Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • "Even in purely non-religious terms,

    「即使完全不就宗教的觀點而言

  • homosexuality represents a misuse of the sexual faculty.

    同性戀仍是性機能的誤用

  • It is a pathetic little second-rate substitute for reality --

    是一種可悲又渺小的二流現實替代品

  • a pitiable flight from life.

    是一場逃離人生的可憐之旅

  • As such, it deserves no compassion,

    因此,同性戀不值得同情

  • it deserves no treatment

    不值得擁有

  • as minority martyrdom,

    受苦的少數族群該有的待遇

  • and it deserves not to be deemed anything but a pernicious sickness."

    同性戀應該被視為一種惡性疾病。」

  • That's from Time magazine in 1966, when I was three years old.

    那是引自 1966 年的時代雜誌,我當時三歲

  • And last year, the president of the United States

    而去年,美國總統

  • came out in favor of gay marriage.

    公開表態支持同性婚姻

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • And my question is, how did we get from there to here?

    我的問題是,我們是怎麼走過來的?

  • How did an illness become an identity?

    疾病是如何變成一種身分的?

  • When I was perhaps six years old,

    我大概六歲的時候

  • I went to a shoe store with my mother and my brother.

    跟媽媽和弟弟去鞋店

  • And at the end of buying our shoes,

    買完鞋後

  • the salesman said to us that we could each have a balloon to take home.

    店員告訴我們可以各拿一個氣球回家

  • My brother wanted a red balloon, and I wanted a pink balloon.

    我弟弟想要紅色的,我想要粉紅色的

  • My mother said that she thought I'd really rather have a blue balloon.

    媽媽說我想要的其實是藍色的氣球

  • But I said that I definitely wanted the pink one.

    但是我堅決表示,我想要粉紅色的

  • And she reminded me that my favorite color was blue.

    媽媽提醒我,藍色才是我的最愛

  • The fact that my favorite color now is blue, but I'm still gay --

    現在我最愛的顏色確實是藍色,但我仍舊是同志

  • (Laughter) --

    (笑聲)

  • is evidence of both my mother's influence and its limits.

    證明了媽媽影響力之大,但也有其極限

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • When I was little, my mother used to say,

    小時候媽媽常常告訴我

  • "The love you have for your children is like no other feeling in the world.

    「父母對子女的愛是世上獨一無二的感情

  • And until you have children, you don't know what it's like."

    等到你為人父母才能體會。 」

  • And when I was little, I took it as the greatest compliment in the world

    媽媽會如此表達養育我和弟弟的心情

  • that she would say that about parenting my brother and me.

    小時候我認為那是至高無上的讚美

  • And when I was an adolescent, I thought

    等到了青春期,我就開始想

  • that I'm gay, and so I probably can't have a family.

    我是同志,大概不能有家庭了

  • And when she said it, it made me anxious.

    那時媽媽舊話重提,讓我感到不安

  • And after I came out of the closet,

    我出櫃以後

  • when she continued to say it, it made me furious.

    媽媽還繼續說,我就發飆了

  • I said, "I'm gay. That's not the direction that I'm headed in.

    我告訴她「我是同志,不打算走那條路

  • And I want you to stop saying that."

    請您以後別再提了。」

  • About 20 years ago, I was asked by my editors at The New York Times Magazine

    大約 20 年前,紐約時報雜誌的編輯向我邀稿

  • to write a piece about deaf culture.

    讓我寫一篇聾人文化的文章

  • And I was rather taken aback.

    我大吃一驚

  • I had thought of deafness entirely as an illness.

    在那之前我一直認為耳聾完全是一種疾病

  • Those poor people, they couldn't hear.

    那群可憐的人,他們聽不到

  • They lacked hearing, and what could we do for them?

    他們失去了聽力,我們幫得上忙嗎?

  • And then I went out into the deaf world.

    然後我走進聾人的世界

  • I went to deaf clubs.

    我去了聾人俱樂部

  • I saw performances of deaf theater and of deaf poetry.

    我去看聾人戲劇和聾人詩歌

  • I even went to the Miss Deaf America contest in Nashville, Tennessee

    我甚至去了田納西州的納許維爾看聾人美國小姐大賽

  • where people complained about that slurry Southern signing.

    那裡有人抱怨含糊的南方手語

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And as I plunged deeper and deeper into the deaf world,

    當我越來越深入聾人的世界

  • I become convinced that deafness was a culture

    我開始確信聾是一種文化

  • and that the people in the deaf world who said,

    也相信聾人所說

  • "We don't lack hearing, we have membership in a culture,"

    「我們沒有聽覺的缺憾,我們是聾文化的成員。」

  • were saying something that was viable.

    這種說法是站得住腳的

  • It wasn't my culture,

    聾不是我的文化

  • and I didn't particularly want to rush off and join it,

    我也不是特別想要跑去參與

  • but I appreciated that it was a culture

    但是我體會得出聾是一種文化

  • and that for the people who were members of it,

    對於聾人而言

  • it felt as valuable as Latino culture or gay culture or Jewish culture.

    聾文化的價值不亞於拉美裔文化、同志文化或猶太文化

  • It felt as valid perhaps even as American culture.

    我覺得聾文化也許甚至和美國文化一樣正當

  • Then a friend of a friend of mine had a daughter who was a dwarf.

    然後我朋友的朋友生了一個侏儒女兒

  • And when her daughter was born,

    她女兒出生時

  • she suddenly found herself confronting questions

    她突然面臨難題

  • that now began to seem quite resonant to me.

    我現在頗能體會她當時的心境

  • She was facing the question of what to do with this child.

    她面對的問題是怎麼教小孩

  • Should she say, "You're just like everyone else but a little bit shorter?"

    她應該說:「妳和大家沒兩樣,只不過稍矮一點」嗎?

  • Or should she try to construct some kind of dwarf identity,

    還是她應該打造某種侏儒身分

  • get involved in the Little People of America,

    參與美國矮人協會

  • become aware of what was happening for dwarfs?

    去認識侏儒面臨的問題

  • And I suddenly thought,

    我當時突然想到

  • most deaf children are born to hearing parents.

    大多數聾人的父母是聽得見的

  • Those hearing parents tend to try to cure them.

    有聽力的父母通常會想治好聾孩子

  • Those deaf people discover community somehow in adolescence.

    但是這些聾人在青少年時期總是能找到自己的社群

  • Most gay people are born to straight parents.

    大多數同志的父母不是同性戀

  • Those straight parents often want them to function

    那些不是同志的父母通常會要求同志

  • in what they think of as the mainstream world,

    在父母認知的主流社會裡表現正常

  • and those gay people have to discover identity later on.

    這些同志要等到以後才能發覺自己的身分

  • And here was this friend of mine

    而我的那位朋友

  • looking at these questions of identity with her dwarf daughter.

    她在思考侏儒女兒的身分問題

  • And I thought, there it is again:

    我當時就想,又是同樣的問題

  • A family that perceives itself to be normal

    一個自認為正常的家庭

  • with a child who seems to be extraordinary.

    卻有了看似與眾不同的孩子

  • And I hatched the idea that there are really two kinds of identity.

    於是我的想法誕生了:其實身分有兩種

  • There are vertical identities,

    一種是垂直身分

  • which are passed down generationally from parent to child.

    從父母到子女世代相傳

  • Those are things like ethnicity, frequently nationality, language, often religion.

    像是種族,經常包括國籍、語言,通常也有宗教

  • Those are things you have in common with your parents and with your children.

    這些都是你和你的父母及子女共同擁有的

  • And while some of them can be difficult,

    有些垂直身分或許難以認同

  • there's no attempt to cure them.

    但沒有人想要改正這些身分

  • You can argue that it's harder in the United States --

    你可以主張美國有一種身分較為困難

  • our current presidency notwithstanding --

    姑且不論現任總統也是這個身分

  • to be a person of color.

    就是有色人種

  • And yet, we have nobody who is trying to ensure

    然而沒人會想要確保

  • that the next generation of children born to African-Americans and Asians

    非裔和亞裔美國人的下一代

  • come out with creamy skin and yellow hair.

    生出來的時候會是金髮白膚

  • There are these other identities which you have to learn from a peer group.

    另一種身分必須從同輩中得知

  • And I call them horizontal identities,

    我稱之為水平身分

  • because the peer group is the horizontal experience.

    因為同輩之間的體驗是水平的

  • These are identities that are alien to your parents

    水平身分是你父母所沒有的

  • and that you have to discover when you get to see them in peers.

    必須在同輩之間察覺到這種身分才能認同

  • And those identities, those horizontal identities,

    這些身分,這些水平身分

  • people have almost always tried to cure.

    人們幾乎總是想要治癒

  • And I wanted to look at what the process is

    我要觀察的是一種歷程

  • through which people who have those identities

    有這些水平身分的人

  • come to a good relationship with them.

    如何處之泰然的歷程

  • And it seemed to me that there were three levels of acceptance

    在我看來,似乎需要

  • that needed to take place.

    三個層次的接受

  • There's self-acceptance, there's family acceptance, and there's social acceptance.

    自我接受、家庭接受、社會接受

  • And they don't always coincide.

    三種接受不一定同時發生

  • And a lot of the time, people who have these conditions are very angry

    不被接受的人常常會很生氣

  • because they feel as though their parents don't love them,

    因為覺得父母好像不愛他們

  • when what actually has happened is that their parents don't accept them.

    其實父母只是不贊同他們

  • Love is something that ideally is there unconditionally

    愛,理想上是沒有條件的

  • throughout the relationship between a parent and a child.

    在親子關係裡恆久存在

  • But acceptance is something that takes time.

    但是接受需要時間

  • It always takes time.

    總是需要時間

  • One of the dwarfs I got to know was a guy named Clinton Brown.

    我認識一位叫做克林頓 • 布朗的侏儒

  • When he was born, he was diagnosed with diastrophic dwarfism,

    他出生時被診斷為畸形性侏儒症

  • a very disabling condition,

    一種極端殘障的病症

  • and his parents were told that he would never walk, he would never talk,

    他的父母被告知,他以後永遠不能走路,也不會說話

  • he would have no intellectual capacity,

    還會有智能障礙

  • and he would probably not even recognize them.

    甚至可能認不出父母

  • And it was suggested to them that they leave him at the hospital

    醫生建議他們把孩子留在醫院

  • so that he could die there quietly.

    讓他在那裡靜靜地死去

  • And his mother said she wasn't going to do it.

    他的媽媽不願意這麼做

  • And she took her son home.

    她把兒子帶回家

  • And even though she didn't have a lot of educational or financial advantages,

    雖然媽媽教育程度不高也不富裕

  • she found the best doctor in the country

    卻找到了全國最好的醫生

  • for dealing with diastrophic dwarfism,

    主治畸形性侏儒症

  • and she got Clinton enrolled with him.

    媽媽讓克林頓去看那位醫生

  • And in the course of his childhood,

    克林頓的童年

  • he had 30 major surgical procedures.

    接受過 30 個重大的外科手術

  • And he spent all this time stuck in the hospital

    他為了動手術

  • while he was having those procedures,

    長時間待在醫院

  • as a result of which he now can walk.

    結果他現在可以走路

  • And while he was there, they sent tutors around to help him with his school work.

    他在醫院的時候有老師輔導課業

  • And he worked very hard because there was nothing else to do.

    他很用功,因為沒別的事情可做

  • And he ended up achieving at a level

    他後來的成就

  • that had never before been contemplated by any member of his family.

    家人以前怎麼也想不到

  • He was the first one in his family, in fact, to go to college,

    事實上他是家裡面第一位上大學的

  • where he lived on campus and drove a specially-fitted car

    他住校而且自己開車

  • that accommodated his unusual body.

    一輛為他特殊身體狀況而製的車子

  • And his mother told me this story of coming home one day --

    他媽媽有一天告訴我他兒子回家的故事

  • and he went to college nearby --

    他的學校離家很近

  • and she said, "I saw that car, which you can always recognize,

    她說:「我看到那輛車,一眼就認出來是他的

  • in the parking lot of a bar," she said. (Laughter)

    車子停在酒吧的停車場。」(笑聲)

  • "And I thought to myself, they're six feet tall, he's three feet tall.

    她說:「我心裡想,他們 180 公分,他才 90 公分

  • Two beers for them is four beers for him."

    他們的兩杯啤酒是他的四杯。」

  • She said, "I knew I couldn't go in there and interrupt him,

    她說:「我知道不能進去阻止他

  • but I went home, and I left him eight messages on his cell phone."

    但我回家後留了八封手機簡訊給他。」

  • She said, "And then I thought,

    她說:「然後我心裡想

  • if someone had said to me when he was born

    如果他出生時有人告訴我

  • that my future worry would be that he'd go drinking and driving with his college buddies -- "

    將來我擔心的會是他和大學同伴酒後駕車...。」

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • And I said to her, "What do you think you did

    然後我問她:「妳認為自己做了什麼

  • that helped him to emerge as this charming, accomplished, wonderful person?"

    能幫助他成為迷人、有成就、又令人驚嘆的人?

  • And she said, "What did I do? I loved him, that's all.

    她回答:「我做了什麼?我愛他,沒別的。」

  • Clinton just always had that light in him.

    克林頓的心中總是有著光芒

  • And his father and I were lucky enough to be the first to see it there."

    而他父親和我,是有幸最先看到那道光芒的人。」

  • I'm going to quote from another magazine of the '60s.

    我要引述 1960 年代另一家雜誌

  • This one is from 1968 -- The Atlantic Monthly, voice of liberal America --

    這次是 1968 年的大西洋月刊 —美國的自由主義之聲

  • written by an important bioethicist.

    作者是重要的生物倫理學家

  • He said, "There is no reason to feel guilty

    他表示:「對於放棄唐氏症兒童

  • about putting a Down syndrome child away,

    我們沒有理由內疚

  • whether it is put away in the sense of hidden in a sanitarium

    無論是私下送到療養院

  • or in a more responsible, lethal sense.

    或是更負責的、一了百了的方式

  • It is sad, yes -- dreadful. But it carries no guilt.

    很可悲沒錯,也很可怕。但是不需要內疚

  • True guilt arises only from an offense against a person,

    真正的內疚,是冒犯他人

  • and a Down's is not a person."

    而唐氏症患者不算是人。」

  • There's been a lot of ink given to the enormous progress that we've made

    關於同志處境的大幅進步

  • in the treatment of gay people.

    已經有很多文章有所著墨

  • The fact that our attitude has changed is in the headlines every day.

    每天的頭條都有報導我們對同志的態度已改變

  • But we forget how we used to see people who had other differences,

    但我們忘了過去是怎麼看待其他不同的人

  • how we used to see people who were disabled,

    忘了過去是怎麼看待殘障的人

  • how inhuman we held people to be.

    忘了過去我們是多麼不人道

  • And the change that's been accomplished there,

    在那些方面的改變

  • which is almost equally radical,

    幾乎同樣地激進

  • is one that we pay not very much attention to.

    我們卻不是很重視

  • One of the families I interviewed, Tom and Karen Robards,

    我採訪過羅巴茲家庭的湯姆和凱倫夫婦

  • were taken aback when, as young and successful New Yorkers,

    他們當時是年輕且成功的紐約人

  • their first child was diagnosed with Down syndrome.

    得知長子是唐氏兒時大為驚訝

  • They thought the educational opportunities for him were not what they should be,

    他們認為兒子的教育機會不符期望

  • and so they decided they would build a little center --

    於是決定要成立一個小型中心

  • two classrooms that they started with a few other parents --

    利用兩間教室,開始和其他父母

  • to educate kids with D.S.

    一起教導唐氏兒

  • And over the years, that center grew into something called the Cooke Center,

    多年來,該中心已擴大為庫克中心

  • where there are now thousands upon thousands

    現在有成千上萬名

  • of children with intellectual disabilities who are being taught.

    智障兒童在此受教

  • In the time since that Atlantic Monthly story ran,

    自從大西洋月刊登出那篇文章以來

  • the life expectancy for people with Down syndrome has tripled.

    唐氏症患者的平均壽命已成長了三倍

  • The experience of Down syndrome people includes those who are actors,

    有唐氏症的人包括演員

  • those who are writers, some who are able to live fully independently in adulthood.

    作家以及成年後可以完全獨立生活的人

  • The Robards had a lot to do with that.

    羅巴茲夫婦的貢獻不小

  • And I said, "Do you regret it?

    我問他們:「你們有遺憾嗎?

  • Do you wish your child didn't have Down syndrome?

    你們希望自己的孩子不是唐氏兒嗎?

  • Do you wish you'd never heard of it?"

    你們希望從未聽過唐氏症這回事嗎?

  • And interestingly his father said,

    有趣的是這位父親表示

  • "Well, for David, our son, I regret it,

    「這個嘛,為了兒子大衛著想,我有遺憾

  • because for David, it's a difficult way to be in the world,

    因為對大衛來說,這個世界的患者之路很難走

  • and I'd like to give David an easier life.

    我想讓大衛生活得更輕鬆

  • But I think if we lost everyone with Down syndrome, it would be a catastrophic loss."

    但我想,如果世上不再有唐氏兒,會是極大的損失。」

  • And Karen Robards said to me, "I'm with Tom.

    凱倫 • 羅巴茲對我說:「我同意湯姆的看法

  • For David, I would cure it in an instant to give him an easier life.

    為了讓大衛過得更輕鬆,我會想立刻治癒唐氏症

  • But speaking for myself -- well, I would never have believed 23 years ago when he was born

    但對我而言,23年前他出生時,我絕不會相信

  • that I could come to such a point --

    我能走到今天這一步

  • speaking for myself, it's made me so much better and so much kinder

    對我而言,他的病讓我成為更好、更仁慈的人

  • and so much more purposeful in my whole life,

    讓我的人生更有目的

  • that speaking for myself, I wouldn't give it up for anything in the world."

    對我而言,這種經驗世上任何東西都換不來。」

  • We live at a point when social acceptance for these and many other conditions

    現在社會對這些和其他病症的接受程度

  • is on the up and up.

    越來越高

  • And yet we also live at the moment

    然而此時此刻

  • when our ability to eliminate those conditions

    我們滅絕這些病症的能力

  • has reached a height we never imagined before.

    也已經達到了超乎想像的高峰

  • Most deaf infants born in the United States now

    美國現在新生的聾兒

  • will receive Cochlear implants,

    會接受人工電子耳

  • which are put into the brain and connected to a receiver,

    植入大腦並連上接收器

  • and which allow them to acquire a facsimile of hearing and to use oral speech.

    讓他們具有聽說的能力

  • A compound that has been tested in mice, BMN-111,

    有一種名為 BMN-111 的化合物,已做過小鼠試驗

  • is useful in preventing the action of the achondroplasia gene.

    能夠抑制「軟骨發育不全」基因

  • Achondroplasia is the most common form of dwarfism,

    軟骨發育不全是侏儒症最常見的形式

  • and mice who have been given that substance and who have the achondroplasia gene,

    有「軟骨發育不全」基因的小鼠攝取了 BMN-11 後

  • grow to full size.

    可以生長到正常體型

  • Testing in humans is around the corner.

    人體試驗指日可待

  • There are blood tests which are making progress

    唐氏症的驗血的技術也在進步

  • that would pick up Down syndrome more clearly and earlier in pregnancies than ever before,

    可以在懷孕時,更早且更明確地鑑別唐氏症

  • making it easier and easier for people to eliminate those pregnancies,

    從而越來越容易避免

  • or to terminate them.

    唐氏症胎兒的出生

  • And so we have both social progress and medical progress.

    因此我們的社會進步了,醫學也進步了

  • And I believe in both of them.

    我認同這兩方面的進步

  • I believe the social progress is fantastic and meaningful and wonderful,

    我認為社會的進步太棒了、有意義、令人讚歎

  • and I think the same thing about the medical progress.

    我認為醫學的進步同樣是好事

  • But I think it's a tragedy when one of them doesn't see the other.

    但我認為二者不能配合卻是個悲劇

  • And when I see the way they're intersecting

    我觀察他們交會的方式

  • in conditions like the three I've just described,

    以我剛才描述的三個病症為例

  • I sometimes think it's like those moments in grand opera

    有時侯我會覺得這像大歌劇裡面

  • when the hero realizes he loves the heroine

    男主角發現自己愛上了女主角的時刻

  • at the exact moment that she lies expiring on a divan.

    就是女主角躺在長沙發上要斷氣的那一刻