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  • The gently rolling green landscape of  the Somme is no longer recognizable.  

    索姆河緩緩起伏的綠色景觀已經無法辨認。

  • It's become a wasteland, the long grass dotted  with craters, barbed wire and trenches. For the  

    這裡成了一片荒地,長長的草叢中點綴著彈坑、鐵絲網和壕溝。對於

  • last several days the British army has unleashed  a methodical barrage of artillery on German  

    在過去的幾天裡,英國軍隊對德國人發動了有條不紊的炮擊。

  • trenches and positions, aiming to decimate  enemy forces before the ground war starts.

    戰壕和陣地,目的是在地面戰爭開始前消滅敵軍。

  • On July 1st, 1916 at 7:30 am the Anglo-French  armies attack. Private William 'Cyril' Jose is  

    1916年7月1日早上7點30分,英法聯軍發動進攻。二等兵威廉-西里爾-何塞

  • in the very first wave of men to  go over the top of the trenches.

    在第一批翻越戰壕頂部的人中。

  • It's a chaotic bloodbath. The British artillery  has not destroyed the Germans as hoped.  

    這是一場混亂的血戰。英國人的大炮並沒有如願消滅德國人。

  • German snipers and machine gunners unleashhailstorm of bullets on the charging soldiers.  

    德軍狙擊手和機槍手向衝鋒的阿兵哥發動了冰雹般的子彈。

  • Less than 20 minutes into battle Cyril is wounded.

    戰鬥開始不到20分鐘,西里爾就受傷了。

  • He's shot in the chest and left shoulder. Two  comrades grab Cyril's field pack. They rip open  

    他的胸部和左肩中彈。兩名同志搶走了西里爾的野戰包。他們撕開了

  • his uniform and drench Cyril's wounds with iodineThey help Cyril press dressing to his chest,  

    他的制服,並用碘酒淋溼西里爾的傷口。 他們幫西里爾把敷料壓在胸口。

  • trying to staunch the blood. However, in minutes  his bandages are soaked through. In the mayhem,  

    試圖止血。然而,幾分鐘後,他的繃帶就被浸透了。在混亂中。

  • he's left for dead near the German wirePrivate Cyril Jose is only 16 years old.

    他被留在德國鐵絲網旁等死。 二等兵西里爾-何塞只有16歲。

  • He spends the next few hours drifting in  and out of consciousness. Eventually he  

    在接下來的幾個小時裡,他一直在意識中沉浮。最後,他

  • goes beyond fear and reaches a calm state  of mind, thinking that he might survive.

    超越了恐懼,達到了一種平靜的心態,認為自己可能會活下來。

  • It's a cloudless, hot summer day and Cyril's  thirsty. Agonizingly slow, Cyril reaches for his  

    這是一個萬里無雲的炎熱夏日,西瑞爾渴了。西里爾緩慢地伸手去拿他的... ...

  • water bottle. He dares not move fast, he doesn't  want to alert the Germans that he's still alive.  

    水瓶。他不敢快走,他不想驚動德國人,他還活著。

  • It's many long minutes before Cyril is  able to move the water bottle to his mouth  

    過了很久,西里爾才把水瓶移到嘴邊。

  • and take a sip. The day wears  on. When Cyril runs out of water,  

    並喝上一口。日子一天天過去了。當西里爾沒有水的時候

  • he slowly retrieves the water bottles  of fallen comrades who lie near him.

    他慢慢收回躺在他身邊的犧牲戰友的水瓶。

  • Night falls. The stench of  death hangs heavy in the air.  

    夜幕降臨。空氣中瀰漫著死亡的惡臭。

  • By now the battlefield is covered in  thousands of dead and dying soldiers.  

    此時,戰場上已經佈滿了成千上萬的死士和死士。

  • Germans patrols search among the  fallen, taking wounded men prisoner.  

    德國人巡邏隊在陣亡者中搜索,俘虜傷員。

  • Cyril lies clutching a grenade, ready at  any moment to pull the pin with his teeth.

    西里爾抱著手榴彈躺在地上,隨時準備用牙齒拔針。

  • Around 7 am the next day, almost  24 hours after he was wounded,  

    第二天早上7點左右,也就是他受傷後近24小時。

  • Cyril thinks it's safe enough to move. He begins  a long, painful crawl on his belly through the  

    西瑞爾認為已經安全了,可以行動了。他開始了漫長而痛苦的爬行,在肚子上穿過了

  • grass back towards the British trenches. His  activity causes his wounds to bleed a fresh.

    草叢中向英軍戰壕退去。他的活動使他的傷口鮮血直流。

  • During the excruciating, hazardous  journey, Cyril runs into Private Lamacraft,  

    在痛苦、危險的旅途中,Cyril遇到了私人Lamacraft。

  • who's also badly wounded, but still clinging  to life. For an hour they crawl together,  

    他也受了重傷,但還在堅持著生命。他們一起爬行了一個小時。

  • but make little progress. Both soldiers  are weak and suffering from blood loss.  

    但進展不大。兩名阿兵哥都很虛弱,失血過多。

  • Worse yet, the Germans see them  moving and start shooting at them.

    更糟糕的是,德國人看到他們移動,就開始向他們開槍。

  • Cyril's in slightly better physical shape  and they decide that he should go on alone.  

    西里爾的身體狀況稍好,他們決定讓他一個人去。

  • Cyril spends precious time gathering nearby water  bottles for Lamacraft. Then he continues on,  

    西里爾花了寶貴的時間為拉瑪卡夫收集附近的水瓶。然後他繼續前進。

  • stiffly and painfully creeping through the  grass, detouring around the dead and avoiding  

    僵硬而痛苦地在草叢中匍匐前進,繞過死人,避開了

  • craters. During part of his crawl the land slopes  upward and frequently Cyril has to stop to rest.

    隕石坑在他爬行的部分時間裡,土地向上傾斜,西里爾經常要停下來休息。

  • To quote Cyril, “an eternity later”  he finally reaches the British lines.  

    引用西里爾的話說,"永恆之後 "他終於到達了英國的防線。

  • Mustering all his strength, Cyril struggles  to his feet and quickly throws himself into  

    鼓起所有的力量,西里爾掙扎著站起來,迅速投入到

  • a trench. When he regains consciousnesstwo officers are trying to make him drink  

    壕溝裡。當他恢復意識時,兩名軍官正試圖讓他喝下。

  • rum. It's taken him nearly 2 days  to crawl about ¼ of a mile (.40 km).

    朗姆酒。他花了近2天時間爬行了約1/4英里(.40公里)。

  • Cyril begs that they send someone to rescue  “Lammy”, but it's far too dangerous. However  

    西里爾請求他們派人去救 "拉米",但這太危險了。然而

  • Private Lamacraft is found alive 3 days latermost likely sustained by the water Cyril provided.

    私人Lamacraft被發現活著3天后,很可能是由西里爾提供的水維持。

  • Cyril is medically evacuated from the Somme and  

    西里爾從索姆河畔被醫療後送,並...

  • spends nearly 6 months in  the hospital recuperating.

    在醫院休養了近6個月。

  • Cyril isn't the only underaged British  soldier at the Battle of the Somme.  

    西里爾不是索姆河戰役中唯一一個未成年的英國阿兵哥。

  • Although the official age to join the military  in Britain is 18 and a soldier must be 19 to  

    雖然英國的官方參軍年齡是18歲,而阿兵哥必須達到19歲才能

  • be shipped overseas, an estimated 250,000 boys  enlist into the British forces during World War I.

    被運往海外,一戰期間估計有25萬名男孩應徵入伍,加入英國軍隊。

  • Cyril actually signed up when he was 15 years oldThe youngest known British World War I soldier was  

    西里爾其實在15歲的時候就報名參加了。 已知最年輕的英國一戰阿兵哥是:

  • 12. Wait a minute, didn't recruiters notice that  some of those enlisting looked suspiciously young?

    12.等等,難道徵兵人員沒有發現,有些入伍的人看起來年輕得可疑嗎?

  • During the early 20th century, many people  didn't have birth certificates and it was  

    在20世紀初,許多人沒有出生證,這是

  • a lot easier to lie about age. For recruitsBritain had a minimum height requirement of 5ft  

    謊報年齡要容易得多。對於新兵,英國有一個最低的身高要求,即5英尺。

  • 3in (1.60m), and a minimum  chest size of 34in (0.86m).  

    3英寸(1.60米),最小胸圍為34英寸(0.86米)。

  • Often if a young man met the physical criteriarecruiters ignored that he was baby faced.

    往往如果一個年輕人符合身體條件,招聘人員就會忽略他是娃娃臉。

  • Beside, patriot fervor reigned in the countryGovernment propaganda pushed fighting for Britain  

    旁,愛國主義熱潮在國內盛行。 政府的宣傳推動了為英國而戰

  • as a glorious adventure. In some areas, peer  pressure was strong and groups of boys would join  

    作為一個光榮的冒險。在一些地區,同齡人的壓力很大,一群男孩會加入 "大冒險"。

  • up together. Some enlisted to escape povertyunemployment or difficult home situations.

    一起長大。有些人入伍是為了逃避貧困、失業或困難的家境。

  • Also, when World War I broke out, the standing  German army was over 3 times bigger than the  

    另外,第一次世界大戰爆發時,德軍的常備軍人數是其3倍以上。

  • standing British army. A large number of soldiers  needed to be mobilized as quickly as possible.  

    常備英軍。需要儘快調集大量的阿兵哥。

  • If a healthy young lad was eager to go off  to fight, recruiters weren't gonna say no.  

    如果一個健康的年輕小夥子急於去打仗,招聘人員是不會拒絕的。

  • The bounty recruiters were paid didn't hurt  either. Recruiters earned two shillings and  

    賞金招募者的報酬也不低。招募者賺取兩先令和

  • sixpence for each new army recruit or  about £6 or $7.85 USD in today's money.

    每個新兵六便士,也就是今天的6英鎊或7.85美元。

  • 14 year old Reginald St. John Battersby ran away  from home, enlisted in the army and was promoted  

    14歲的雷金納德-聖約翰-巴特斯比離家出走,參軍入伍,並獲得晉升。

  • to lance corporal within a week. When his father,  a vicar near Manchester found out, he was upset.  

    一週內升為下士當他的父親,曼徹斯特附近的一個牧師發現後,他很不高興。

  • Given their social standing in the community, he  thought that his son deserved a higher position.  

    鑑於他們在社會上的社會地位,他認為兒子應該有更高的地位。

  • He sought support from the Lord Mayor  of Manchester and the headmaster of  

    他尋求曼徹斯特市長和校長的支持。

  • Middleton Grammar School where St. John  had been a pupil. They provided letters of  

    米德爾頓文法學校,聖約翰曾在該校就讀。他們提供的信件是

  • reference to authorities regarding  St. John's leadership qualities.

    參考權威人士關於聖約翰的上司素質。

  • And so, St. John was commissioned as an  officer in the East Lancashire Regiment,  

    於是,聖約翰被任命為東蘭開夏團的一名軍官。

  • becoming the youngest known commissioned  officer of the British Army during WWI.  

    成為一戰期間英國陸軍中已知最年輕的委任軍官。

  • Not long after his 15th birthday, he was  stationed near Serre in the Somme region  

    在他15歲生日後不久,他就被派駐到索姆河地區的塞勒附近。

  • and placed in charge of a 60 man platoon, some  of whom were a decade or more older than him. T

    並被安排負責一個60人的排,其中有些人比他大十多歲。T

  • During the first day of the Somme offensive on  July 1, 1916, St. John was severely wounded by  

    在1916年7月1日索姆河攻勢的第一天,聖約翰被重傷。

  • German machine gun fire. As a result, he was  medically evacuated to England. Three months  

    德軍的機槍射擊。結果,他被醫療後送至英國。三個月後

  • later, St. John had recovered from his wounds and  was back at the Somme leading his men into battle.

    後來,聖約翰傷勢痊癒,又回到索姆河,帶領他的部下投入戰鬥。

  • St. John actually could have made  the choice to stay in England.  

    聖約翰其實可以選擇留在英國。

  • Parents of young soldiers alarmed  by newspaper reports of deaths  

    報紙上關於死亡的報道使年輕阿兵哥的父母感到震驚。

  • had lobbied the British government. By 1916,  the government bowed to public pressure  

    曾遊說英國政府。到了1916年,政府屈服於公眾的壓力。

  • and removed soldiers younger than 19 from the  front lines. However, experienced officers were  

    並將19歲以下的阿兵哥從前線撤走。然而,有經驗的軍官們

  • in short supply and young officers such as StJohn were allowed the option to stay if they wish.

    供不應求,而像聖約翰這樣的年輕軍官如果願意,可以選擇留下來。

  • The underage soldiers were sent to special camps  where they remained until they turned 19 years old  

    未成年阿兵哥被送往特別營,一直到19歲為止。

  • and then they could return to fightingSome were glad to be away from battle,  

    然後他們就可以回到戰場上。 有些人很高興能遠離戰鬥。

  • but others weren't fans of the young  soldier camps. Battle hardened teens,  

    但其他人並不喜歡青年阿兵哥營。戰鬥力強的少年。

  • some of whom had responsibilities far  beyond their years--some even having earned  

    其中一些人的責任遠遠超過了他們的年齡--有些人甚至已經贏得了。

  • military medals for their heroic actionsbalked at being treated like boys again.

    因為他們的英勇行為而獲得軍功章--拒絕再被當作男孩對待。

  • Some of the young soldiers, completely  disillusioned by the reality of war,  

    一些年輕的阿兵哥,對戰爭的現實完全失去了信心。

  • took their own lives rather  than return to the front lines.

    奪去了自己的生命,而不是回到前線。

  • Private Cyril was shipped to a young soldier's  camp. In the summer of 1918, when he was old  

    二等兵西里爾被運到一個青年兵營。1918年夏天,當他年老的時候

  • enough to fight again, he returned to FranceCyril fought in the Hundred Days Offensive. He  

    足夠再次作戰,他回到了法國。 西里爾參加了百日攻堅戰。他

  • ended up surviving the war, but came home changedFor the rest of his life he became anti-authority.

    最終在戰爭中倖存下來,但回家後卻改變了。 在他的餘生中,他成了反權威的人。

  • Compelled by a sense of duty, St. John returned  to the front lines and spent the next few months  

    在責任感的驅使下,聖約翰回到了前線,並在接下來的幾個月裡

  • fighting in the trenches. On March 7, 1917  16 year old St. John and a few of his men  

    戰壕裡的戰鬥。1917年3月7日,16歲的聖約翰和他的幾個部下。

  • were standing under a bridge across the British  trenches when they were hit by a German shell.  

    當他們被德軍的炮彈擊中時,正站在英軍戰壕的一座橋下。

  • Several soldiers were killed. A piece of shrapnel  mangled St. John's leg and it had to be amputated.  

    幾名阿兵哥被打死。一塊彈片打碎了聖約翰的腿,不得不截肢。

  • He was evacuated to England again to convalesceThough asked to resign his commission, St.  

    他又被疏散到英國療養。 雖然被要求辭去職務,但聖。

  • John was determined to continue to aid  in the war effort. He got a prosthetic  

    約翰決心繼續協助戰爭的進行。他得到了一個假肢

  • leg and was declared fit for duty on March  13, 1918. Soon after he returned to service,  

    腿,並於1918年3月13日被宣佈為適合服役。不久後,他回到了部隊。

  • St. John joined the Royal Engineers Record Office  Transportation Branch and worked an administrative  

    聖約翰加入了皇家工程師記錄辦公室運輸處,從事行政工作。

  • job in Britain until September 1920 when he  resigned his commission. St. John then studied  

    在英國的工作,直到1920年9月他辭去了他的佣金。聖約翰隨後學習了

  • theology in college and eventually became the  vicar of a small rural parish like his father.

    在大學裡讀神學,最後和他父親一樣成為一個農村小教區的牧師。

  • As World War I raged overseas, the women of  Britain stepped up to take over jobs traditionally  

    隨著第一次世界大戰在海外的肆虐,英國女性挺身而出,接替了傳統的工作。

  • done by men. Often it was teenage girls who took  on various jobs to help support their families and  

    由男人來做。往往是十幾歲的女孩從事各種工作,以幫助養家餬口。

  • the war effort. Organizations sprang up to manage  and support the young women taking on new duties.

    戰爭的努力。為了管理和支持承擔新任務的年輕婦女,成立了一些組織。

  • The Women's Land Army (WLA), a civilian  organisation, was created in 1915 by the  

    婦女土地軍(WLA)是一個民間組織,於1915年由以下人員創建:

  • British Board of Agriculture. TheLand  Girlsor women who worked for the WLA  

    英國農業委員會。為WLA工作的 "土地女孩 "或婦女。

  • harvested crops and performed  other farm related tasks.

    收割農作物並從事其他與農場有關的工作。

  • The Canary Girls worked in munitions manufacturing  TNT. They gained the nickname because exposure  

    金絲雀女孩在製造TNT的彈藥中工作。她們獲得這個綽號的原因是:

  • to TNT was toxic, and repeated exposure  turned their skin an orange-yellow color.

    TNT的毒性,反覆接觸使他們的皮膚變成橙黃色。

  • The Voluntary Aid Detachment (VAD) was a civilian  nursing unit that provided medical care for  

    自願援助分隊是一個為平民提供醫療服務的護理組織、部門。

  • military personnel. As the war wore on, young VAD  nurses were dispatched to work in field hospitals.  

    軍事人員。隨著戰爭的進行,年輕的志願軍護士被派往野戰醫院工作。

  • Teenage girls as young as 17, who had only  completed basic training, were required to treat  

    年僅完成基本訓練的17歲少女被要求進行治療。

  • horrific war wounds and deal with death while  under constant threat of attack from the enemy.

    恐怖的戰傷,在不斷受到敵人攻擊威脅的情況下,還要面對死亡。

  • While it's likely that during World War I, Britain  had the most soldiers under 18 years of age,  

    雖然在第一次世界大戰期間,英國可能是18歲以下阿兵哥最多的國家。

  • all the countries at war had underage  soldiers enlisted among their ranks.

    所有參戰國家都有未成年阿兵哥參軍。

  • 8 year old Momčilo Gavrić of Serbia was the  youngest soldier to fight in World War I.  

    8歲的塞爾維亞的莫姆契洛-加夫裡奇是參加一戰的最年輕阿兵哥。

  • He was born into a large family--the  8th child out of 11. The Gavrićs lived  

    他出生在一個大家庭,是11個孩子中的第8個。

  • in the small village of Trbušnica in  the western region of the country.

    在該國西部地區的小村莊Trbušnica。

  • In August 1914, Austro-Hungarian soldiers of  the 42nd Croatian Home Guard Infantry Division  

    1914年8月,克羅地亞本土衛隊第42步兵師的奧匈帝國阿兵哥們,將他們帶到了北京。

  • murdered Momčilo's parents, grandmother, his  three sisters, and four of his brothers. The  

    謀殺了Momčilo的父母、祖母、他的三個姐妹和他的四個兄弟。謀殺案中,Momčilo的父母、祖母、三個姐妹和四個兄弟被殺。

  • invading soldiers also burned his home to the  ground. Momčilo survived because he wasn't at  

    侵略軍還把他的家燒成了灰。Momčilo活了下來,因為他並沒有在。

  • home when the attack happened. His fatheranticipating trouble, had sent him to his uncle's.

    襲擊發生時,他正在家裡。他的父親,預料到會有麻煩,就把他送到了他叔叔家。

  • Momčilo returned home to a horrific scene which  was burned into his mind for the rest of his life.  

    莫姆契洛回到家後,看到了可怕的一幕,這一幕深深地烙在了他的腦海裡,讓他終生難忘。

  • With most of his family dead and nowhere to  live, Momčilo ran to a nearby town where the  

    由於大部分家人都死了,無處可住,莫奇洛跑到了附近的一個小鎮,在那裡,莫奇洛的家人都死了。

  • 6th Artillery Division of the Serbian army was  stationed. Upon hearing Momčilo's tragic news,  

    塞軍第6炮兵師駐紮在這裡。聽到莫姆契洛的噩耗後,。

  • Major Stevan Tucović, accepted him into  his unit. Another soldier in the unit,  

    Stevan Tucović少校接受他加入部隊。部隊的另一名阿兵哥。

  • Miloš Mišović, was assigned to look after  Momčilo. The same evening, Momčilo took  

    米洛什-米舍維奇被指派照顧莫姆契洛。同一天晚上,莫姆契洛被帶走。

  • revenge by going on a scouting mission with Miloš  and showing the Serbian Army the location of the  

    為了報仇,他和米洛什一起去執行偵察任務,並向塞爾維亞軍隊展示塞族人的位置。

  • Austro-Hungarian soldiers. He also participated  in the subsequent bombardment of the invaders.

    奧匈帝國阿兵哥。他還參與了隨後對侵略者的轟炸。

  • After the Battle of Cer, when Momčilo was 8, he  was promoted to the rank of Corporal and given  

    瑟之戰後,在莫姆契洛8歲時,他被提升為下士,並被賦予了

  • a military uniform. During the winter of 1914,  Momčilo fought along his unit in the Battle of  

    一身軍裝。1914年冬天,莫姆契洛隨部隊參加了 "大漠孤煙直 "戰役。

  • Kolubara. In early 1915 when the Serbian army  crossed the snow-covered Albanian mountains,  

    科盧巴拉。1915年初,當塞爾維亞軍隊越過白雪覆蓋的阿爾巴尼亞山脈時。

  • Momčilo marched right alongside  the rest of the soldiers.

    莫姆契洛就在其他阿兵哥的旁邊行進。

  • When his unit was sent to Thessaloniki in GreeceMajor Tucović sent Momčilo to a safe small town in  

    當他的部隊被派往希臘的塞薩洛尼基時,圖科維奇少校把莫姆契洛送到了希臘一個安全的小城。

  • Macedonia where he quickly went through the  equivalent of 4 years of elementary school  

    馬其頓,在那裡他很快就讀完了相當於4年的小學。

  • crammed into several months. Later Momčilo  was wounded during the Battle of Kajmakcalan.  

    擠進了幾個月的時間。後來莫姆契洛在卡伊馬克卡蘭戰役中受傷。

  • At 10 years old he was promoted to Lance Sergeant.

    10歲時,他被提升為中士。

  • After the liberation of Belgrade in 1918, Major  Tucović helped Momčilo receive aid from a British  

    1918年貝爾格萊德解放後,圖科維奇少校幫助莫姆契洛接受了英國人的援助。

  • mission that was helping war orphans in  Serbia. Momčilo was sent to England for  

    任務,幫助塞爾維亞的戰爭孤兒。Momčilo被送往英國

  • high school. In 1921 after graduating at age  15, Momčilo returned to Serbia per the orders  

    中學。1921年,15歲的莫姆契洛畢業後,奉命返回塞爾維亞。

  • of the Serbian Prime Minister who wanted all the  war orphans to return home. He was reunited with  

    的塞爾維亞總理,他希望所有的戰爭孤兒都能回家。他與他的家人團聚了。

  • his 3 older brothers who had already left  home before the family massacre in 1914.

    他的3個哥哥在1914年家庭大屠殺前已經離家出走。

  • In 1929, 23 year old Momčilo was conscripted into  the army. He reported that he had already served  

    1929年,23歲的Momčilo被徵召入伍。他報告說,他已經服過兵役。

  • in the army during WWI, had been wounded and had  even received an Albanian Commemorative Medal.

    一戰期間在軍隊中,曾負過傷,甚至獲得過阿爾巴尼亞紀念章。

  • An ethnic Croat officer in the Royal  Yugoslav Army tried to force Momčilo  

    南斯拉夫王國陸軍中的一名克族軍官試圖強迫Momčilo離開。

  • into signing a confession that he was  lying about his World War I service.  

    迫使他簽署了一份關於他在一戰中撒謊的供詞。

  • Momčilo refused to sign and ended up serving two  months in jail. After another stint in the army,  

    莫姆契洛拒絕簽字,最後在監獄中服刑兩個月。在軍隊中又呆了一段時間後。

  • Momčilo worked as a graphic designer and  got married. Years later, he was called  

    莫姆契洛當過平面設計師,也結過婚。幾年後,他被稱為

  • up and served in World War II. Momčilo ended up  being captured twice by German occupying forces.

    了,並在第二次世界大戰中服役。莫姆契洛最終兩次被德國佔領軍俘虜。

  • It's hard to estimate how many underaged soldiers  were killed while serving in World War I.  

    很難估計有多少未成年阿兵哥在一戰中服役時被殺。

  • For those lucky enough to return home, the  horror of what they saw and experienced  

    對於那些有幸回國的人來說,他們所看到的和經歷的一切都很恐怖

  • often haunted them the rest of their lives.

    常常困擾著他們的後半生。

  • Sadly, underaged soldiers are not just  a phonomena that happened in the past.  

    可悲的是,未成年阿兵哥並不只是發生在過去的一種相聲。

  • Today, thousands of children around  the world are forced into war  

    今天,全世界成千上萬的兒童被迫捲入戰爭。

  • or forced to serve as menial or  slave labor to support fighters.  

    或被迫充當體力勞動或奴隸勞動來支持戰士。

  • The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEFand other organizations continue to work to  

    聯合國兒童基金會(兒童基金會)和其他組織繼續努力:

  • improve the plight of child soldiers and remove  those under 18 from fighting wars altogether.

    改善兒童兵的困境,使18歲以下的兒童兵不再參加戰爭;

  • How and why did World Warstart? You can find out here:

    第一次世界大戰是怎麼開始的,為什麼?你可以在這裡找到答案。

  • During World War I, a new kind  of fighting machine was created:  

    第一次世界大戰期間,一種新型的戰鬥機器誕生了。

  • the tank. However it took a while  to work out some kinks in design.  

    的坦克。然而花了一段時間來解決設計上的一些糾結。

  • Check out the story of Little Williethe most useless tank ever made here:

    在這裡看看史上最沒用的坦克--小威的故事。

The gently rolling green landscape of  the Somme is no longer recognizable.  

索姆河緩緩起伏的綠色景觀已經無法辨認。

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B2 中高級 中文 阿兵哥 英國 塞爾維亞 戰爭 戰壕 軍官

一戰中的童子軍(第一次世界大戰) (The Boy Soldiers of WWI (World War 1))

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 19 日
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