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  • You probably already have a vague notion of stegosaurus and other dinosaurs running amuck

    你可能已經有了一個模糊的概念 劍龍和其他恐龍亂跑的概念

  • and being trampled by roaring, panicked T-Rexs while fiery asteroids rain down from the heavens

    被驚慌失措的霸王龍踐踏,而熾熱的小行星從天而降。

  • and burn them all to death.

    並將他們全部燒死。

  • Well, yes, some dinosaurs were killed by asteroids, but the mass extinction of the dinosaurs is

    是的,有些恐龍是被小行星殺死的 但恐龍的大規模滅絕則是...

  • a little more complicated than that.

    比這更復雜一些。

  • First, it's thought that dinosaurs roamed the earth for about 200 million years.

    首先,人們認為恐龍在地球上漫遊了大約2億年。

  • It's likely that many types of dinosaurs lived and died out long before extinction

    很可能很多種類的恐龍在滅絕前很久就已經生活和消亡了。

  • ended them for good.

    結束了他們的好日子。

  • There are three consecutive geologic time periods within the Mesozoic Era during which

    在中生代有三個連續的地質時期,其間

  • the dinosaurs lived; the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous Periods.

    恐龍的生活;三疊紀、侏羅紀和白堊紀時期。

  • Different dinosaur species lived during each of these three periods.

    這三個時期分別生活著不同的恐龍種類。

  • The Jurassic period dinosaur the Stegosaurus already had been extinct for approximately

    侏羅紀時期的恐龍 劍龍已經滅絕了大約10年了

  • 80 million years before the Cretaceous period dinosaur Tyrannosaurus came to be.

    白堊紀時期恐龍霸王龍出現前8000萬年。

  • So no, Tyrannosaurus never trampled a Stegosaurus while running from asteroids.

    所以不,霸王龍在躲避小行星的時候從來沒有踐踏過霸王龍。

  • At the end of the Cretaceous period there was a mass extinction where around 75% of

    在白堊紀末期,出現了一次大規模的滅絕,大約75%的人都被滅絕了。

  • life on earth was suddenly wiped out.

    地球上的生命突然被消滅了。

  • This included everything from fish, to trees to T-rexs.

    這包括了從魚、樹到T-rex的一切。

  • This event is called the CretaceousTertiary or K–T extinction which occurred 66 million

    這一事件被稱為白堊紀-第三紀或K-T大滅絕,發生在6600萬

  • years ago.

    幾年前。

  • The extinction is apparent in the geological record; no dinosaur remains have been found

    地質記錄中滅絕明顯,沒有發現恐龍遺蹟。

  • in rocks younger than 66 million years.

    在小於6600萬年的岩石中。

  • Try to wrap your mind around this crazy fact--the time period separating the existence of Stegosaurus

    試著想一想這個瘋狂的事實 -- 霸王龍存在的時間間隔是什麼?

  • and Tyrannosaurus (80 million years) is greater than the time period separating Tyrannosaurus

    和霸王龍(8000萬年)比霸王龍之間的時間間隔要大。

  • and modern humanity or you (66 million years).

    而現代人類還是你(6600萬年)。

  • For many years, paleontologists thought the mass die-off was most likely caused by climate

    多年來,古生物學家認為,大規模的死亡很可能是由氣候引起的。

  • change which disrupted the dinosaurs's food supply.

    破壞了恐龍的食物供應的變化。

  • In 1980, nuclear physicist Luis Alverez and his son geologist Walter Alvarez were conducting

    1980年,核物理學家Luis Alverez和他的兒子地質學家Walter Alvarez在進行。

  • research in Italy.

    在意大利的研究。

  • They discovered a layer of iridium-rich clay in the K–Pg boundary which marks the end

    他們在K-Pg邊界發現了一層富含銥的粘土,這層粘土標誌著K-Pg的結束。

  • of the Cretaceous Period.

    白堊紀時期的。

  • This layer has about 200 more times the amount of iridium in it compared to the strata formed

    與形成的地層相比,該層中銥的含量多出200倍。

  • before and after.

    前後。

  • This was significant because iridium is rare on earth, but much more common in space.

    這一點意義重大,因為銥在地球上很少見,但在太空中卻常見得多。

  • The Alvarezes hypothesised that the iridium was deposited because of an astronomical event

    阿爾瓦雷茲人假設銥的沉積是由於一次天文事件。

  • where a large meteor, comet or asteroid collided with the earth.

    大型流星、彗星或小行星與地球相撞的地方;

  • Furthermore, this enormous impact could have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs.

    此外,這種巨大的衝擊力還可能造成恐龍的滅絕。

  • In 1991, a massive meteor crater was discovered on the edge of the Yucatán Peninsula, extending

    1991年,在尤卡坦半島的邊緣發現了一個巨大的隕石坑,它延伸到尤卡坦半島上。

  • into the Gulf of Mexico.

    進入墨西哥灣。

  • The Chicxulub Crater, which was named for a nearby village, is 112 miles in diameter

    奇克蘇魯布火山口因附近的一個村莊而得名,直徑為112英里。

  • (180 km).

    (180公里)。

  • For many in the scientific community, this crater confirms the Alvarez hypothesis--it

    對於科學界的許多人來說 這個隕石坑證實了阿爾瓦雷斯的假說

  • has become the widely accepted theory for the extinction of non avian dinosaurs.

    已成為廣為接受的非禽類恐龍滅絕的理論。

  • Researchers believe that around 66 million years ago, an enormous asteroid somewhere

    研究人員認為,大約在6600萬年前,一顆巨大的小行星在某處。

  • between 6-9 miles in diameter (9.6-14.5 km) struck the earth at 40,000 miles per hour

    直徑6-9英里(9.6-14.5公里)之間,以每小時4萬英里的速度撞擊地球。

  • (64,373 kph).

    (64,373公里/小時)。

  • The impact released 2 million times more energy than the biggest nuclear bomb.

    撞擊釋放的能量是最大核彈的200萬倍。

  • But even with such a massive impact, how could that kill the majority of life on earth, including

    但即使有如此巨大的影響,怎麼可能殺死地球上的大部分生命,包括

  • dinosaurs thousands of miles from the impact zone?

    恐龍離撞擊區有幾千英里?

  • As the massive asteroid streaked across the sky, chucks may have broken off, igniting

    當這顆巨大的小行星在天空中劃過時,可能已經斷裂,點燃了大塊的碎片

  • wildfires wherever they landed.

    野火,無論它們落在哪裡。

  • When the asteroid slammed into the Yucatan peninsula, it bore several miles down into

    當這顆小行星撞向尤卡坦半島時,它向下鑽了好幾英里,進入了尤卡坦半島。

  • the seafloor creating a bubbling cauldron of melting rock and super hot gases.

    在海底形成了一個由熔化的岩石和超熱氣體組成的氣泡小耳朵。

  • This created an effect similar to a volcanic plume-heated seawater and lava were ejected

    這就產生了類似於火山梅的效果--加熱的海水和熔岩被噴出。

  • mountain-high into the atmosphere.

    嶡,巋到大氣。

  • The plume quickly collapsed back into the sea where it cooled, altering temperature,

    翎羽很快倒回海中,在那裡冷卻,改變了溫度。

  • currents and the land formation.

    流和土地形成。

  • The asteroid also vaporized sulfur rich rocks, releasing an estimated 357 billion tons (325

    這顆小行星還將富含硫磺的岩石汽化,釋放出估計3570億噸(325個)的硫磺。

  • billion metric tons) of sulfur gas into the air.

    億公噸)的硫磺氣體排放到空氣中。

  • Some of the gas quickly fell as acid rain, acidifying the ocean and killing off most

    一些氣體很快就以酸雨的形式落下,酸化了海洋,殺死了大部分人

  • marine life.

    海洋生物,

  • At the same time virtually all life within around 1,000 miles (1,609 km) of the impact

    同時,在撞擊周圍1000英里(1,609公里)範圍內的所有生命幾乎都在這裡。

  • was incinerated due to the heat.

    因高溫而被焚燒。

  • The impact also created a shock wave and displaced ocean water, forming a towering tsunami that

    撞擊還產生了衝擊波,海水移位,形成了高聳的海嘯。

  • might have traveled as far inland as present-day Illinois before receding.

    可能已經走到了今天伊利諾伊州的內陸,然後才退去。

  • The particles of dust and gases tossed into the atmosphere blocked the sun, plunging the

    拋入大氣層的塵埃和氣體顆粒擋住了太陽,使其陷入了。

  • earth into darkness and cold temperatures.

    地球陷入黑暗和低溫。

  • The lack of sunlight reaching plants caused a massive collapse of the ecosystem throughout

    陽光照射不到植物,導致整個生態系統的大面積崩潰

  • the whole food chain.

    整個食物鏈。

  • The majority of plants and trees rapidly died off.

    大部分的花草樹木迅速死亡。

  • Shortly thereafter, herbivores starved to death because they had nothing to eat.

    此後不久,食草動物因為沒有東西吃而餓死。

  • The carnivorous dinosaurs lasted a little longer, since they could feast on the dead

    食肉恐龍持續的時間更長一些,因為它們可以以死人為食。

  • and dying herbivores.

    和垂死的食草動物。

  • But within a month or so of the asteroid impact, most of the life on earth had died.

    但在小行星撞擊後的一個多月內,地球上的大部分生命都已經死亡。

  • Only small, scavenging animals that were quickly able to adapt survived.

    只有體積小、食腐能力強、能迅速適應的動物才能生存下來。

  • These animals, which most likely subsisted on insects and seeds, burrowed into the ground

    這些動物很可能以昆蟲和種子為生,它們鑽進了地下

  • to escape the cold.

    來躲避寒冷。

  • Over time these creatures evolved into modern reptiles and birds.

    隨著時間的推移,這些生物進化成了現代的爬行動物和鳥類。

  • So technically dinosaurs never fully went extinct, they just became canaries and chickens.

    所以從技術上講,恐龍從來沒有完全滅絕過,它們只是變成了金絲雀和雞。

  • Could an astronomical event destroy life as we know it on earth?

    天文事件是否會摧毀我們所知的地球生命?

  • Check out our answer here:

    在這裡看看我們的答案。

  • If a crocodile fought a great white shark, who would win?

    如果鱷魚和大白鯊打架,誰會贏?

  • Or are they evenly matched?

    還是勢均力敵?

  • See the victor here:

    在這裡看到勝利者。

You probably already have a vague notion of stegosaurus and other dinosaurs running amuck

你可能已經有了一個模糊的概念 劍龍和其他恐龍亂跑的概念

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B2 中高級 中文 恐龍 滅絕 小行星 地球 霸王龍 撞擊

恐龍是怎麼死的? (How Did the Dinosaurs Die?)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 03 月 10 日
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