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  • The earliest known divorce laws were written

    已知最早的離婚法是在下列情況下制定的

  • on clay tablets in ancient Mesopotamia around 2000 BCE.

    在公元前2000年左右的古代美索不達米亞的泥板上。

  • Formally or informally, human societies across place and time

    正式或非正式的,跨越地域和時間的人類社會。

  • have made rules to bind and dissolve couples.

    制定了約束和解除夫妻關係的規則。

  • Inca couples, for example, started with a trial partnership,

    比如印加夫婦,就是從試婚開始的。

  • during which a man could send his partner home.

    在這期間,男人可以送他的伴侶回家。

  • But once a marriage was formalized, there was no getting out of it.

    但一旦正式結婚,就無法脫身。

  • Among the Inuit peoples, divorce was discouraged,

    在因紐特人中,不鼓勵離婚。

  • but either spouse could demand one.

    但夫妻任何一方都可以要求。

  • or they could exchange partners with a different couple

    或者他們可以和另一對夫婦交換夥伴--

  • as long as all four people agreed.

    只要四個人都同意。

  • The stakes of who can obtain a divorce, and why, have always been high.

    誰能獲得離婚,為什麼要離婚,這其中的利害關係一直很大。

  • Divorce is a battlefield for some of society's most urgent issues,

    離婚是社會上一些最緊迫問題的戰場。

  • including the roles of church and state, individual rights, and women's rights.

    包括教會和國家的作用、個人權利和婦女權利;

  • Religious authorities have often regulated marriage and divorce.

    宗教當局經常對結婚和離婚進行管理。

  • Muslims in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia began using the Quran's rules

    非洲、中東和亞洲的穆斯林開始使用《古蘭經》中的規則。

  • in the 7th century AD

    公元7世紀

  • generally, a husband can divorce his wife without cause or agreement,

    一般來說,丈夫可以在沒有理由或協議的情況下與妻子離婚。

  • while a wife must secure her husband's agreement to divorce him.

    而妻子必須得到丈夫的同意才能與他離婚。

  • In Europe, Christian churches controlled divorce from the 11th century on,

    在歐洲,從11世紀開始,基督教會控制了離婚。

  • with the Catholic Church banning it entirely

    天主教會完全禁止

  • and Protestant churches allowing it in restricted circumstances,

    和新教教會在有限的情況下允許這樣做。

  • particularly adultery.

    特別是通姦。

  • In the late 18th century, a series of changes took place

    在18世紀末,發生了一系列變化

  • that would eventually shape divorce laws around the world.

    最終會影響全世界的離婚法。

  • Following centuries of religious conflict,

    經過幾個世紀的宗教衝突,

  • Europeans pushed for state governance separate from religious control.

    歐洲人推動國家治理與宗教控制分離。

  • Secular courts gradually took over education, welfare, health, marriage

    世俗法院逐漸接管了教育、福利、衛生、婚姻--。

  • and divorce.

    和離婚。

  • The French Revolution ushered in the first of the new divorce laws,

    法國大革命迎來了第一部新的離婚法。

  • allowing men and women to divorce for a number of grounds,

    允許男子和婦女以各種理由離婚;

  • including adultery, violence, and desertion, or simply mutual consent.

    包括通姦、暴力和遺棄,或僅僅是雙方同意。

  • Though progress was uneven, overall this sort of legislation spread in Europe,

    雖然進展不平衡,但總體來說,這類立法在歐洲得到了推廣。

  • North America and some European colonies in the 19th century.

    北美洲和一些歐洲殖民地在19世紀。

  • Still, women's access to divorce often remained restricted compared to men.

    不過,與男子相比,婦女獲得離婚的機會往往仍然受到限制。

  • Adultery was considered more serious for women

    通姦被認為對婦女來說更為嚴重--------。

  • a man could divorce his wife for adultery alone,

    一個男人可以僅僅因為通姦而與妻子離婚。

  • while a woman would need evidence of adultery,

    而女人則需要通姦的證據。

  • plus an additional offense to divorce her husband.

    加上與丈夫離婚的附加罪名。

  • Sometimes this double standard was written into law;

    有時,這種雙重標準被寫進了法律。

  • other times, the courts enforced the laws unequally.

    其他時候,法院執行的法律不平等。

  • Domestic violence by a man against his wife was not widely considered

    男子對妻子實施的家庭暴力並沒有被廣泛認為是對妻子的暴力。

  • grounds for divorce until the 20th century.

    直到20世紀,離婚的理由。

  • And though new laws expanded the reasons a couple could divorce,

    雖然新法律擴大了夫妻可以離婚的理由。

  • they also retained the fundamental ideology of their religious predecessors:

    他們還保留了宗教前輩的基本意識形態。

  • that a couple could only split if one person wronged the other in specific ways.

    一對情侶只有在一方對另一方有不當行為的情況下才能分手。

  • This state of affairs really overstayed its welcome.

    這種狀態真的是過猶不及。

  • Well into the 20th century, couples in the U.S.

    進入20世紀以來,美國的夫妻。

  • resorted to hiring actors to jump into bed with one spouse,

    採用僱傭演員與配偶一方跳床的方式。

  • fully clothed, and take photos as evidence of cheating.

    衣冠楚楚,並拍下照片作為出軌的證據。

  • Finally, in the 1960s and 70s,

    最後,在上世紀六七十年代。

  • many countries and states adopted no-fault divorce laws,

    許多國家和州都採用了無過錯離婚法。

  • where someone could divorce their spouse without proving harm,

    在這裡,有人可以在不證明傷害的情況下與配偶離婚;

  • and importantly, without the other's consent.

    而且重要的是,未經對方同意。

  • The transition from cultural and religious rules

    從文化和宗教規則的過渡

  • to state sanctioned ones has always been messy and incomplete

  • people have often ignored their governments' laws

    民不聊生

  • in favor of other conventions.

    而不是其他公約。

  • Even today, the Catholic Church doesn't recognize divorces granted by law.

    即使在今天,天主教會也不承認法律規定的離婚。

  • In some places, like parts of India,

    在一些地方,比如印度部分地區。

  • Western-style divorce laws have been seen as a colonial influence

    西式離婚法被認為是殖民主義的影響

  • and communities practice divorce according to other religious rules.

    和社區根據其他宗教規則實行離婚。

  • In others, though the law may allow for equal access to divorce,

    在其他國家,雖然法律可能允許平等地獲得離婚。

  • bias in the legal system, cultural stigma, or community pressures

    法律制度上的偏見、文化上的恥辱感或社區的壓力。

  • can make it far more difficult for certain people, almost always women.

    可以讓某些人,幾乎都是女性,變得更加困難。

  • And even in the places where women aren't disadvantaged by law or otherwise,

    甚至在那些法律或其他方面沒有對女性造成不利影響的地方。

  • social and economic conditions often make divorce more difficult for women.

    社會和經濟條件往往使婦女離婚更加困難;

  • In the United States, for example,

    例如,在美國。

  • women experience economic loss far more than men after divorce.

    婦女在離婚後遭受的經濟損失遠遠大於男子;

  • At its best, modern no-fault divorce allows people to leave marriages

    在最好的情況下,現代無過錯離婚允許人們離開婚姻。

  • that make them unhappy.

    讓他們不開心的。

  • But dissolving a marriage is almost never as simple

    但解除婚姻關係幾乎沒有那麼簡單。

  • as sending two people their separate ways.

    作為送兩個人分道揚鑣。

  • What divorcing partners owe each other,

    離婚後的伴侶之間欠對方什麼。

  • and how they manage aspects of a once shared life

    以及他們如何管理曾經共同生活的各個方面。

  • remain emotionally and philosophically complex issues.

    仍然是情感和哲學上的複雜問題。

The earliest known divorce laws were written

已知最早的離婚法是在下列情況下制定的

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 宗教 婦女 法律 教會 男子

離婚簡史--羅德-菲利普斯。 (A brief history of divorce - Rod Phillips)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 28 日
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