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  • It was supposed to be humane.

    應該是人道的。

  • You strap the condemned down to a chair, then seal him in an airtight chamber.

    你把犯人綁在椅子上,然後把他封在一個密室裡。

  • Finally, once the time has come for the prisoner's life to come to an end, lethal gas is pumped

    最後,一旦囚犯的生命走到盡頭,就會被注入致命的氣體。

  • into the room, ensuring a speedy, and painless death.

    進入房間,確保快速、無痛的死亡。

  • A humane approach to the death penalty for society's most violent criminals- only turns

    對社會上最凶殘的罪犯實行死刑的人道做法--只會變本加厲

  • out that death in the gas chamber is anything but painless, and far from humane.

    在毒氣室中的死亡是毫無痛苦的,而且遠非人道。

  • In the early 20th century most states in the US were still hanging people, which if you've

    在20世紀初,美國的大多數州還在絞刑,如果你已經

  • seen our previous episodes on worst punishments, you'll know that hanging very often didn't

    看到我們以前的情節最嚴重的懲罰,你就會知道,絞刑往往沒有。

  • quite go to plan.

    很順利。

  • On paper, it seems simple.

    從紙面上看,這似乎很簡單。

  • You hoist the condemned up on a gallows, put a noose around their neck, and then drop them

    你把犯人吊在絞刑架上,在他們的脖子上套上繩索,然後把他們扔下去。

  • through a trapdoor.

    通過陷阱門。

  • Contrary to popular opinion, the condemned didn't die from asphyxiation, but rather from

    與一般人的看法相反,被判刑的人並不是死於窒息,而是死於

  • the sudden drop snapping their neck.

    突如其來的落差扭斷了他們的脖子。

  • A clean, fast death.

    乾脆利落的死了。

  • Except it hardly ever went to plan, and when hanging went wrong, it went real wrong.

    只不過幾乎沒有按計劃進行過,一旦掛出問題,就真的出問題了。

  • Like when 'Kendell Jenner solved racism by drinking Pepsi' wrong.

    就像'肯德爾-詹納通過喝百事可樂解決種族主義問題'錯了。

  • For starters, dropping a prisoner from too large a height would end up with the head

    首先,從太高的地方扔下一個犯人,最後會把頭扔掉。

  • being popped clean off like a champagne cork, showering curious bystanders with a fountain

    像香檳酒的軟木塞一樣被彈開,向好奇的旁觀者灑下一陣陣清泉。

  • of gore.

    的血腥。

  • Drop them from too low and the neck wouldn't break, leaving everyone staring awkwardly

    從太低的地方掉下來,脖子就不會斷,讓大家尷尬地盯著看

  • for several minutes as the condemned very slowly choked to death.

    幾分鐘,死刑犯非常緩慢地窒息而死。

  • Clearly there had to be a better solution, and this is where the government turned to

    顯然,必須有更好的解決方案,這也是政府求助於的地方

  • gas.

    氣。

  • Once more, on paper, it seems like a simple, clean death.

    再一次,從紙面上看,這似乎是一個簡單、乾淨的死亡。

  • A lethal gas is pumped into an airtight room and the prisoner lapses into unconsciousness

    在密閉的房間裡注入致命的氣體,犯人就會失去知覺。

  • and soon thereafter, a painless death.

    並在此後不久,無痛地死去。

  • Once more, the reality was anything but the humane death that was hoped for.

    再一次,現實卻完全不是人們所希望的人道的死亡。

  • So how does execution by lethal gas work, and how does it go so very wrong?

    那麼,毒氣處決是如何進行的,怎麼會出現這麼大的問題呢?

  • First, you have to decide on a type of gas to be used.

    首先,你必須決定要使用的氣體類型。

  • Executions can go with either a poisonous gas or an asphyxiant gas.

    處決可以用毒氣或窒息性氣體。

  • A poisonous gas typically kills by causing massive organ failure, shutting down vital

    有毒氣體通常會導致大量器官衰竭,關閉重要器官,從而導致死亡。

  • organs and bringing on death.

    器官,並帶來死亡。

  • An asphyxiant gas simply makes it difficult for the lungs to get enough oxygen, or blocks

    窒息性氣體只是讓肺部難以獲得足夠的氧氣,或者阻擋了肺部的氧氣。

  • the absorption of oxygen into the bloodstream.

    血液中氧氣的吸收。

  • During World War II the Nazis, probably the most infamous mass gassers in history, used

    在二戰期間,納粹,可能是歷史上最臭名昭著的大屠殺毒氣機,使用的是

  • carbon monoxide to asphyxiate dozens of people at a time.

    一氧化碳使幾十人同時窒息。

  • This had the advantage of making cleanup and transportation of the gas safe and simple-

    這樣做的好處是使氣體的清理和運輸變得安全和簡單。

  • typically the gas was created on the spot by running a large engine fed by diesel or

    通常情況下,氣體是由機油或柴油機供給的大型發動機在現場產生的。

  • gasoline, but manufactured carbon monoxide was also produced to try and speed up the

    汽油,但也生產了人造一氧化碳,以試圖加快汽油的生產速度。

  • killing process.

    殺害過程。

  • It was still a slow process however, with executions sometimes taking up to a half hour

    然而,這仍然是一個緩慢的過程,有時執行時間長達半個小時。

  • or more to complete.

    或更多地完成。

  • Zyklon B, originally used as a pesticide, was rapidly found to be a superior solution.

    原本用作殺蟲劑的齊克隆B,很快被發現是一種高級解決方案。

  • Unlike carbon monoxide which kills by asphyxiation, Zyklon B directly attacks the body's cells,

    不同於一氧化碳的窒息致死,齊克隆B直接攻擊身體的細胞。

  • shutting down organs and bringing death in as little as two minutes.

    關閉器官,在短短兩分鐘內帶來死亡。

  • At the same time that fumigators in the US were using Zyklon B to keep insect pests under

    與此同時,美國的燻蒸人員也在使用齊克隆B來抑制蟲害的發生

  • control, the Nazis were using it to run the largest mass murder operation in history.

    納粹利用它來進行歷史上最大規模的屠殺行動。

  • The United States opted for the use of Sodium Cyanide for its executions, which was believed

    美國選擇使用氰化鈉來執行死刑,據信這是一種很好的方法。

  • to be a fast and pain free method of death.

    是一種快速、無痛的死亡方式。

  • The procedure was simple: the prisoner was strapped into a chair placed in an airtight

    程序很簡單:將犯人綁在一張椅子上,放在一個密閉的地方。

  • chamber (use photo https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8f/Santa_Fe_gas_chamber.jpg).

    室(使用照片https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8f/Santa_Fe_gas_chamber.jpg)。

  • Underneath the chair would be a container filled with sulfuric acid and distilled water.

    椅子下面會有一個裝滿硫酸和蒸餾水的容器。

  • Then from the safety of the outside of the chamber, the executioner would pull a lever

    然後,劊子手會從密室外的安全地帶拉動一根杆子

  • causing sodium cyanide crystals to drop into the water-acid solution, releasing hydrocyanic

    導致氰化鈉晶體落入水酸溶液中,釋放出氫氰酸。

  • gas.

    氣。

  • The inmate would have been instructed to breathe in deeply, so as to hasten unconsciousness.

    囚犯會被訓示深呼吸,以便加速失去知覺。

  • However, most inmates would hold their breath as long as they could.

    不過,大多數犯人都會憋著一口氣,只要他們能做到。

  • Regardless, at some point the victim would go unconscious, as the cyanide entered their

    無論如何,在某些時候,受害者會失去知覺,因為氰化物進入他們的身體。

  • body and the cyanide ions bound to the iron atoms inside the mitochondria of living cells.

    體和活細胞線粒體內的鐵原子結合的氰化物離子。

  • This bonding would prevent cellular respiration, leading to the shutdown of the body's organs.

    這種結合會阻礙細胞呼吸,導致身體器官的關閉。

  • Death at the cellular level, what could possibly go wrong with that?

    細胞層面的死亡,這還能有什麼問題?

  • Turns out, a lot of things.

    原來,很多事情。

  • As has been discovered with lethal injection, with some executions taking up to a whopping

    正如注射死刑時發現的那樣,有些死刑的執行時間長達數年之久。

  • two hours, each person's biology is different, and people's bodies can react in extremely

    兩小時,每個人的生物體質不同,人們的身體會有極度的反應。

  • unpredictable ways.

    不可預知的方式。

  • Of over 600 executions by gas in the United States, so many of these would go so significantly

    在美國的600多起毒氣處決中,有這麼多的毒氣處決會有這麼大的影響

  • wrong that at one point a prison warden commented that if he was forced to kill another inmate

    有一次,一位監獄長說,如果他被迫殺死另一個囚犯,他就會被強迫殺死。

  • with gas, he would quit his job.

    有了汽油,他就會辭掉工作。

  • Inmates would be seen drooling and moaning long after they should've been unconscious.

    犯人在本該昏迷的時候,早就會看到他們流著口水呻吟。

  • On september 2nd, 1983, Jimmy Lee Gray was executed by lethal gas, and after eight minutes

    1983年9月2日,吉米-李-格雷被處以毒氣,8分鐘後。

  • of moaning and banging his head against a pipe, the viewing room was cleared by prison

    的呻吟和敲打著他的頭的管道,觀看室被清除由監獄

  • officials.

    官員。

  • It's unknown just how long it took for him to actually die.

    不知道他到底死了多久。

  • In 1960, Caryl Chessman told reporters he would nod his head if he felt pain during

    1960年,卡里爾-切斯曼告訴記者,如果他感到疼痛時,他會點頭。

  • his execution.

    他的處決。

  • Chessman would nod his head for several minutes as he moaned behind the thick glass, until

    棋人在厚厚的玻璃後面呻吟時,會點頭好幾分鐘,直到

  • at last falling unconscious.

    最後昏迷不醒。

  • Pain and unconsciousness are difficult things to study, so it's not known exactly how death

    疼痛和無意識是很難研究的東西,所以不知道死亡到底是怎麼發生的。

  • by lethal gas is as painful as it apparently is.

    由致命氣體是痛苦的,因為它顯然是。

  • Experts however believe that the sensation of death by gas is similar to the extreme

    但專家認為,氣死的感覺類似於極端的

  • pain of a heart attack, only extended over several minutes at a time as the gas slowly

    心臟病發作的疼痛,只延長了幾分鐘的時間,因為氣體慢慢地。

  • works to bring death.

    帶來死亡的作品。

  • After so many horror stories from gas chamber executions, the method has been largely banned

    在經歷了這麼多毒氣室處決的恐怖故事之後,這種方法已經基本被禁止了。

  • in the United States, with the last execution by gas chamber taking place in 1999.

    在美國,最後一次用毒氣室處決是在1999年。

  • Today prisoners can still get the gas chamber in Arizona, California, Maryland, Mississippi,

    如今,在亞利桑那州、加利福尼亞州、馬里蘭州、密西西比州,囚犯們仍然可以得到毒氣室。

  • Missouri, and Wyoming, though only if lethal injection cannot be administered.

    密蘇里州和懷俄明州,儘管只有在不能注射死刑的情況下。

  • With the effectiveness of lethal injection also in serious question however, states are

    然而,由於注射死刑的有效性也受到嚴重質疑,各國正在:

  • once more looking for a new, and humane method of execution.

    再次尋找一種新的、人性化的執行方法。

  • Now go check out How Does Lethal Injection Work?

    現在就去看看致命針劑的效果如何?

  • What Happens If It Fails?

    如果失敗了會怎樣?

  • Or click this other video instead!

    或者點擊其他視頻代替!

It was supposed to be humane.

應該是人道的。

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B2 中高級 中文 氣體 犯人 死亡 死刑 處決 人道

致命毒氣到底是如何運作的? (How Does Lethal Gas Actually Work?)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 03 月 12 日
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