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Meet Tony. He's my student.
He's about my age,
and he's in San Quentin State Prison.
When Tony was 16 years old,
one day, one moment,
"It was mom's gun.
Just flash it, scare the guy. He's a punk.
He took some money; we'll take his money. That'll teach him.
Then last minute, I'm thinking, 'Can't do this. This is wrong.'
My buddy says, 'C'mon, let's do this.'
I say, 'Let's do this.'"
And those three words, Tony's going to remember,
because the next thing he knows, he hears the pop.
There's the punk on the ground, puddle of blood.
And that's felony murder ——
25 to life, parole at 50 if you're lucky,
and Tony's not feeling very lucky.
So when we meet in my philosophy class in his prison
and I say, "In this class, we will discuss the foundations of ethics,"
Tony interrupts me.
"What are you going to teach me about right and wrong?
I know what is wrong. I have done wrong.
I am told every day,
by every face I see, every wall I face, that I am wrong.
If I ever get out of here, there will always be a mark by my name.
I'm a convict; I am branded 'wrong.'
What are you going to tell me about right and wrong?"
So I say to Tony,
"Sorry, but it's worse than you think.
You think you know right and wrong?
Then can you tell me what wrong is?
No, don't just give me an example.
I want to know about wrongness itself, the idea of wrong.
What is that idea?
What makes something wrong?
How do we know that it's wrong? Maybe you and I disagree.
Maybe one of us is wrong about the wrong.
Maybe it's you, maybe it's me -- but we're not here to trade opinions;
everyone's got an opinion.
We are here for knowledge.
Our enemy is thoughtlessness. This is philosophy."
And something changes for Tony.
"Could be I'm wrong. I'm tired of being wrong.
I want to know what is wrong.
I want to know what I know."
What Tony sees in that moment is the project of philosophy,
the project that begins in wonder ——
what Kant called
"admiration and awe at the starry sky above and the moral law within."
What can creatures like us know of such things?
It is the project that always takes us back to the condition of existence ——
what Heidegger called "the always already there."
It is the project of questioning what we believe and why we believe it ——
what Socrates called "the examined life."
Socrates, a man wise enough to know that he knows nothing.
Socrates died in prison,
his philosophy intact.
So Tony starts doing his homework.
He learns his whys and wherefores, his causes and correlations,
his logic, his fallacies.
Turns out, Tony's got the philosophy muscle.
His body is in prison, but his mind is free.
Tony learns about the ontologically promiscuous,
the epistemologically anxious,
the ethically dubious, the metaphysically ridiculous.
That's Plato, Descartes, Nietzsche
and Bill Clinton.
So when he gives me his final paper,
in which he argues that the categorical imperative
is perhaps too uncompromising
to deal with the conflict that affects our everyday
and challenges me to tell him
whether therefore we are condemned to moral failure,
I say, "I don't know.
Let us think about that."
Because in that moment, there's no mark by Tony's name;
it's just the two of us standing there.
It is not professor and convict,
it is just two minds ready to do philosophy.
And I say to Tony,
"Let's do this."
Thank you.
(Applause)
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監獄中的哲學課 (Damon Horowitz: Philosophy in prison)

43896 分類 收藏
Colin Lin 發佈於 2017 年 3 月 9 日

影片簡介

在今天這場 TED 演講中,我們可以看到一位因為年少輕狂而犯錯的人,從悲觀的認為自己一輩子會被烙印著「犯罪」的記號,到最後心靈上的解放。他接觸哲學後的改變過程到底是怎麼樣的呢?讓我們來看看吧!

1ethics 1:03
ethics 就是指「道德倫理」。形容詞為 ethical

基本上 ethicsmorals 是可以替代利用的,只不過前者通常用來指一般社會通念可接受的符合道德的行為,而後者指個人認知上的對與錯。
Ethics are what make us different from animals.
人類與動物的差別就在於我們有道德倫理的觀念。

Finally, she followed her conscience and made the decision that is morally correct.
最終,她還是決定摸著良心做出符合道德的決定。


現在我們都弄懂 ethics 的意思之後,小編就來帶大家看一個長得很像,意思卻完全不一樣的字 —— ethnic,它的意思是「種族」。大家可以注意到兩個字的拼法很像,切記要分清楚兩者的差別哦!
The director tried to propagate the importance of respect amongst different ethnic groups through this movie.
導演試著透過這部電影宣導各種族間互相尊重的重要性。


2to be branded 1:20
這裡的 brand 當作動詞用,意思是「烙印」,像是農場用燒燙過的、有商標的烙鐵為羊群、牛群上烙印。而這個「烙鐵」的英文就叫做 branding iron 。我們來看看例句中怎麼使用這個詞吧!
The farmers gathered those sheep to brand them before selling them.
在賣出羊群前,農夫把牠們聚集起來烙上烙印。


除了像實體的、用燙烙鐵「烙印」,我們常常也會說一個人「被貼上標籤」,那麼它的英文要怎麼說呢?答案就是 marked 或是 labelled
The protesters were marked as "feminists".
這群抗議的民眾都被貼上「女權主義者」的標籤。

The broken bottles are all labelled as "defect".
破碎的瓶子都被貼上「瑕疵品」的標記 。


*同場加映:
公民1985 公民覺醒 最後演說


3cause and correlation 2:45
cause and correlation 就是指一件事情發生的「原因和關聯」。這裡要特別注意的是,causecorrelation 的意思並不相同,前者是指造成某件事情的「原因」、「起因」,而後者則是指某件事情的「相關因素」。我們來看看例句,釐清一下兩者的不同之處:
Laziness was the main cause of her failure.
造成她失敗的絕大原因就是懶惰。

There is a strong correlation between improvement in technology and time saved.
科技的進步跟時間的節省有很強的關聯性。


相信大家也會好奇我們常說的「前因後果」英文怎麼說呢?就是 cause and effect。而「因果關係」則可以用 causal relationship 或是 causal-effect relationship 來表達。
We need to get our cause and effect right before we could think of a solution to this issue.
我們在想出個好的解決辦法前應該要先把前因後果弄清楚。

Later on during the presentation, I would show you guys the causal relationship diagram regarding our marketing strategy.
等等在報告時,我會展示行銷策略的因果關係圖給你們看。



*同場加映:
Crash course- 經濟大蕭條 (The Great Depression: Crash Course US History #33)


4fallacy2:47
fallacy 指的是 「謬論」,也就是不合理的推理、錯誤的觀念或是信念。它也可以用來表示邏輯上的錯誤推斷。形容詞則是 fallacious
This article is full of fallacies!
這篇文章充滿著謬論!

Ah ha! You see! That was such a self-contradictory and fallacious argument!
啊哈!你看吧!我就說你這論點根本就是自相矛盾且毫無邏輯可言!


*同場加映:
十個你所不知道的哈利波特 (Top 10 Magical Facts You Didn’t Know About Harry Potter — TopTenzNet)


5to condemn 3:15
condemn 有「譴責」、「判處」的意思。
The teacher had to condemn the kids who were throwing pebbles at stray dogs.
老師必須處罰那些對流浪狗丟石頭的孩子。

He has been condemned to life sentence.
他被判了終生監禁。


*同場加映:
美女與野獸(Audiobook) (Beauty and the Beast (audiobook))


其實,只要願意反省過錯,也許就能將自己從困境中解放吧!希望透過今天的影片,大家學習到的不只是英文,還有面對人生的態度哦!

文/ Mii Wei

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