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字幕列表 影片播放

  • Humans are proud of a lot of things, from particle accelerators to poetry to Pokemon.

    人類因為許多事物而自豪。 像是粒子加速器、詩歌,或是寶可夢。

  • All of them made possible because of something humans value extremely highly:

    這些能成真歸功於我們非常重視的一樣事物:

  • Intelligence.

    智慧。

  • We think of intelligence as a trait like height or strength,

    我們認為智慧是一種像是身高或是力氣那樣的特徵

  • but when we try to define it, things get fuzzy.

    但是當我們嘗試定義它時,一切卻又模稜兩可。

  • In a nutshell, intelligence is a mechanism to solve problems.

    簡而言之,智慧是一種用於解決問題的機制。

  • Especially the problem of staying alive, which involves finding food and shelter,

    特別是有關維持生命的問題, 其中牽扯到了覓食、尋找棲身之所

  • fighting sexual competitors, or fleeing from predators.

    性擇,或是躲避天敵。

  • Intelligence is not a single thing;

    智慧並不是單單一樣東西;

  • it includes the ability to gather knowledge, to learn, be creative, form strategies, or engage in critical thinking.

    它包含了蒐集知識、學習、創造、策略,或是批判思考的能力

  • It manifests itself in a huge variety of behaviors.

    它能在各式各樣的行為中被凸顯出來。

  • From hardwired or instinct like reactions to different degrees of learning, to some sort of awareness.

    像是天生的反射動作,或是不同程度上的學習,又或者是某種程度上的自我意識。

  • But not all scientists agree where it begins or what even should count as intelligence.

    但是科學界對於智慧的界線還有所爭論。

  • To make this even more complicated,

    而事情遠遠不止這麼簡單。

  • intelligence is also connected to consciousness since awareness is helpful for problem-solving.

    智慧跟意識也有所關聯, 因為自我意識有助於解決問題。

  • But we're exploring consciousness in other videos, so today we'll leave it aside.

    但是我們在其他影片探討過意識了, 所以今天我們姑且將它放在一旁。

  • Okay,

    好了,

  • Intelligence isn't exactly clear-cut, so maybe we can think of it as more like a flexible set of skills:

    智慧並不是非常清晰、明瞭的東西。 因此,或許我們能認為它更接近一組不固定的技能組。

  • A toolbox.

    工具箱

  • Basic tools.

    基本工具

  • The most basic tools in the intelligence toolbox are the ability to gather information, to save it, and to use it to learn.

    在智慧工具箱裡,最基本的工具有: 蒐集資訊、儲存、用來學習的能力。

  • Information about the world is gathered through senses such as vision, sound, smell, touch or taste,

    我們用感官來收集資訊, 像是視覺、聽覺、嗅覺、觸覺或是味覺。

  • and helps us navigate and react to the external world appropriately.

    幫助我們合適地對世界做出反應。

  • But living things also need to keep track of the state of their own bodies,

    但不僅如此,生物也需要追蹤自身的身體狀態,

  • monitoring things like hunger and fatigue.

    監控像是飢餓或是疲勞之類的東西。

  • Information is the basis of action for all living things,

    資訊是所有生物行動的基礎。

  • and without it, you're at the mercy of your surroundings, unable to react appropriately, or flexibly.

    沒有了它,你只能受周圍環境的擺佈, 而無法正確或是彈性地應對周遭事物。

  • Information is much more powerful if we can keep and save it, so the second tool is memory.

    資訊在我們能儲存它時能發揮更強大的效用, 因此我們的第二個工具就是記憶。

  • Memory is the ability to save and recall information,

    記憶讓我們能儲存或是調用資訊,

  • so a living being doesn't have to start from scratch every time it perceives something relevant.

    因此生物無須從頭開始收集相關資訊。

  • Memories can be about events, places, and associations, but also behaviors like hunting or foraging methods.

    記憶可以跟事件、地點,或是各種關係有關, 也能是各式各樣的行為,像是打獵或覓食的方法

  • Some of these, like flying, have to be repeated over and over until they're mastered.

    其中有些需要反覆練習直到熟練,像是飛行。

  • This is what we call learning, the process of putting together a sequence of thoughts or actions.

    這就是所謂的學習 ── 整理一系列動作或是想法的過程。

  • Basically a string of repeatable behaviors that can be varied and adapted.

    基本上就是一串可重複的動作,具有多樣性和適應性。

  • These three tools enable seemingly stupid creatures to act in surprisingly intelligent ways.

    這三樣工具使看似愚蠢的生物能夠以意外聰明的方式行動。

  • The acellular slime mold, which is basically just a single huge slimy cell,

    黏菌,基本上就只是一個巨大的黏糊糊的細胞

  • shows behavior similar to an animal with a simple brain.

    表現出如同擁有簡單大腦的動物的行為。

  • When put in a maze with food at one end,

    當它被放在迷宮裡,而食物被放在出口時,

  • the slime mold explores its surroundings, and marks its path with slime trails,

    黏菌會探索週邊環境,並用黏液記錄路徑

  • sort of, smearing memories on the ground.

    有點像是把記憶抹在地上那樣。

  • As it continues exploring, it avoids the marked pathways and finds its way to the food.

    當它在探索時,會避開已經標記過的路徑去尋找食物。

  • Instead of blindly getting stuck in dead-ends, the slime mold adapts its behavior to save time and effort.

    黏菌為了節省力氣和時間調整行為, 避免盲目地卡在死胡同裡。

  • This behavior is hardwired, and scientists can't agree if that's intelligent,

    這是一種天生的行為, 而科學界難以認同這是一種智慧,

  • although it does give the slime mold a certain advantage.

    儘管它帶給黏菌某種程度上的優勢。

  • Bees are an example of more adaptive smart behavior.

    蜜蜂則是更加彈性、聰明的行為的例子之一。

  • Scientists trained bumblebees to move a colored ball into a goal post for a sugar reward.

    科學家訓練雄蜂把色球移進終點,用糖分作為獎勵。

  • Not only were the bees very skillful at this behaviour, which isn't natural to them,

    而雄蜂不僅對此非常熟練 (而這對它們是非常不自然的)

  • they got more efficient over time.

    隨著時間推進,它們甚至越來越有效率。

  • When several balls were available, bees chose the ball that lay closest to the goal,

    當有許多球在檯面上時, 他們會選擇離終點最近的那顆球

  • even if it was a different color than the ball they were trained with.

    就算那顆球的顏色跟平常訓練時用的顏色不一樣。

  • For more challenging problems, we need even more flexibility:

    對於更有挑戰性的問題,我們需要更多的靈活性:

  • Fancier tools.

    高級工具

  • Building on the basic tools, more complex animals have a wider range of problems they can solve.

    以基本工具為底,高等動物能解決的問題更多更廣。

  • They can memorize all kinds of associations, connections, and mechanical tricks.

    他們能記憶各式各樣的關聯和技巧。

  • We'll call this toolThe Library of Knowledge”.

    我們稱這項工具為「知識庫」。

  • Take raccoons. Their favorite kind of food is human food.

    以浣熊為例。牠們最喜歡人類的食物。

  • Their approach to getting hold of such treats depends upon an assortment of theoretical and practical skills,

    牠們獲取的手段仰賴於各式各樣的理論與實踐技巧

  • that makes them master burglars, able to open windows or pick locks.

    牠們成為偷竊大師,具有開窗或是開鎖的能力

  • In a study, raccoons were given boxes secured with different kinds of locks,

    在一項研究中, 浣熊拿到了被各式各樣的鎖鎖起來的箱子

  • like latches, bolts, plugs, or push bars.

    例如門閂、門栓或是推桿

  • They needed less than 10 attempts to figure out how to open each box.

    牠們需要在少於十次的嘗試中找出各個箱子開鎖的方法。

  • Even when different locks were put together into increasingly difficult combinations that had to be solved in the right order,

    就算各種鎖被組合成各種更困難的組合, 必須按照正確的順序解鎖

  • and with different amounts of strength.

    而其各自費的心力也不同。

  • A year later, the raccoons still remembered how to open the boxes,

    一年後,浣熊仍然記得怎麼打開箱子

  • and were as fast as when they had first solved the puzzle.

    而其開鎖的速度就跟第一次解開一樣快。

  • Beyond our library of associations and skills, the most impressive tool in our box is creativity,

    除了我們的關聯庫和技能庫以外, 我們工具箱裡最令人印象深刻的工具是創造力

  • a sort of mental duct tape.

    算是某種思維上的膠帶。

  • Being creative means producing something new and valuable from apparently unrelated things.

    有創意的意思是從看似無關的事物中產生新的、有價值的東西

  • In the context of intelligence this means making new and unusual connections.

    而在智慧的層面上而言,這代表著建立嶄新而非凡的連結

  • Pairing input with memories and skills, to come up with a unique solution to a problem.

    將輸入與記憶和技能配對, 以提出解決問題的獨特方法。

  • In another raccoon study, researchers showed the animals that by dropping pebbles into a water tank,

    在另一項對浣熊的研究中, 研究者向牠們示範把小石子丟進水箱中

  • they could raise the water level enough to reach a marshmallow floating at the top.

    就可以把水位提高,拿到浮在上面的棉花糖。

  • One raccoon came up with a much better solution: it tipped the tub over.

    而浣熊提出了更優秀的方法: 翻倒水桶。

  • Another facet of creativity is applying a new resource to a task:

    另一方面,創造力能將新資源用於工作上:

  • Physical tools.

    實體工具

  • Like primates that use sticks to fish for termites in trees, or some octopuses,

    就像靈長類動物用樹枝來釣魚或是抓樹裡的白蟻,或是某些章魚

  • which assemble collected coconut shells around themselves as a sort of portable armor to hide from enemies.

    把自己關在撿來的椰子殼裡當作是攜帶式裝甲來躲避天敵那樣。

  • Collecting materials for later use is connected to an even more advanced dimension of problem-solving:

    收集材料以備後用與解決問題的更高層面有關:

  • Planning.

    計畫

  • Planning means considering the activities required for a desired goal and putting them together in a plan.

    計畫是指思考達成目標所需的動作並將其組合到計畫中。

  • When unforeseen circumstances and new possibilities present themselves,

    當出現不可預見的情況和新的可能性時,

  • they need to be assessed according to whether they match the plan or not.

    需要根據它們是否符合計畫進行評估。

  • An example of this intelligent behavior is hoarding food to eat it later.

    這種聰明行為的一個例子是囤積食物以備後食。

  • This is an instinctive behavior in squirrels.

    這是松鼠的一種本能行為。

  • But even though hiding food comes instinctively to them,

    但是,即使他們本能地藏著食物,

  • they still need to use advanced thinking skills to make the best decisions.

    他們仍然需要運用先進的思維來做出最佳決策。

  • Squirrels examine every nut and weigh the time and effort it would take to hide it,

    松鼠仔細檢查每個堅果, 權衡隱藏它所需的時間和精力,

  • against the benefits they would get from each one.

    並與預期收益相比較。

  • Damaged or low-fat nuts are eaten right away,

    先吃受損或低脂的堅果

  • while nuts that still need to ripen go on the stockpile.

    還沒熟的堅果則儲存起來。

  • Squirrels also pretend to bury nuts when they feel watched.

    松鼠在被監視時也會假裝自己在埋堅果。

  • These empty caches distract rivals from their real treasure.

    這些空的藏匿處分散了競爭對手的注意力。

  • This is pretty advanced strategizing because to make a plan to distract someone else,

    這是非常高級的策略,因為要制定計畫分散別人的注意力,

  • you first have to be aware that there are others like you that want the same things.

    你首先要意識到有其他人也跟你一樣想要一樣的東西

  • The more complex the problem, the more tools are needed in combination to solve it.

    問題越複雜,解決問題需要結合使用的工具就越多。

  • So the more tools there are, the more flexibility a being has to solve the challenges life throws at them.

    因此,工具越多,生物面對生存問題的靈活性就越高。

  • But even for complex problems, each animal's individual situation is what counts.

    但是即使是面對複雜問題,每種動物的個別情況也不容忽視。

  • Squirrels are omnivores that defend their territories fiercely.

    松鼠是會激進地守護領地的雜食動物。

  • For them, it makes sense to remember where there's food in different locations

    對於牠們來說,記住食物儲存的位置很有意義

  • and trick their enemies to improve their chances of survival.

    藉此欺騙牠們的敵人來提升存活率。

  • Sheep don't have any such refined tricks up their sleeve, but they don't need to.

    羊則沒有這種精心設計的陰謀詭計,但牠們也不需要。

  • They are grazers and live in flocks.

    牠們是草食動物,結群而居。

  • The skills relevant to them are social.

    對牠們而言,社交技能比較有用。

  • They recognize and remember many different sheep, and even humans for years; a completely different skill.

    牠們能識別並記住不同的羊,甚至是人,長達數年以上。 完全不同的技能。

  • Evolving and retaining a complex set of mental abilities they might never use would be a waste of resources for them.

    進化或保留他們可能永遠不會使用的複雜心智能力,對他們來說是浪費資源。

  • Humans went the opposite way and invested in an unusually diverse intelligence toolkit.

    人類則反其道而行,並投資了異常多樣化的智慧工具組。

  • While this was helpful, by accident we added another set of tools on top:

    儘管這很有用,但我們意外地又多了另一組工具:

  • Culture.

    文化

  • No single person could ever build a space rocket or particle accelerator.

    沒有一個人能自己造出宇宙火箭或是粒子加速器。

  • But thanks to our ability to work together and to share knowledge across generations,

    歸功於我們的共事與知識傳承的能力

  • we can overcome challenges beyond any single individual's ability.

    我們可以克服所有個人無法超越的障礙。

  • This allowed us to shape the planet to our liking.

    這讓我們能隨心所欲地改造這顆星球。

  • We also created new problems in the process: sudoku, tax forms, string theory.

    在此過程中我們還產生了新的問題:數獨、稅表、弦論。

  • But also rapid climate change and antibiotic resistance.

    還有快速的氣候變遷與微生物抗藥性。

  • To solve these, we'll need to look past short-term survival and think about the distant future.

    為了解決這些問題,我們不能短視近利,並遠觀未來。

  • We have the toolbox, we just need to use it.

    我們手上已經有工具了,只需要好好善用它。

  • Speaking of tools for learning, we've heard from many teachers that are using our infographic posters in class.

    提到學習工具,我們聽說許多老師在課堂上使用我們的訊息圖海報。

  • So we asked what would help them the most and made an education edition for teachers, students, and everyone else.

    因此我們詢問什麼會提供他們最多的幫助, 並為教師、學生和其他所有人製作了教育版本。

  • They're slightly larger posters about various things that we'll expand over time.

    他們是關於各式各樣的東西的,略大一點的海報, 並且會隨著時間越來越多

  • From a periodic table, to a world map or the human body.

    從元素週期表,到世界地圖,或是人體。

  • You can get them in our shop and support us if you want.

    如果您願意的話,可以在我們的商店中找到它並支持我們。

  • And let us know which poster topics you want for your room or classroom.

    並且讓我們知道您想要在您的房間或教室中使用關於哪些主題的海報。

  • This video was part two of a three-part video series relating to big questions of life and the universe,

    這部影片是生命宇宙大哉問三部曲的第二部。

  • made possible thanks to a grant from the Templeton World charity foundation.

    得益於 Templeton World 慈善基金會的資助才得以實現。

  • You'll find our sources and further reading in the video description.

    您可以在影片說明中找到來源與延伸閱讀。

  • (Breezy outro music)

    (蹦蹦音樂)

Humans are proud of a lot of things, from particle accelerators to poetry to Pokemon.

人類因為許多事物而自豪。 像是粒子加速器、詩歌,或是寶可夢。

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 工具 浣熊 儲存 計畫 行為 記憶

智慧從哪裡來?(What Is Intelligence? Where Does it Begin?)

  • 15 2
    Richard VT 發佈於 2021 年 03 月 08 日
影片單字