚的玻璃後面呻吟時，會點頭好幾分鐘，直到 at last falling unconscious. 最後昏迷不醒。 Pain and unconsciousness are difficult things to study, so it's not known exactly how death 疼痛和無意識是很難研究的東西，所以不知道死亡到底是怎麼發生的。 by lethal gas is as painful as it apparently is. 由致命氣體是痛苦的，因為它顯然是。 Experts however believe that the sensation of death by gas is similar to the extreme 但專家認為，氣死的感覺類似於極端的 pain of a heart attack, only extended over several minutes at a time as the gas slowly 心臟病發作的疼痛，只延長了幾分鐘的時間，因為氣體慢慢地。 works to bring death. 帶來死亡的作品。 After so many horror stories from gas chamber executions, the method has been largely banned 在經歷了這麼多毒氣室處決的恐怖故事之後，這種方法已經基本被禁止了。 in the United States, with the last execution by gas chamber taking place in 1999. 在美國，最後一次用毒氣室處決是在1999年。 Today prisoners can still get the gas chamber in Arizona, California, Maryland, Mississippi, 如今，在亞利桑那州、加利福尼亞州、馬里蘭州、密西西比州，囚犯們仍然可以得到毒氣室。 Missouri, and Wyoming, though only if lethal injection cannot be administered. 密蘇里州和懷俄明州，儘管只有在不能注射死刑的情況下。 With the effectiveness of lethal injection also in serious question however, states are 然而，由於注射死刑的有效性也受到嚴重質疑，各國正在： once more looking for a new, and humane method of execution. 再次尋找一種新的、人性化的執行方法。 Now go check out How Does Lethal Injection Work? 現在就去看看致命針劑的效果如何？ What Happens If It Fails? 如果失敗了會怎樣？ Or click this other video instead! 或者點擊其他視頻代替!