字幕列表 影片播放 由 AI 自動生成 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 On June 26, 2020, the US House of Representatives voted to do something it had never done before. 2020年6月26日，美國眾議院投票決定做一件以前從未做過的事。 It passed a bill to create the 51st state by giving the US capital, Washington, DC, statehood. 它通過了一項法案，讓美國首都華盛頓特區成為州，從而建立第51個州。 Members of the House of Representatives each represent between 500,000 and a million Americans. 眾議院議員每人代表50萬到100萬美國人。 DC's 700,000 residents are represented by this woman: Eleanor Holmes Norton. 華盛頓特區70萬居民的代表就是這個女人。埃莉諾・霍姆斯・諾頓 But she couldn't vote on the statehood bill, because she's different from other members. 但她不能對州政府法案進行投票，因為她和其他成員不同。 She can speak on the floor and introduce bills, but she can't actually vote. 她可以在會場上發言，提出法案，但她不能實際投票。 Americans in territories like Puerto Rico and Guam 波多黎各和關島等領土上的美國人 are also represented in Congress by “delegates” who can't vote. 在國會中也由不能投票的 "代表 "代表。 But Americans in these places don't pay federal taxes to the US government. 但這些地方的美國人並沒有向美國政府繳納聯邦稅。 DC residents do. 華盛頓特區的居民做。 In fact, in DC, the average person pays more in federal taxes than in any state. 事實上，在華盛頓特區，普通人繳納的聯邦稅比任何一個州都多。 And they're not happy about it. 而他們卻不高興。 It's why DC's license plates say “Taxation without representation.” 這就是為什麼特區的車牌上寫著 "沒有代表的稅收"。 President Trump has promised to block Washington, DC, from becoming a state. 特朗普總統承諾，將阻止華盛頓特區成為一個州。 So that House vote was mostly symbolic. 所以，眾議院的那次投票主要是象徵性的。 But Washington, DC's residents are clear on what they want. 但華盛頓特區的居民很清楚自己想要什麼。 So will DC ever actually become a state? 那麼華盛頓特區會不會真的成為一個州呢？ And should it? 應該嗎？ In the US, the federal government is not supposed to be based in a state. 在美國，聯邦政府是不應該設在一個州的。 The Constitution says it should be in a neutral federal district — 憲法規定它應該在一箇中立的聯邦區----------。 what, today, is called the District of Columbia. 今天，被稱為哥倫比亞特區的地方。 But since the founding of the country, the district has grown into a major city. 但建國以來，該區已發展成為大城市。 "For most of its existence as a city, "在它作為一個城市存在的大部分時間裡。 the District has been under the control of the United States Congress." 該區一直在美國國會的控制之下"。 Starting in the 1960s, Congress made some concessions to DC's calls for representation. 從20世紀60年代開始，國會對特區的代表要求做出了一些讓步。 It granted them electoral college votes for presidential elections, 它給予他們總統選舉的選舉團票。 a non-voting member in Congress, 國會中無表決權的成員； and finally, the right to elect their own local government. 最後，還有選舉自己的地方政府的權利。 But because Congress still completely controls their budget, 但因為國會仍然完全控制著他們的預算。 they often undermine DC's local government -- 他們經常破壞華盛頓特區的地方政府 -- -- which is another major reason DC residents want statehood. 這也是特區居民想要建州的另一個主要原因。 "Like most cities in the United States, it is a progressive city. "和美國大多數城市一樣，這是一個進步的城市。 And so its laws conflict, in some measure, with that of conservative Republicans." 所以它的法律在一定程度上與保守的共和黨人的法律相沖突。" That's understating it a little. 這話說得有點輕描淡寫了。 In the 2016 election, Trump only got a whopping 4% of the vote in DC. 在2016年的大選中，特朗普在特區只獲得了高達4%的選票。 Congress has kept DC from using their local tax dollars on things like abortion services, 國會阻止華盛頓特區將地方稅收用於墮胎服務等方面。 or needle-exchange programs to reduce HIV/AIDS. * 減少艾滋病毒/艾滋病的針頭交換方案； They've tried to undercut DC's gun laws and same-sex marriage benefits. 他們試圖破壞華盛頓特區的槍支法和同性婚姻福利。 And they stopped the city from legalizing marijuana. 他們還阻止了城市對大麻的合法化。 "There are issues in the country, that are very controversial, "國內有些問題，是很有爭議的。 that Republicans can't do anything about. So they use the District as a prop." 共和黨人對此無能為力。所以他們把區作為一個道具。" Holmes Norton's plan would turn most of the District of Columbia 霍姆斯-諾頓的計劃將使哥倫比亞特區的大部分地區變成 into a new state, called the Douglass Commonwealth. 成一個新的國家，稱為道格拉斯聯邦。 There would still be a federal district around the actual government buildings, 在實際的政府大樓周圍，仍然會有一個聯邦區。 but the remaining 66 square miles of neighborhoods would become the newest, smallest state. 但剩下的66平方英里的街區將成為最新、最小的州。 But it would still have a larger population than two states, 但它的人口還是會比兩個州多。 and would be about the same size as four others. 並會和其他四個人差不多大。 So, what's the holdup? 那麼，有什麼阻礙呢？ Well, representatives from other states have lots of reasons. 嗯，其他州的代表有很多理由。 "The Founding Fathers did not intend for Washington, DC, to be a state." "開國元勳們並沒有打算讓華盛頓特區成為一個州" "Washington, DC, is a city, not a state." "華盛頓特區，是一個城市，不是一個州。" "There is no manufacturing. There is no mining or logging." "沒有製造業。沒有采礦或伐木。" But it's not a coincidence that every representative speaking out against statehood here is Republican. 但這不是巧合，這裡每一個反對建州的代表都是共和黨人。 Statehood would give DC, and most likely the Democratic Party, 建州會給華盛頓，也很可能給民主黨。 one more vote in the House of Representatives, and two more votes in the Senate. 在眾議院多投一票，在參議院多投兩票。 Which means the actual obstacle to statehood, is politics. 也就是說，建國的實際障礙，是政治。 "Indeed, always, statehood is a political question." "的確，一直以來，國家地位是一個政治問題。" In the decades after the US was founded, new states were regularly added, 在美國建國後的幾十年裡，經常增加新的州。 and without much issue -- until 1818, when Missouri wanted to become a new state. 並沒有什麼問題--直到1818年，密蘇里州想成為一個新州。 At that time, power in Congress was evenlybalanced between states that allowed slavery, 當時，國會的權力在允許奴隸制的各州之間是均衡的。 and states that didn't. 和沒有的國家。 Missouri, which would become a slave state, would tip that balance — 密蘇里州將成為奴隸制州，將打破這種平衡。 which representatives of the free states didn't want. 自由州的代表們都不願意看到的。 So Congress came up with a compromise: 於是國會想出了一個折中的辦法。 Missouri would be added at the same time as Maine, a free state. 密蘇里州將與緬因州同時加入，是一個自由州。 A pair, to keep the political balance. 一對，保持政治平衡。 After that, states were mostly added in pairs. 此後，各州大多成雙成對地加入。 Arkansas, a slave state, with Michigan, a free state; 阿肯色州是奴隸州，密歇根州是自由州。 Florida, a slave state, with Iowa, a free state; 佛羅里達是奴隸州，愛荷華是自由州。 Texas, a slave state, with Wisconsin, a free state. 德克薩斯，一個奴隸州，與威斯康星州，一個自由州。 And that system has also been used to keep the balance between the political parties, 而這一制度也被用來保持政黨之間的平衡。 most recently in 1959, with the addition of Hawaii, which leaned Republican at the time, 最近一次是在1959年，加上當時傾向於共和黨的夏威夷。 and Alaska, which leaned Democratic. 和傾向於民主黨的阿拉斯加。 Right now, Democrats control one house of Congress, 現在，民主黨控制了國會的一院。 but Republicans control the other one, as well as the presidency. 但共和黨控制了另一個，以及總統職位。 And as long as that's the case, DC is unlikely to become a state on its own. 而只要是這樣，華盛頓特區就不可能獨立成為一個州。 "It would certainly be easier if there were some ready jurisdiction "如果有一些現成的管轄範圍，當然會容易一些。 to be made a state that was a Republican jurisdiction." 要成為一個國家，是一個共和國的管轄範圍。" The last time the House voted on DC statehood was in 1993, 上一次眾議院就特區建州進行投票是在1993年。 when Democrats had an even bigger majority than they do today. 當年民主黨比現在的多數派還多。 The bill still failed, with more than 100 Democrats voting no. 該法案仍未通過，100多名民主黨人投了反對票。 2020 is turning out to be different. 2020年的結果是不同的。 "Coronavirus begins to take a toll on the US economy." "冠狀病毒開始對美國經濟造成傷害。" "More than 6 million Americans filed jobless claims." "超過600萬美國人提出失業申請。" In March, as millions lost their jobs, Congress passed a coronavirus relief bill, 3月，由於數百萬人失業，國會通過了一項冠狀病毒救助法案。 giving each state at least a billion dollars. 給每個州至少10億美元； But DC, which is usually treated like a state in most congressional funding, 但華盛頓特區，通常在大多數國會經費中被當作州對待。 was instead treated as a US territory, and got less than half that. 反而被當成了美國的領土，得到的待遇還不到一半。 "Being treated like a territory is shocking. It's infuriating." "被當成領地，真是令人震驚。這是令人氣憤的。" In June, as protests against police violence spread across the country, 6月，隨著針對警察暴力的抗議活動在全國範圍內蔓延。 the National Guard patrolled parts of the city. 國民警衛隊在該市部分地區巡邏。 That kind of occupation would be illegal in every state. But not in DC. 這種佔領在每個州都是非法的。但在華盛頓就不一樣了。 "There shouldn't be troops from other states in Washington, DC. "華盛頓特區不應該有其他州的軍隊。 The last several days demonstrate that our fight for statehood 過去的幾天表明，我們為建國而戰 is also about our right to autonomy." 也是關於我們的自主權"。 "It's time for statehood to come to Washington, DC." "是時候讓華盛頓特區成為州政府了。" "We've seen in very painful, and frankly violent terms, "我們看到的是非常痛苦的，坦率地說是暴力的。 what the lack of statehood can bring to the residents of the District of Columbia." 缺少國家地位會給哥倫比亞特區的居民帶來什麼。" Right now, the people in charge of the federal government oppose DC statehood. 現在，聯邦政府的負責人反對特區建州。 But it only takes one election to change that. 但只需要一次選舉就能改變這種狀況。 "My own grandfather became one of the first African Americans in the DC fire department. "我自己的祖父成為了華盛頓特區消防隊的第一批非裔美國人之一。 His father, Richard Holmes, was a runaway slave from Virginia. 他的父親理查德-福爾摩斯，是一個從弗吉尼亞州逃出來的奴隸。 He walked to freedom. But he didn't walk to equality. 他走到了自由。但他沒有走向平等。 So I figure I'm picking up where he left off. 所以我想我是在接他的班。 He got us to freedom, he got the Holmes family to freedom; 他讓我們獲得了自由，他讓福爾摩斯一家獲得了自由。 now I've got to get the Holmes family, and all my constituents, to equality." 現在我得讓霍姆斯家族和我所有的選民實現平等。"