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  • A few years ago a young American man took three  hits of ecstasy and then used a hammer to beat  

    幾年前,一個美國年輕人吃了三顆搖頭丸,然後用錘子敲打

  • his parents to death. After that, he announced  on Facebook that he was having a party. The guy  

    他的父母死了。之後,他在臉書上宣佈他在開派對。這傢伙

  • then got busy cleaning up the blood and hiding his  parents' bodies. 60 of his friends soon turned up  

    然後忙著清理血跡,把父母的屍體藏起來。他的60個朋友很快就出現了

  • to play beer pong and smoke cigars. Little did  they know they were partying with a murderer

    玩啤酒乒乓和抽雪茄。他們不知道他們在和一個殺人犯開派對。

  • It was an unforgivable crime. It washeinous crime, and that's why in the past  

    這是一個不可饒恕的罪行。這是一個令人髮指的罪行,這就是為什麼在過去...

  • possibly the most unbelievable kind of punishment  was reserved for this special kind of killer

    可能是最不可思議的一種懲罰是留給這種特殊的殺手的。

  • Before we get to this most horrendous of  punishments, let's talk a little about the act  

    在說到這種最可怕的懲罰之前,我們先說說這個行為吧。

  • itself, that is, the act of killing one's parents. The name for it is parricide. When a son or  

    本身,也就是殺死自己父母的行為。其名稱為弒親。當兒子或

  • daughter kills the father it's called  patricide, and when it's the mother that  

    女兒殺了父親,這叫弒父,而如果是母親殺了父親

  • is murdered, we call it matricide. It can  also mean the killing of a close relative,  

    被謀殺,我們稱之為弒母。它也可以指殺害近親。

  • so siblicide- the murder of a sibling could fall  under that umbrella, as could avunculicide, which  

    是以,兄弟姐妹的謀殺 - 謀殺兄弟姐妹可以落在這一傘,因為可以avunculicide,這是

  • means taking out your own uncle. A 3rd-century  Roman lawyer named Modestinus first laid down  

    意思是幹掉自己的叔叔。三世紀羅馬的一位名叫莫德斯蒂努斯的律師首先制定了... ...

  • the law regarding this crime and he said it covers  first cousins or even someone who isn't related by  

    法律關於這種犯罪,他說,它涵蓋了嫡親表親,甚至有人誰不是親戚的

  • blood but financially supports another person. You might not be surprised to hear that if you  

    血液,但在經濟上支持另一個人。你可能不會感到驚訝,如果你

  • killed your parents a few hundred years  ago in Europe the outcome wasn't good,  

    幾百年前在歐洲殺了你的父母,結果並不好。

  • especially if your parents were of so-called noble  blood. In Italy in the 16th century, Beatrice  

    特別是如果你的父母是所謂的貴族血統。在16世紀的意大利,碧翠絲

  • Cenci did just that to her father, a powerful  count who was a monster to his own children.  

    岑西就是這樣對待自己的父親,一個強大的伯爵,對自己的孩子來說是個怪物。

  • After suffering at the hands of her vile pop  for many years, with the help of her siblings  

    在她那卑鄙的老爹手裡受了很多年的苦,在兄弟姐妹的幫助下

  • and step-mom, Beatrice took her father out by  bludgeoning him to death and throwing his body off  

    和繼母,比阿特麗斯帶著她的父親,用棍子打死了他,並把他的屍體扔了出去。

  • a balcony. You have to remember this was an awful  man. He'd already been imprisoned for incest,  

    陽臺。你要記住,這是一個可怕的人。他已經因為亂倫入獄了。

  • but he managed to get out early due to the fact  he was wealthy and could grease the right palms

    但由於他有錢,又能給自己的手掌抹油,所以他能提前出來。

  • Beatrice and co tried to make it look like  suicide, but the papal police were suspicious.  

    比阿特麗斯和他們想讓它看起來像自殺,但教皇的警察很懷疑。

  • Her lover was horrifically tortured but died  without snitching. Others were soon charged  

    她的夫妻受到了可怕的折磨,但沒有告密就死了。其他人很快被起訴

  • with being co-conspirators to the murder and  they were sentenced to death. The people of  

    謀殺的同謀,他們被判處死刑。人民

  • Rome protested about this because they knew what  the horrible father had done to his kids. The  

    羅馬人對此表示抗議,因為他們知道這位可怕的父親對孩子們做了什麼。該

  • Pope wouldn't budge an inch, for the reason that  he didn't want parricide to become widespread.  

    教皇寸步不離,原因是他不希望弒親的行為大行其道。

  • There had been other recent cases of kids  killing parents, so he had to make an example  

    最近還有其他孩子殺父母的案件,所以他要殺雞儆猴。

  • of Beatrice and her brothers and stop-mom. That he did, in the most brutal fashion

    比阿特麗斯和她的兄弟們,還有停止的媽媽。他做到了,以最殘忍的方式。

  • Her elder brother was tortured in the public  square for everyone to see. After that,  

    她的哥哥在公共廣場上被折磨得面目全非。此後。

  • his head was smashed with a mallet. The spectators  saw what might happen to them if they ever got any  

    他的頭被人用錘子砸了。旁觀者看到了他們的下場,如果他們得到了什麼

  • ideas about killing a parent. The brother was  then torn apart limb from limb. Beatrice and her  

    殺父母的想法。弟弟就被四肢撕開了。碧翠絲和她的

  • step-mom got off lucky with a relatively gentle  beheading, while the youngest of the brothers,  

    繼母幸運地被相對溫和地斬首了,而兄弟中最小的一個。

  • only aged 12, was spared. His punishment  was watching his family die and then  

    只有12歲的他,卻被放過了。他的懲罰是看著他的家人死去,然後

  • doing a short stint as a galley slave. We included that least bleak tale because  

    做一個短暫的船塢奴隸。我們把這個最不悲慘的故事包括在內,因為

  • we want to hammer home to you just how serious  parricide was taken. It wasn't just a matter of,  

    我們想讓你知道,這是個多麼嚴重的弒親事件。這不僅僅是一個問題:

  • How could they do that to their own flesh and  blood”. The powers that be at the time didn't want  

    "他們怎麼能這樣對待自己的親生骨肉"。當時的當權者並不希望。

  • kids thinking they could whack a parent and get  the riches and power they thought they deserved.  

    孩子們認為他們可以捶打父母,得到他們認為應該得到的財富和權力。

  • This is why the worst kind of punishment was  sometimes metered out to children that committed  

    這就是為什麼有時會對犯了罪的孩子進行最嚴厲的懲罰。

  • this crime. The establishment were the powerfulso it's not surprising they created strict laws  

    這種罪行。體制內的人都是權貴,所以他們制定嚴格的法律也就不足為奇了。

  • that might prevent them from being killed by  their own offspring. The crime was also seen  

    可能防止他們被自己的後代殺害。這種罪行也被視為是一種犯罪。

  • as the most unnatural crime a person could do, so  it warranted the most unnatural kind of execution

    作為一個人所能犯下的最不自然的罪行,所以它應該得到最不自然的處決。

  • That execution in the early  days was called poena cullei

    這種執行方式在早期被稱為poena cullei。

  • It can be translated aspenalty of the  sack”. It's thought it goes back as far as  

    可譯為 "罰球"。有人認為它最早可以追溯到

  • the first century BC, but there were some modern  cases, too. We'll get around to those later

    公元前一世紀,但也有一些現代案例。我們以後再談這些。

  • Let's start with ancient Rome and the first  cases of the penalty of the sack. It was,  

    讓我們從古羅馬和最早的洗劫懲罰案例說起。那是:

  • no doubt, a cruel and unusual punishmentwith the emphasis being on unusual

    毫無疑問,這是一種殘酷而不尋常的懲罰,重點是不尋常。

  • One of the earliest known cases can  be found in an ancient book called,  

    在一本名為《古書》的古書中,可以找到一個最早的案例。

  • History from the Foundation of the City.” In itthe historian Titus Livius, aka, Livy, wrote this:  

    "從城市的建立開始的歷史"。在其中,歷史學家提圖斯-李維,又名李維,這樣寫道。

  • Publicius Malleolus, who had killed his motherwas the first to be sewn into a sack and thrown  

    "殺了母親的普羅維利烏斯-馬利奧盧斯是第一個被縫進麻袋裡扔掉的人

  • into the sea.” It's said this guy was first  fitted with heavy wooden shoes and a wolf's  

    入海。"據說這傢伙先是穿上了厚重的木鞋,又穿上了狼的

  • hide was placed over his head. In this casethe leather hide is presumed to be the sack

    皮被放在他的頭上。在這種情況下,推測這塊皮子就是麻袋。

  • That doesn't sound too unusual and for the Romansnot all that cruel, but things got a lot worse.  

    這聽起來並不稀奇,對羅馬人來說,也不是那麼殘忍,但事情變得更糟糕了。

  • There were a few iterations of getting the sackwith most cases being for the crime of parricide

    有幾次被洗劫的反覆,大多數情況下都是因弒母罪。

  • Even though people might have been executed  by being thrown to wild beasts, or burned,  

    即使人們可能被扔給野獸,或被燒死。

  • or crucified, it seems the Romans thought  the sack was about as bad as you could get.  

    或被釘在十字架上,似乎羅馬人認為麻袋是約為糟糕,因為你可以得到。

  • In the first century AD, one historian wrote that  Emperor Augustus was reluctant to hand down this  

    公元一世紀,有一位歷史學家寫道,奧古斯都皇帝不願意傳下這個

  • form of the death penalty, and that was before  the sack turned into something much more gruesome

    死刑的形式,而那是在麻袋變成更可怕的東西之前。

  • Emperor Claudius, who came a few decades later,  

    幾十年後的克勞迪烏斯皇帝。

  • was ok with the sack. The Stoic philosopher  named Seneca the Younger said this about him,  

    是確定與麻袋。斯多葛派哲學家塞內加年輕時曾這樣評價他。

  • The Emperor Claudius sewed more men into  the culleus in five years than history says  

    "克勞迪烏斯皇帝在五年內將更多的人縫進涵洞,比歷史上說的還要多

  • were sewn up in all previous centuriesWe saw more cullei than crucifixions.” 

    在以前的所有世紀中都被縫合了。 我們看到的cullei比十字架上的更多。"

  • You might now be thinking, surely being  drowned in a sack is much better than  

    你現在可能會想,被淹死在麻袋裡,肯定要比...

  • being crucified or burned. Why on earth  did those Romans fear the sack so much

    被釘在十字架上或被燒死。那些羅馬人到底為什麼這麼害怕被洗劫?

  • It seems the answer is they feared very much  falling to the bottom of the ocean or whatever  

    看來答案是他們很怕掉到海底什麼的

  • body of water they were thrown into. It was also  very undignifying, or at least that's what the  

    他們被扔進的水體。這也是非常沒有尊嚴的,至少是這樣的。

  • Romans thought. But there was something else, too. Seneca the Younger had a father, who you can guess  

    羅馬人認為。但也有其他的東西。小塞涅卡有一個父親,你可以猜測一下

  • was named Seneca the Elder. It is he who  first mentioned someone getting the sack,  

    被命名為長老塞內加。是他首先提到有人被洗劫。

  • but having a guest put in there with himThis gives the punishment a whole new meaning.  

    但有一個客人和他一起放進去。 這樣一來,懲罰就有了全新的意義。

  • He wrote that one or more snakes joined  the man in the sack. Just imagine that,  

    他寫道,有一條或多條蛇加入了這個人的行列。試想一下

  • being sewn into a sack with a bunch of snakes. But it gets even worse than that

    被縫進了一個裝有蛇的袋子裡。但是,它得到比這更糟糕。

  • The poet Juvenal talks about a monkey being  put into the sack. This kind of adds a comedic  

    詩人尤維納爾談到一隻猴子被裝進麻袋。這也算是增加了一個喜劇性的

  • element to getting sacked, at least if the monkey  wasn't big enough to gouge out a person's eyes.  

    被套牢的因素,至少如果猴子不是大到可以挖出人的眼睛。

  • Being stuck in a drowning sack withterrified monkey however is far from funny,  

    然而,和一隻受驚的猴子一起被困在一個溺水的麻袋裡,卻一點也不好笑。

  • as these incredibly strong animals are known  to tear limbs off people who get too close

    因為這些非常強壯的動物會把靠得太近的人的四肢撕下來。

  • We have to go to the 3rd century for things to  get even wilder. The Roman jurist we mentioned  

    我們必須要到3世紀,事情才會變得更加瘋狂。我們提到的羅馬法學家

  • named Modestinus wrote about the punishment  of poena cullei for the crime of parricide.  

    名叫莫德斯蒂努斯的人寫了一篇關於poena cullei對弒父罪的懲罰。

  • We'll let you hear this part in his own wordsor at least his words in translation. Here's  

    我們讓你聽聽他自己說的這部分話,至少是他翻譯的話語。這裡是

  • what he said, according to a law book called  theDigestthat was written after he died

    根據他死後寫的一本叫 "文摘 "的法律書,他是怎麼說的?

  • According to the custom of our ancestorsthe punishment instituted for parricide  

    "根據我們祖先的習慣,對殺父弒母的懲罰是

  • was as follows; A parricide is flogged with  blood-colored rods, then sewn up in a sack with a  

    弒親者被用血色的棍子鞭打,然後用麻袋縫起來,上面有一個小孔。

  • dog, a dunghill cock, a viper, and a monkey; then  the sack is thrown into the depths of the sea.  

    狗、丁山雞、毒蛇、猴子;然後把麻袋扔進大海深處。

  • This is the procedure if the sea is close at  hand; otherwise, he is thrown to the beasts.” 

    如果大海近在咫尺,這是程序;否則,就把他扔給野獸。"

  • Ok, so now you have to imagine the sceneTry to think about how you'd handle this

    好了,現在你要想象一下當時的情景。 試著想一想你會如何處理這個問題。

  • You are whipped and so are covered in welts  and your own blood. You are then forced into a  

    你被鞭打,所以渾身都是傷痕和自己的血。然後,你被強迫進入一個

  • sack with a viper, a venomous snake that no doubt  will bite you. You won't die instantly of course,  

    袋子裡有一條毒蛇,一條毫無疑問會咬你的毒蛇。當然,你不會立即死去。

  • but it's probably not the best day you've had  in your life. To make things worse, a monkey is  

    但這可能不是你一生中最好的一天。更糟的是,一隻猴子

  • thrown into the mix. What kind of monkey ismatter of importance. One of those small cute  

    扔到了一起。什麼樣的猴子是個重要的問題。那些小可愛

  • ones, or a really angry baboon with huge fangs. Or  were the Romans referring to large apes, animals  

    或者是憤怒的巨齒狒狒。還是羅馬人指的是大型猿類動物?

  • that could do serious damage to you on your way to  the water. In fact, in the modern academic paper,  

    ,可能會對你在下水的路上造成嚴重的傷害。其實,在現代學術論文中。

  • The Ape in Roman Literature”, apes are mentioned  in relation to the punishment of parricides. Then  

    "羅馬文學中的猿人",猿人被提到與懲罰弒親者有關。然後

  • just for good measure, a cock and dog is thrown  in the sack, which likely wouldn't bother you  

    只是為了好的措施,一個公雞和狗扔在麻袋裡,這可能不會打擾到你

  • in the slightest since you'd be busy being  bitten by a highly venomous snake and trying  

    因為你正忙著被一條劇毒的蛇咬,並試圖... ...

  • to stop an ape from taking off your faceThe drowning part can only be a blessing

    阻止猿猴摘下你的臉。 溺水的部分只能是一種幸運。

  • Some scholars think in the 3rd century the  practice started to die out and much more  

    一些學者認為在3世紀,這種做法開始消亡,更多的是

  • humane punishments such as being thrown  to wild animals or simply being burned to  

    人道的懲罰,如被扔給野生動物或乾脆被燒死。

  • death completely replaced the sack. It didn't stay unpopular for long,  

    死亡完全取代了麻袋。它並沒有不受歡迎太久。

  • because in the 4th century Emperor Constantine  initiated a revival of poena cullei. It's written  

    因為在4世紀,君士坦丁皇帝發起了poena cullei的復興。上面寫著

  • that he said parricides should get a similar  treatment, although he adds something quite  

    他說,弒君者應該得到類似的待遇,儘管他補充了一些內容。

  • interesting to the story. He said that the guilty  person should besewn up in a sack and, in this  

    有趣的故事。他說,應該把有罪的人 "縫在麻袋裡,而且,在這。

  • dismal prison, have serpents as his companions.” At some point, the person was thrown into the sea,  

    淒涼的監獄,有蛇為伴。"不知什麼時候,這個人被扔進了海里。

  • but the question is, how long would that person  have stayed in the sack prior to being taken to  

    但問題是,這個人在被帶去之前會在麻袋裡呆多久?

  • the water? That's an important question and there  is no definitive answer. A few minutes sharing a  

    的水?這是一個重要的問題,沒有明確的答案。幾分鐘的時間,分享一個

  • sack with snakes, or possibly with a great ape, a  dog and a cock could almost be bearable, but a few  

    蛇,或者可能是巨猿,狗和公雞幾乎是可以忍受的,但一些。

  • hours, days, that would be tough going. How long  in thatdismal prisondid the condemned have to  

    小時,幾天,那就很難熬了。在那座 "淒涼的監獄 "裡,死刑犯要呆多久?

  • stay? If it was longer than an hour, a fight with  a bear would have been a much better way to die

    留?如果超過一個小時,和熊打一場,死的更慘。

  • There are other Roman texts, too, which  describe the law. In the 6th century,  

    還有其他的羅馬文本,也描述了這個法律。在6世紀的時候。

  • Emperor Justinian talked about getting the sackIn the law book, “Corpus Juris Civilis”, it's  

    查士丁尼皇帝談到了被解僱的問題。 在法律書 "Corpus Juris Civilis "中,它是:

  • written that those guilty of parricide should be,  “sewn up in a sack with a dog, a cock, a viper,  

    寫道,那些犯有弒母罪的人應該 "和一條狗、一隻公雞、一條毒蛇一起被縫在麻袋裡"。

  • and an ape, ” Ok, so this time we do get an apeHistorians to this day argue about translations,  

    和一隻猩猩,"好吧,所以這一次我們確實得到了一隻猩猩。 歷史學家至今還在爭論翻譯的問題。

  • as well as when the punishments happened and  if they happened as they were written about

    以及懲罰發生的時間,是否如所寫的那樣發生。

  • It seems everyone agrees that the practice  died out with the rise of the Byzantine Empire,  

    似乎所有人都認為,這種做法隨著拜占庭帝國的崛起而消亡。

  • a time when killing your family mostly  resulted in being thrown into the flames

    一個時代,殺了你的家人大多會被扔進火海。

  • We've not finished yet though  viewers, there's a sequel.  

    我們還沒有結束,不過觀眾們,還有續集。

  • Let's call it, “Poena cullei 2: After Rome.” A man named Johann von Buch said it was  

    就叫 "羅馬之後 "吧。一個叫約翰-馮-布赫的人說這是

  • around in 14th century Germany and again it wasdreaded punishment reserved only for the terrible  

    在14世紀的德國,這也是一種可怕的懲罰,只留給可怕的人。

  • act of parricide. It was however a rather tame  affair in Germany. No cock or ape was hurt in the  

    弒父行為。然而,這在德國是一個相當溫和的事件。沒有公雞或猿猴在這次事件中受傷

  • execution and instead of a serpent, a picture of  a serpent sufficed. Even if a dog or a cat- hardly  

    而不是一條蛇,一幅蛇的圖畫就夠了。即使是一隻狗或一隻貓--很難

  • anything to worry about for the accused- was  thrown into the animal cocktail they might have  

    被告人有什麼可擔心的--被扔進了動物雞尾酒中,他們可能會有。

  • their own compartments in the sack. There's also  another matter. The Romans often used a leather  

    他們在袋子裡有自己的隔間。還有一個問題。羅馬人經常使用一種皮革

  • sack, which was almost watertight, so that the  person would not drown so quickly. The Germans  

    麻袋,它幾乎是不透水的,這樣人就不會那麼快被淹死。德國人

  • used linen, which would allow water in very fast. There was one recorded case in Germany in 1548  

    使用亞麻布,可以讓水快速進入。1548年在德國有一例記錄。

  • when a man was thrown into a river inside a sackThe linen sack had been coated with something to  

    一個人被扔進河裡,裝在一個麻袋裡。 亞麻布袋被塗上了某種東西,以便

  • make it more watertight, but when it hit the water  part of it split. By all accounts, the man died,  

    使其更加防水,但當它撞上水後,部分裂開了。從各方面來看,這個人都死了。

  • but the dog and the cat that had been sharing  his death sack swam away to their freedom

    但一直與他共享死亡之袋的狗和貓卻遊走了,獲得了自由。

  • The last cases we can find happened in the 18th  century in Germany. In one case a sheep was put  

    我們能找到的最後一個案例發生在18世紀的德國。在一個案例中,一隻羊被放在

  • into the sack, which must have been much  better than an angry ape. In another case,  

    變成了麻袋,這一定比憤怒的猿猴要好得多。在另一種情況下。

  • a serpent joined the condemned man, but it was  a non-venomous, if not large, colubrid snake

    一條蛇加入了被判刑的人,但它是一條無毒的,如果不是大蛇,colubrid蛇。

  • If you think that's the worst punishment  you've ever heard about, watch this,  

    如果你覺得這是你聽說過的最糟糕的懲罰,看這個。

  • Walled up Alive - Worst Punishment  in the History of Mankind.” Or,  

    "活生生的牆--人類歷史上最糟糕的懲罰。"或者:

  • maybe you think this is worse, “The Blood Eagle  - Worst Punishments in the History of Mankind.”

    也許你覺得這個更糟糕,"血鷹--人類歷史上最糟糕的懲罰"。

A few years ago a young American man took three  hits of ecstasy and then used a hammer to beat  

幾年前,一個美國年輕人吃了三顆搖頭丸,然後用錘子敲打

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B1 中級 中文 麻袋 羅馬人 猴子 皇帝 父母 罪行

縫在袋子裡--人類歷史上最糟糕的懲罰。 (Sewn Up in a Bag - Worst Punishments in the History of Mankind)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 12 月 20 日
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