字幕列表 影片播放 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 This is our life with bees, 如果有蜜蜂，生活就像這樣! and this is our life without bees. 如果沒有牠們，生活會是這樣! Bees are the most important pollinators 對蔬果花卉而言 of our fruits and vegetables and flowers 蜜蜂是最重要的授粉者 and crops like alfalfa hay that feed our farm animals. 受惠的還有苜蓿等牲畜賴以為生的飼料作物 More than one third of the world's crop production 三分之一以上的全球作物產量 is dependent on bee pollination. 有賴蜜蜂授粉 But the ironic thing is that bees are not out there 但與我們所想的不同 pollinating our food intentionally. 蜜蜂是無意間幫糧食作物授粉的 They're out there because they need to eat. 他們飛出來是為了覓食 Bees get all of the protein they need in their diet 蜜蜂飲食中所需的蛋白質 from pollen 全來自花粉 and all of the carbohydrates they need from nectar. 而碳水化合物則由花蜜供給 They're flower-feeders, 他們以花為食 and as they move from flower to flower, 從這朵飛到到那朵 basically on a shopping trip at the local floral mart, 他們就像在當地花市購物一樣 they end up providing this valuable pollination service. 結果無意間促成授粉 In parts of the world where there are no bees, 但有些地方沒有蜜蜂 or where they plant varieties that are not attractive to bees, 或植物多樣性不足吸引蜜蜂 people are paid to do the business of pollination by hand. 便必須花錢請人來幫忙授粉 These people are moving pollen from flower to flower 這些人正做著傳粉的工作 with a paintbrush. 但用的是筆刷 Now this business of hand pollination 目前手工授粉的工作 is actually not that uncommon. 其實不算罕見 Tomato growers often pollinate their tomato flowers 番茄農常用手持振動器 with a hand-held vibrator. 替番茄花授粉 Now this one's the tomato tickler. (Laughter) 這就是番茄搔癢器 Now this is because the pollen within a tomato flower 之所以必須動用這種器材 is held very securely within 是因為番茄的花粉 the male part of the flower, the anther, 深藏在雄蕊的花藥中 and the only way to release this pollen is to vibrate it. 要振動才能釋放花粉 So bumblebees are one of the few kinds of bees in the world 少數能抓牢並搖動番茄花的蜂種當中 that are able to hold onto the flower and vibrate it, 熊蜂是其中之一 and they do this by shaking their flight muscles 牠們以近似Do音的頻率(約256 Hz) at a frequency similar to the musical note C. 抖動控制飛行的肌肉群 So they vibrate the flower, they sonicate it, 以音波振動花朵 and that releases the pollen in this efficient swoosh, 花粉就在俐落的嗖嗖聲中釋放 and the pollen gathers all over the fuzzy bee's body, 毛茸茸的熊蜂因此滿身花粉 and she takes it home as food. 得以將食物帶回家 Tomato growers now put bumblebee colonies 因此番茄農在溫室養熊蜂 inside the greenhouse to pollinate the tomatoes 替番茄授粉 because they get much more efficient pollination 因為順其自然的方式 when it's done naturally 授粉效率高很多 and they get better quality tomatoes. 且番茄的品質也較好 So there's other, maybe more personal reasons, 所以其他因素或個人考量 to care about bees. 都讓人們有理由關切蜜蜂 There's over 20,000 species of bees in the world, 共有兩萬多的蜂種遍布全世界 and they're absolutely gorgeous. 他們美極了 These bees spend the majority of their life cycle 這些蜂的大半生 hidden in the ground or within a hollow stem 多蟄居地底或空心的莖稈內 and very few of these beautiful species 這些美妙的蜂種中，只有少數 have evolved highly social behavior like honeybees. 像蜜蜂一樣演化出高度的社會行為 Now honeybees tend to be the charismatic representative 深具魅力的蜜蜂常被視為 for the other 19,900-plus species 其他一萬九千九百多種蜂的代表 because there's something about honeybees 因為牠們有一種特質 that draws people into their world. 吸引人們去了解牠們 Humans have been drawn to honeybees 人類受蜜蜂吸引的歷史 since early recorded history, 可追朔到史料紀載之初 mostly to harvest their honey, 主要是為了採集蜂蜜 which is an amazing natural sweetener. 這種奇妙的天然甘味劑 I got drawn into the honeybee world 而我沉迷其中 completely by a fluke. 則完全是無心插柳 I was 18 years old and bored, 那時我18歲，生活有些乏味 and I picked up a book in the library on bees 就在圖書館選了一本關於密蜂的書 and I spent the night reading it. 然後花一整夜閱讀 I had never thought about insects 在那之前我從不知道 living in complex societies. 昆蟲有複雜的社會結構 It was like the best of science fiction come true. 簡直就像暢銷科幻小說的翻版 And even stranger, there were these people, 更奇怪的是有一群人 these beekeepers, that loved their bees like they were family, 一群愛蜂如親的養蜂人 and when I put down the book, I knew I had to see this for myself. 當我讀完那本書，我覺得非得親眼看看不可 So I went to work for a commercial beekeeper, 所以我到一家專業蜂場工作 a family that owned 2,000 hives of bees in New Mexico. 業主一家在新墨西哥州有2千個蜂箱 And I was permanently hooked. 我從此無法自拔 Honeybees can be considered a super-organism, 蜜蜂群可說是一種超級社會組織 where the colony is the organism 群體本身就是這個組織 and it's comprised of 40,000 to 50,000 由4到5萬隻 individual bee organisms. 單獨個體組成 Now this society has no central authority. 蜜蜂的社會組織沒有最高權威 Nobody's in charge. 個體間都是平等的 So how they come to collective decisions, 牠們是怎麼達成集體決策? and how they allocate their tasks and divide their labor, 怎麼分配任務和分工? how they communicate where the flowers are, 還有牠們如何傳達花的位置? all of their collective social behaviors are mindblowing. 牠們的種種集體社會行為都令人驚嘆 My personal favorite, and one that I've studied for many years, 我個人的最愛，也是我研究多年的部分 is their system of healthcare. 是他們的醫療保健系統 So bees have social healthcare. 沒錯，蜜蜂有社會保健制度! So in my lab, we study how bees keep themselves healthy. 我的實驗室研究蜜蜂怎麼保持健康 For example, we study hygiene, 例如我們研究衛生 where some bees are able to locate and weed out 有些蜜蜂能夠找出病號 sick individuals from the nest, from the colony, 把牠們趕出蜂巢和蜂群 and it keeps the colony healthy. 藉此維持群體健康 And more recently, we've been studying resins 最近我們研究樹脂 that bees collect from plants. 蜜蜂從植物採集樹脂 So bees fly to some plants and they scrape 牠們飛到某些植物上 these very, very sticky resins off the leaves, 把樹葉上粘稠的樹脂刮下來 and they take them back to the nest 然後帶回蜂巢 where they cement them into the nest architecture 用來構築蜂巢結構 where we call it propolis. 就是我們所謂的蜂膠 We've found that propolis is a natural disinfectant. 蜂膠已證實是天然的殺菌劑 It's a natural antibiotic. 是天然的抗生素 It kills off bacteria and molds and other germs 能殺死細菌、黴菌 within the colony, 以及蜂群裡的其他病菌 and so it bolsters the colony health and their social immunity. 所以蜂膠改善了群體健康和免疫力 Humans have known about the power of propolis 人類從聖經時代 since biblical times. 就已知箇中奧妙 We've been harvesting propolis out of bee colonies 為了醫藥用途從蜂窩採集蜂膠 for human medicine, 由來已久 but we didn't know how good it was for the bees. 但過去我們不知道它對蜜蜂有多大好處 So honeybees have these remarkable natural defenses 蜜蜂以這些非凡的天然防禦機制 that have kept them healthy and thriving 保持族群健康興旺 for over 50 million years. 已有五千多萬年的時間 So seven years ago, when honeybee colonies 所以七年前 were reported to be dying en masse, 美國開始傳出 first in the United States, 有關蜂群大量死亡的報導 it was clear that there was something really, really wrong. 情況明顯不妙 In our collective conscience, in a really primal way, 若本能地以人類的共同文化來看 we know we can't afford to lose bees. 就會知道失去蜜蜂的後果不堪設想 So what's going on? 到底發生甚麼事了? Bees are dying from multiple and interacting causes, 其實蜂群死亡其來有自，且交錯紛雜 and I'll go through each of these. 我會逐一說明 The bottom line is, 但根本的問題是 bees dying reflects a flowerless landscape 蜜蜂的死亡反映了環境中缺乏花朵 and a dysfunctional food system. 還有失能的糧食系統 Now we have the best data on honeybees, 至於蜜蜂則有最可靠的數據 so I'll use them as an example. 我會以這些數據為例 In the United States, bees in fact have been 以美國來看 in decline since World War II. 蜜蜂數量自二戰後持續減少 We have half the number of managed hives 目前美國養蜂場的蜂箱數 in the United States now compared to 1945. 是1945年的一半 We're down to about two million hives of bees, we think. 我們估計總數已減少到約2百萬箱 And the reason is, after World War II, 原因是二戰後 we changed our farming practices. 我們改變了耕作方式 We stopped planting cover crops. 不再種覆土作物 We stopped planting clover and alfalfa, 像三葉草和苜蓿 which are natural fertilizers that fix nitrogen in the soil, 它們能把土壤中的氮素鎖住，是天然肥料 and instead we started using synthetic fertilizers. 而我們卻以化肥取代 Clover and alfalfa are highly nutritious food plants for bees. 但對蜜蜂而言，三葉草和苜蓿的營養價值很高 And after World War II, we started using herbicides 另外，二戰後除草劑的施用 to kill off the weeds in our farms. 雖除去農場上的雜草 Many of these weeds are flowering plants 但其中很多是開花植物 that bees require for their survival. 也是蜜蜂生存命脈 And we started growing larger and larger crop monocultures. 另外單一作物的種植面積擴大 Now we talk about food deserts, 所以我們要談談食品沙漠 places in our cities, neighborhoods that have no grocery stores. 城市中有些地方沒有雜貨店 The very farms that used to sustain bees 而過去蜜蜂賴以生存的農場 are now agricultural food deserts, 反成食品沙漠 dominated by one or two plant species 為一兩種作物寡占 like corn and soybeans. 例如玉米和大豆 Since World War II, we have been systematically 二戰後人類就有計畫地 eliminating many of the flowering plants 除去許多開花植物 that bees need for their survival. 可是蜜蜂仰賴它們維生 And these monocultures extend even to crops 單一作物的農耕方式甚至使用在 that are good for bees, like almonds. 像杏仁這樣對蜜蜂有益的作物 Fifty years ago, beekeepers would take a few colonies, 50年前，養蜂人會帶著數個蜂群(箱) hives of bees into the almond orchards, for pollination, 到杏仁園進行授粉 and also because the pollen in an almond blossom 一個原因是杏仁花粉 is really high in protein. It's really good for bees. 富含蛋白質，對蜜蜂很好 Now, the scale of almond monoculture 目前杏仁的單一作物規模 demands that most of our nation's bees, 需要動用全國大部分的蜜蜂幫忙 over 1.5 million hives of bees, 150萬多個蜂箱的蜜蜂 be transported across the nation 被送到全國各地 to pollinate this one crop. 幫杏仁授粉 And they're trucked in in semi-loads, 蜂箱是以半承載式卡車運達 and they must be trucked out, 事後送返 because after bloom, the almond orchards 因為花期過後的杏仁園 are a vast and flowerless landscape. 是花影杳然的無垠景觀 Bees have been dying over the last 50 years, 這50年來蜜蜂逐漸滅絕 and we're planting more crops that need them. 我們卻種了更多需要牠們的作物 There has been a 300 percent increase in crop production 需要蜜蜂授粉的作物 that requires bee pollination. 近來產量已成長了三倍 And then there's pesticides. 另一個致命傷是農藥 After World War II, we started using pesticides 二戰後我們拼命使用農藥 on a large scale, and this became necessary 而這演變為一種必要手段 because of the monocultures that put out a feast 因為單一作物的耕作方式 for crop pests. 提供了害蟲豐盛的食物 Recently, researchers from Penn State University 最近賓州大學的研究人員 have started looking at the pesticide residue 已著手研究蜜蜂帶回家吃的花粉中 in the loads of pollen that bees carry home as food, 農藥殘留的程度 and they've found that every batch of pollen 他們發現 that a honeybee collects 蜜蜂採集的每一批花粉 has at least six detectable pesticides in it, 都測出至少6種農藥 and this includes every class of insecticides, 包括各類殺蟲劑 herbicides, fungicides, 除草劑和殺真菌劑 and even inert and unlabeled ingredients 甚至還包括不知名的佐劑 that are part of the pesticide formulation 這些佐劑雖是次要成分 that can be more toxic than the active ingredient. 卻可能比主成分更毒 This small bee is holding up a large mirror. 借鏡這些小蜂的遭遇 How much is it going to take to contaminate humans? 可窺見農藥劑量對人體危害的比例 One of these class of insecticides, 有一類殺蟲劑 the neonicontinoids, 叫類尼古丁（新菸鹼Neonicotinoids） is making headlines around the world right now. 正引起全球關注 You've probably heard about it. 你們可能早有耳聞 This is a new class of insecticides. 這是一類新型殺蟲劑 It moves through the plant so that a crop pest, 藥性可蔓延整株植物 a leaf-eating insect, 因此食葉害蟲 would take a bite of the plant 只需一口 and get a lethal dose and die. 便足以喪命 If one of these neonics, we call them, 如果任一種俗稱neonics(類尼古丁)的農藥 is applied in a high concentration, 以高濃度施用 such as in this ground application, 像這樣施用於土壤 enough of the compound moves through the plant 植物所吸收的成分劑量 and gets into the pollen and the nectar, 足以滲入花粉和花蜜 where a bee can consume, in this case, 蜜蜂在此情況下吃進 a high dose of this neurotoxin 高劑量的神經毒素 that makes the bee twitch and die. 會抽搐而死 In most agricultural settings, on most of our farms, 不過在大多農耕及農場環境中 it's only the seed that's coated with the insecticide, 只有種子表層包覆著殺蟲劑 and so a smaller concentration moves through the plant 循環於植物體內的劑量較低 and gets into the pollen and nectar, 花粉和花蜜所含藥量也較低 and if a bee consumes this lower dose, 如果蜜蜂吃了較低的藥量 either nothing happens 可能安然無恙 or the bee becomes intoxicated and disoriented 或是暈頭轉向 and she may not find her way home. 可能因此茫然不知歸途 And on top of everything else, bees have 禍不單行的是 their own set of diseases and parasites. 蜜蜂還有疾病和寄生蟲的難題 Public enemy number one for bees is this thing. 這是蜂類的頭號公敵 It's called varroa destructor. 叫做蜂蟎（varroa destructor） It's aptly named. 恰如其名 It's this big, blood-sucking parasite 蜂蟎是一種大型吸血寄生蟲 that compromises the bee's immune system 會弱化蜜蜂的免疫系統 and circulates viruses. 並散布病毒 Let me put this all together for you. 我想為各位統整一下 I don't know what it feels like to a bee 我無法與蜜蜂感同身受 to have a big, bloodsucking parasite running around on it, 體會大型吸血寄生蟲在身上亂竄的感覺 and I don't know what it feels like to a bee to have a virus, 我也不知道蜜蜂染上病毒的感受 but I do know what it feels like when I have a virus, the flu, 但我有感染病毒和流感的切身經驗 and I know how difficult it is for me to get 我也知道奔波趕赴雜貨店 to the grocery store to get good nutrition. 購買營養品的辛苦 But what if I lived in a food desert? 若我住在食品沙漠 And what if I had to travel a long distance 必須長途跋涉 to get to the grocery store, 才能抵達雜貨店 and I finally got my weak body out there 而當我終得以拖著疲憊身軀進門 and I consumed, in my food, 找到食物吃 enough of a pesticide, a neurotoxin, 但食物中的殺蟲劑神經毒 that I couldn't find my way home? 卻足以讓我返家時迷路 And this is what we mean by multiple 這就是所謂 and interacting causes of death. 多重因素交戶作用致死 And it's not just our honeybees. 而且不只蜜蜂 All of our beautiful wild species of bees 所有美麗的野生蜂種都身陷危機 are at risk, including those tomato-pollinating bumblebees. 包括替番茄授粉的熊蜂 These bees are providing backup for our honeybees. 牠們是蜜蜂的後援 They're providing the pollination insurance 和蜜蜂一樣 alongside our honeybees. 提供授粉保障 We need all of our bees. 因此所有蜂種缺一不可 So what are we going to do? 那我們該怎麼辦? What are we going to do about this big bee bummer 我們給蜜蜂製造的大麻煩 that we've created? 該如何收拾? It turns out, it's hopeful. It's hopeful. 事實上沒那麼糟，還有希望的!