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  • High up in California Sierra Nevada Mountains near snowpack-filled lakes, there lives one

    在加州內華達山脈的高處,靠近充滿積雪的湖泊,那裡住著一個人。

  • of the greatest threats to biodiversity in human history.

    人類歷史上對生物多樣性的最大威脅之一。

  • That threat is a recently discovered

    這種威脅是最近發現的

  • fungus and its victims are these guys. Yes frogs. In this case, the extremely rare yellow

    真菌和它的受害者是這些傢伙。是的,青蛙。在這種情況下,極其罕見的黃色

  • legged frog. These elusive amphibians have lost over 80% of their population, due to

    腿蛙。這些難以捉摸的兩棲類動物已經失去了80%以上的數量,原因在於

  • an extremely deadly fungal infection. And they aren't the only species at risk, the frogs

    一種極其致命的真菌感染它們並不是唯一處於危險之中的物種,青蛙

  • are part of a larger global amphibian crisis that is brought 32% of all the known species

    是更大的全球兩棲動物危機的一部分,這給所有已知物種帶來了32%的危機。

  • of frogs, salamanders and caecilians to the brink of extinction in no small part due to

    蛙類、蠑螈和尾蚴類動物瀕臨滅絕,這在很大程度上是由於它們的繁殖力不足。

  • this fungus.

    這種真菌。

  • This loss of biodiversity threatens to have a wide ranging impact from disrupting habitats,

    這種生物多樣性的喪失有可能造成廣泛的影響,從破壞生境。

  • to preventing the advancement of medical research.

    以防止醫學研究的進步。

  • Now, scientists are heading out to the mountains, in an effort to save

    現在,科學家們正向山裡走去,努力拯救這群動物。

  • this important species before it's too late.

    這個重要的物種,在它太晚之前。

  • When we talk about that mountain yellow legged frogs were really talking about two

    當我們說到那座山的時候,黃腿蛙真的是在說兩隻。

  • species, Rana muscosa which is the southern species and Rana sierrae,

    種,南方種Rana muscosa和Rana sierrae。

  • which is the northern species that occurs north of Mather Pass.

    這是發生在馬瑟關以北的北方物種。

  • Both species are very closely related, and they both live

    這兩個物種的關係非常密切,它們都生活在

  • in very high alpine lakes, usually above 8,000 feet.

    在非常高的高山湖泊中,通常在8000英尺以上。

  • These unique frogs weren't always rare. In fact, their numbers were abundant before

    這些獨特的青蛙並不總是罕見的。事實上,在它們出現之前,它們的數量已經很豐富了

  • more people began to settle around the Sierra Nevada Mountains in the late 1800s.

    19世紀末,更多的人開始在內華達山脈周圍定居。

  • There are reports of people in the early 1920s, you know, not being able to walk through a

    有報道稱,在20世紀20年代早期,人們不能通過一個走過

  • meadow without stepping on a frog.

    草地上沒有踩到青蛙。

  • Those same settlers led to the initial decline of the frog population.

    這些定居者也導致了青蛙數量的最初下降。

  • In order to attract tourists and fishermen, they brought non native fish species to the

    為了吸引遊客和漁民,他們把非在地的魚種帶到這裡來。

  • Sierra, specifically trout. Trout happened to feed on tadpoles and young frogs.

    塞拉利昂,特別是鱒魚。鱒魚正好以蝌蚪和幼蛙為食。

  • So, unsurprisingly, the amount of frogs in the Sierra quickly plummeted when they arrived,

    所以,不出所料,青蛙到了塞拉利昂後,數量迅速銳減。

  • The fish started being removed in the 1990s, and that did lead to a rebound,

    上世紀90年代,魚開始被清除,這確實導致了反彈。

  • but a far greater threat was on the horizon.

    但更大的威脅就在眼前。

  • Unfortunately, not very long after that is when the fungal disease chytridiomycosis

    不幸的是,沒過多久就是真菌病的時候了。

  • comes into the Sierra Nevadas.

    進入內華達山脈。

  • Chytridiomycosis is caused by the fungus batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    枯草桿菌病是由真菌batrachochytrium dendrobatidis引起的。

  • We sometimes just call it BD for short,

    我們有時就簡稱它為BD。

  • sometimes we just call it chytrid. It was only first written about in 1998. So, there's

    有時我們就叫它 "茜草"。它在1998年才第一次被寫到。所以,有

  • still a lot we don't know about this disease, but its discovery has been a huge breakthrough

    我們對這種疾病還有很多不瞭解,但它的發現是一個巨大的突破。

  • and understanding why amphibian populations have been declining so rapidly.

    並瞭解為什麼兩棲動物的數量會如此迅速地下降。

  • And, unfortunately, it also has

    而且,不幸的是,它也有

  • somehow spread. Literally throughout the world.

    以某種方式傳播。從字面上看,整個世界。

  • So on every continent where frogs exist, chytridiomycosis also exists.

    所以在每一個有青蛙存在的大陸上,也存在著恙蟲病。

  • It's responsible for a third of the world's amphibians becoming threatened.

    它要為世界上三分之一的兩棲動物受到威脅負責。

  • We already believe that about 100 species have gone extinct because of chytridiomycosis.

    我們已經相信,大約有100個物種因為枯草桿菌病而滅絕了。

  • Of course there are other factors that are affecting amphibian populations like

    當然,影響兩棲動物種群的還有其他因素,如

  • habitat loss, invasive species and climate change, but chytrid is recognized as a major

    生境喪失、入侵物種和氣候變化,但人們認識到恙蟲病是一個主要的問題。

  • factor, and its lethal effects can be attributed to the unique way that a frog can breathe.

    因素,它的致命作用可以歸結為青蛙獨特的呼吸方式。

  • The frogs osmoregulate through their skin which just means that their skin is permeable

    青蛙是通過皮膚進行滲透調節的,也就是說它們的皮膚是可以滲透的。

  • and water and gases can really kind of pass through the skin. Frogs can stay underwater

    而水和氣體真的可以通過皮膚。青蛙可以呆在水下

  • for a very long period of time because they can absorb oxygen, through their skin that

    因為它們可以通過皮膚吸收氧氣,所以可以持續很長時間

  • way. Unfortunately, it also means they can absorb fungal spores, and those fungal spores

    的方式。不幸的是,這也意味著他們可以吸收真菌孢子,而這些真菌孢子

  • that they're when their body reacts to it. What it does is it tries to slough off that

    他們是當他們的身體對它的反應。它所做的是,它試圖脫落,

  • infected skin, and it's impossible for them to slough off enough to get rid of

    感染的皮膚,而且它們不可能脫落,足以去除

  • it, and eventually what happens is they die of heart failure.

    它,最終發生的事情是他們死於心臟衰竭。

  • So once the fungus is present in the water. There's really no way for the frogs to get

    所以一旦水裡有了真菌。青蛙就真的沒有辦法了。

  • around it.

    圍繞著它。

  • I think what makes it so difficult is that it's so ubiquitous just in the water supply.

    我想,之所以這麼困難,是因為它僅僅在供水方面就無處不在。

  • You know how do you treat the entire range of the Sierra Nevada Mountains?

    你知道如何對待整個內華達山脈的範圍嗎?

  • Since treating native habitat is out. That means the frogs must be inoculated back at

    既然處理原生棲息地是出。那就意味著蛙類必須在接種回

  • the lab at the Oakland Zoo. Fortunately, the researchers here have a plan to treat and

    奧克蘭動物園的實驗室。幸運的是,這裡的研究人員有一個計劃來治療和。

  • release their yellow legged patients back into the wild. And the solution starts by

    把他們的黃腿病人放回野外。解決辦法是

  • getting to the frogs early before they're technically frogs at all

    趁著青蛙還沒變成青蛙的時候,早點找到它們

  • Chytridiomycosis is really just affects the keratin on the frog. Keratin is, you know,

    枯草菌病其實只是影響青蛙的角質。角蛋白是,你知道的。

  • a human it's like your fingernails or your hair that kind of thing but on frogs their

    人的指甲或頭髮之類的東西,但在青蛙身上,它們的。

  • their keratin their keratinized skin is really in that webbing between their toes and on

    他們的角質,他們的角質化的皮膚 真的是在他們的腳趾之間的網狀物,並在上

  • the inside of their thighs. It's where the skin is more permeable. As tadpoles, the only

    他們的大腿內側。這裡的皮膚更容易被滲透。作為蝌蚪,唯一的

  • keratinized part of the body is the mouthparts.

    角質化的部分是口器。

  • And so it doesn't seem to have a major effect on tadpoles.

    所以似乎對蝌蚪的影響不大。

  • But just getting a hold of some tadpoles is an ordeal, because of the frogs' remote

    但僅僅是抓到一些蝌蚪,就是一種煎熬,因為青蛙的遠程

  • habitat, a helicopter trip courtesy of a partnership with the California Department of

    棲息地,與加利福尼亞州政府合作提供的直升機旅行。

  • Fish & Wildlife is needed to retrieve the healthy tadpoles from their mountainous

    需要漁民和野生動物將健康的蝌蚪從他們的山裡找回來。

  • dwelling.

    住所。

  • Once in the lab, Rousser's team will raise the frogs under optimal conditions,

    一旦進入實驗室,Rousser的團隊將在最佳條件下飼養青蛙。

  • until they're ready for a high tech upgrade.

    直到他們準備好進行高科技升級。

  • Our goal is to bring them up to a size of 40 millimeters measured from their tip of

    我們的目標是使它們的尺寸達到40毫米,從它們的頂端測量。

  • their snout to the tip of their back end, it's called the snout vent length. And the

    他們的鼻子到他們的後端尖端, 這就是所謂的鼻孔長度。而

  • reason for that is because then we can implant them with a microchip. So basically,

    因為我們可以給他們植入芯片所以,基本上,

  • frog cyborgs, it's just

    蛙類電子人,它只是...。

  • like the microchip that you would use for your dog or cat, that allows us then to track

    就像你用在你的狗或貓身上的微芯片一樣 讓我們能夠追蹤到...

  • those frogs over the long term after they've been released. Okay, maybe not

    這些青蛙在被放生後的長遠發展。好吧,也許不是

  • full on cyborgs, but the implanted microchip does allow the California Department of Fish

    完全的電子人,但植入的微芯片確實允許加州魚類部。

  • and Wildlife to scan the frogs and track them for several years after being released into

    在放生後的數年內,掃描這些青蛙並跟蹤它們。

  • the wild. Once they're fully formed and ready, the frogs are intentionally exposed to the

    野生的。一旦它們完全成型並準備好了 青蛙就會被故意暴露在野外。

  • fungus, which is done under close supervision of course.

    菌,當然是在嚴密的監督下進行的。

  • We actually test them every single week we treat them at about three weeks, or when they

    其實我們每一個星期都會對他們進行測試,我們在大約三週的時候對他們進行治療,或者當他們

  • reach 600,000 copies of the critical infection intensity. So ideally we want them

    達到60萬份的臨界感染強度。所以,理想情況下,我們希望他們

  • to develop a moderate level of infection, allow their immune systems to kick in and

    形成中等程度的感染,讓他們的免疫系統開始發揮作用,並讓他們的免疫系統發揮作用。

  • then we treat them. And then that way when they go back to the wild and they're released.

    然後我們對它們進行治療。然後這樣,當他們回到野外,他們被釋放。

  • They may get a moderate level of the infection, but they're never going to get so

    他們可能會得到一箇中等程度的感染,但他們永遠不會得到這樣的。

  • sick that it's going to kill them

    噁心,它會殺死他們

  • After the frogs have been microchipped, treated, observed and have built up an

    在對青蛙進行了芯片植入、治療、觀察,並建立了一個

  • immunity to chytrid, it's back to the helicopter for return to their home in the mountains.

    免疫了恙蟲病,就回到直升機上,回到山裡的家。

  • It may seem like a lot of work for a small group of rare frogs.

    對於一小群珍稀的青蛙來說,這似乎是一件很辛苦的事情。

  • But amphibians are much more important to people than may be readily apparent.

    但兩棲類動物對人們的重要性遠比表面上看到的要大得多。

  • Not everybody notices their inherent beauty and worth what I usually say to people is

    不是每個人都會注意到自己的內在美和價值我通常對人們說的是

  • well. How do you feel about mosquito-borne illnesses? There are a lot of problems that

    嘛。你如何看待蚊子傳播的疾病?有很多問題

  • can be caused by mosquitoes and frogs eat mosquitoes.

    可由蚊子引起,青蛙吃蚊子。

  • The other thing is that tomorrow's medicines may come from frogs.

    另外就是明天的藥品可能來自於青蛙。

  • In addition to being vital to medical research and saving us from mosquito-borne illnesses,

    除了對醫學研究至關重要,讓我們免受蚊子傳播的疾病困擾外。

  • which honestly already seems like enough.

    說實話,這已經顯得足夠了。

  • Frogs can also tell us about how healthy our ecosystem is and what

    青蛙還可以告訴我們,我們的生態系統有多健康,以及我們的生態環境有多好。

  • dangers might be right around the corner.

    危險可能就在眼前。

  • Frogs are considered an indicator species, which means that because they are very

    青蛙被認為是一種訓示性物種,這意味著,由於它們非常

  • sensitive and absorb through their skin, they're going to be the first thing to react to

    敏感,並通過皮膚吸收,他們將是第一個反應,以

  • some sort of pollutants or chemical in your system, and because they're amphibians,

    某種汙染物或化學品在你的系統, 因為他們是兩棲動物,

  • they can alert you to problems on water and on land.

    它們可以提醒你注意水面和陸地上的問題。

High up in California Sierra Nevada Mountains near snowpack-filled lakes, there lives one

在加州內華達山脈的高處,靠近充滿積雪的湖泊,那裡住著一個人。

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B1 中級 中文 青蛙 物種 皮膚 動物 蚊子 山脈

這種殺死青蛙的真菌可能會消滅整個物種。 (This Frog-Killing Fungus Could Wipe Out Entire Species)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 11 月 17 日
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