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  • A celebrated astrophysicist is intently studying  the skies in search of his elusive quarry,  

    一位著名的天體物理學家正在專心致志地研究天空,尋找他難以捉摸的獵物。

  • combing through the thousands of images coming  to him from the state-of-the-art International  

    梳理著從最先進的 "國際攝影中心 "傳來的數千張圖片。

  • Event Horizon telescope. Finally, after months  and months of searching, he thinks he may have  

    活動地平線望遠鏡。經過幾個月的尋找,他終於認為他可能找到了。

  • found what he's been looking for all this time  - in the images he sees the telltale signs of a  

    找到了他一直在尋找的東西--在影像中,他看到了蛛絲馬跡。

  • mysterious phenomenon called a black hole. But  as he scrutinizes the images captured by the  

    被稱為黑洞的神祕現象但是,當他仔細研究了 "黑洞 "所拍攝的影像後

  • powerful telescope, something doesn't seem quite  right. There, right in front of his very eyes,  

    強大的望遠鏡,有些東西似乎不太對勁。那裡,就在他的眼前。

  • the black hole appears to beburping!? The  scientist knows that this should be impossible:  

    黑洞似乎在......打嗝!?科學家知道,這應該是不可能的。

  • nothing can escape from a black hole, not even  light - that's why they're so hard to find - but  

    沒有任何東西能從黑洞中逃出來,甚至連光也不能,這就是為什麼它們這麼難找的原因,但是... ...

  • here is photographic evidence of matter coming  out of a black hole! Could it be that this is  

    這是物質從黑洞中出來的照片證據!難道這就是

  • not a black hole at all, but the black hole's  neglected twin - a white hole? Could this be his  

    根本不是黑洞,而是黑洞被忽視的孿生兄弟--白洞?難道這就是他的

  • chance to once and for all answer the questions  that have been nagging at him throughout his whole  

    機會,一勞永逸地回答那些一直困擾著他的問題。

  • career - What is a white hole? How do they formHow do they work!? And, do they even exist at all?

    職業--什麼是白洞?它們是如何形成的? 它們是如何工作的!?還有,它們到底存在嗎?

  • In 1915, Einstein's field equations turned  the world of physics on its head. His theory  

    1915年,愛因斯坦的場方程顛覆了物理學的世界。他的理論

  • of relativity described the force of gravity  and shattered the prevailing paradigm of the  

    相對論描述了萬有引力,並打破了當時流行的萬有引力範式。

  • nature of reality - rather than being rigidspace and time can actually bend and fold,  

  • along with the mass of stars and planetsWithin a year, scientists had calculated how  

    以及恆星和行星的品質。 一年之內,科學家們計算出了

  • space-time curves around a single ball of massthe seeds of what today is called the singularity.  

    圍繞一個品質球的時空曲線--也就是今天所說的奇點的種子。

  • Physicists were able to describe how a spherical  mass shrunken down to infinitely dense point  

    物理學家能夠描述一個球狀品質如何縮小到無限密集的點。

  • could wrap space around it so tightly  that a region of space is effectively  

    可以將空間緊緊地包裹起來,以至於一個空間區域實際上是

  • pinched off from rest of universe, creating  a no-mans land beyond the event horizon where  

    掐斷了與宇宙其他地方的聯繫,形成了事件地平線以外的無人區,在那裡有了

  • the laws of physics no longer apply and the  link between cause and effect is shattered.

    物理定律不再適用,因果關係被打破。

  • A black hole is an incredibly dense  area of space where all matter has  

    黑洞是一個非常密集的空間區域,所有的物質都在其中。

  • been squeezed into an impossibly tiny spacecalled the singularity. This creates such an  

    被擠壓到一個不可能的微小空間,稱為奇點。這就造成了這樣一個

  • intense gravitational pull that nothing, not even  light, can escape from the black hole's clutches.  

    強烈的引力使任何東西,甚至光,都無法從黑洞的魔爪中逃脫。

  • A tiny black hole might be the size of a single  atom, but have a mass equal to a large mountain.  

    一個微小的黑洞可能只有一個原子大小,但品質卻相當於一座大山。

  • Stellar black holes, formed when a dying  star collapses in on itself in a supernova,  

    恆星黑洞,是由一顆垂死的恆星在超新星中自我坍塌而形成的。

  • can have a mass up to 20 times greater than  our sun. The largest black holes are called  

    黑洞的品質可以比我們的太陽大20倍。最大的黑洞被稱為

  • supermassive black holes, and they can be found  at the center of every galaxy in our universe. The  

    超大品質黑洞,它們可以在我們宇宙中每個星系的中心找到。宇宙中每個星系的中心都能找到它們。

  • supermassive black hole at the center of our Milky  Way galaxy, named Sagittarius A*, has as much mass  

    位於銀河系中心的超大品質黑洞,被命名為人馬座A*,其品質和人馬座A*一樣大

  • as 4 million of our suns, all condensed intotiny ball only as big as a few million Earths.

    如同400萬個太陽一樣,都濃縮成一個小球,只有幾百萬個地球那麼大。

  • A black hole's event horizon is what we would  consider the surface of the black hole, although  

    黑洞的事件視界就是我們認為的黑洞表面,雖然

  • it's not a surface in the true sense of the word  - it's not a membrane or barrier, but rather, the  

    它不是真正意義上的表面--它不是一層膜或屏障,而是...

  • threshold beyond which there is no going back. The  event horizon is the point of no return - nothing  

    閾值,超過了這個閾值,就不能再回頭了。事件地平線是一個不歸點--沒有任何東西能讓我們的生活更美好。

  • that crosses the event horizon can ever come backEven light cannot escape the black hole once it's  

    穿過事件地平線的東西都能回來。 即使是光,一旦進入黑洞,也無法逃脫

  • passed the event horizon. Once somethingor someone - has crossed the event horizon,  

    通過事件地平線。一旦某事--或某人--越過了事件地平線。

  • they will begin the inevitable process of  falling towards the black hole's singularity,  

    它們將開始不可避免的向黑洞的奇點墜落的過程。

  • eventually dissolving into the singularity  itself. We can only guess what happens after that.

    最終溶入奇點本身。我們只能猜測之後會發生什麼。

  • Physicists have been studying black  holes for decades and are only just  

    物理學家對黑洞的研究已經有幾十年的歷史了,現在才剛剛

  • beginning to understand them. Only recently have  

    開始瞭解它們。直到最近

  • they turned their attention to the black  hole's neglected twin - the white hole.

    他們把目光轉向了黑洞被忽視的孿生兄弟--白洞。

  • From afar, a white hole would appear  identical to its better-known cousin,  

    從遠處看,白洞會和它比較有名的表弟一模一樣。

  • a black hole. Like a black hole, a  white hole might be big or small,  

    一個黑洞。和黑洞一樣,白洞也可能大也可能小。

  • might spin or remain stationary, and might be  electrically charged. A white hole would also  

    可能自轉或保持靜止,也可能帶電。白洞也會

  • be surrounded by a ring of dust, and a cloud of  gas and debris would gather at its event horizon.

    被一圈塵埃包圍,氣體和碎片雲將聚集在其事件地平線上。

  • The key difference between a black hole  and a white hole is that white holes burp.  

    黑洞和白洞的關鍵區別在於白洞會打嗝。

  • Yes, burp. Unlike a black holefrom which nothing can escape,  

    是的,打嗝。不像黑洞,什麼都逃不出去。

  • matter actually can cross the event horizon and  come out of a white hole. It's only in these  

    物質居然可以穿越事件地平線,走出白洞。只有在這些

  • moments, when objects emerge from the white  hole, that scientists can definitively say  

    當物體從白洞中出現的瞬間,科學家可以明確地說

  • that what they are looking at iswhite hole, and not a black hole.

    他們看到的是一個白洞,而不是黑洞。

  • If a black hole's event horizon is the point of  no return, then the event horizon of a white hole  

    如果說黑洞的事件視界是不歸點,那麼白洞的事件視界則是

  • could be described as the point of no admission  - nothing can ever cross the event horizon of  

    可以被描述為 "不承認點"--沒有任何東西可以越過事件的地平線。

  • a white hole and reach the interior. In a black  hole, objects in the space outside can cross the  

    白洞併到達內部。在黑洞中,外面空間中的物體可以穿過

  • event horizon and affect the interior of the black  hole, but matter inside the black hole can never  

    事件地平線,並影響黑洞內部,但黑洞內部的物質永遠無法做到以下幾點

  • again interact with space outside. In a white  hole, the reverse holds true - objects from inside  

    再與外面的空間相互作用。在白洞中,情況正好相反--來自白洞內部的物體

  • the white hole can cross the event horizon and  interact with objects in the space outside of it,  

    白洞可以穿越事件地平線,與事件地平線外的空間中的物體相互作用。

  • but nothing on the outside can ever enter  the white hole or affect the inside.  

    但外面的任何東西都無法進入白洞,也無法影響到裡面。

  • This is because a white hole is a black  hole's time reversal, according to physicists.

    這是因為根據物理學家的說法,白洞是黑洞的時間逆轉。

  • A black hole's singularity exists in the futurewhereas a white hole's singularity exists in the  

    黑洞的奇異性存在於未來,而白洞的奇異性存在於

  • past. Since the interior of the white hole is  cut off from the universe's past via its event  

    過去。由於白洞內部通過其事件與宇宙的過去相隔絕

  • horizon, no outside object or event will ever  affect the inside of a white hole. James Bardeen,  

    地平線,任何外部物體或事件都不會影響白洞內部。詹姆斯-巴丁。

  • a black hole pioneer and professor  emeritus at the University of Washington  

    黑洞學家

  • explains the magnitude of this difference:  “Somehow it's more disturbing to have a  

    解釋了這種差異的嚴重性。 "不知何故,它更令人不安的是有一個...

  • singularity in the past than can affect  everything in the outside world”, he says.

    他說:"過去的奇點比能影響到外界的一切"。

  • Scientists had theorized about the existence  of black holes for hundreds of years before  

    科學家們在數百年前就已經對黑洞的存在進行了理論上的探討。

  • Einstein's theory of relativity paved  the way for physicists to prove their  

    愛因斯坦的相對論為物理學家鋪平了證明其

  • existence - theoretically, at least. Since  no light escapes from a black hole, they are  

    至少在理論上是存在的。由於沒有光從黑洞中逃逸出來,所以它們是

  • invisible to the naked eye. Until very recentlythe only way scientists have been able to find  

    肉眼看不見的東西。直到最近,科學家們才找到了唯一的方法

  • evidence of black holes has been to look for  signs of their impact on the surrounding universe.  

    黑洞的證據一直是尋找它們對周圍宇宙影響的跡象。

  • Stars, gasses and other space objects behave  differently near a black hole than they do  

    恆星、氣體和其他空間物體在黑洞附近的表現與它們不同。

  • elsewhere in the universe as the black hole's  intense gravity pulls on them. Using telescopes  

    宇宙中其他地方,因為黑洞強烈的引力拉著它們。利用望遠鏡

  • equipped with special tools, scientists can  pick up a type of high-energy light emitted  

    裝備了特殊的工具,科學家們可以接收到一種高能光的發射。

  • by objects that interact with a black hole's  gravitational forces, and reverberation mapping  

    由與黑洞引力相互作用的物體,以及混響圖譜構成的

  • can measure the radiation given off by the ring  of debris that surrounds the black hole, helping  

    可以測量圍繞黑洞的碎片環所發出的輻射,有助於

  • physicists pinpoint the location of a black holeeven if they can't see the black hole itself.

    物理學家精確地確定了黑洞的位置,即使他們看不到黑洞本身。

  • Finally, in 2019, scientists made a stunning  breakthrough in the study of black holes  

    終於,在2019年,科學家們在研究黑洞方面取得了驚人的突破。

  • when the International Event Horizon telescope  captured the world's first image of a black hole.  

    當國際事件地平線望遠鏡拍攝到世界上第一張黑洞的影像時。

  • Technically, what they captured was the  black hole's shadow, since the absence of  

    從技術上講,他們捕捉到的是黑洞的影子,因為缺少了

  • light reflecting from a black hole makes the black  hole itself impossible to see, but nevertheless,  

    從黑洞反射的光線使得黑洞本身無法看到,但儘管如此。

  • this was the world's first solid, photographic  proof of the existence of black holes.

    這是世界上第一個關於黑洞存在的實實在在的照片證明。

  • If black holes have finally been proven to be  real, does that mean that white holes are a proven  

    如果黑洞終於被證明是真實存在的,那是否意味著白洞是一個被證實的。

  • fact of the universe, too? Well, not exactlyWhile Einstein's theory of general relativity  

    宇宙的事實,也?嗯,不完全是。 雖然愛因斯坦的廣義相對論...

  • does describe the existence of both black and  white holes, it doesn't explain how a white  

    確實描述了黑洞和白洞的存在,但它並沒有解釋白洞是如何存在的。

  • hole might actually form in space. A black hole  forms when a dying star implodes in a supernova,  

    黑洞可能真的在太空中形成。當一顆垂死的恆星在超新星中內爆時,就會形成一個黑洞。

  • collapsing all of the star's matter into an  impossibly tiny area cordoned off from the  

    將恆星的所有物質摺疊成一個不可能的微小區域,與星體隔離開來。

  • rest of space. The reverse doesn't quite make  sense - the idea of a white hole exploding into  

    空間的其餘部分。

  • a fully-functioning star would be a bit like  unscrambling an egg: it just wouldn't work.  

    一顆功能齊全的恆星就像解開一個雞蛋的謎題一樣:它不會成功。

  • This idea also violates the statistical  law that entropy must increase over time.

    這種想法也違反了熵必須隨時間增加的統計規律。

  • Furthermore, if a white hole did formthe matter it releases when itburps”  

    而且,如果白洞真的形成了,它 "打嗝 "時釋放的物質也是如此

  • would collide with the matter in orbit  around the white hole. These collisions  

    會與白洞周圍軌道上的物質發生碰撞。這些碰撞

  • would cause the entire system to collapse into  a black hole. Perhaps if white holes do exist,  

    會導致整個系統坍塌成黑洞。如果白洞確實存在,也許。

  • they don't remain as a white hole for long. Hal  Haggard, a theoretical physicist at Bard College  

    它們不會像白洞一樣停留很久。哈爾-哈格德,巴德學院的理論物理學家。

  • in New York, has said that “a long-lived  white hole, I think, is very unlikely.”

    在紐約,曾表示,"我認為,長壽白洞的可能性很小"。

  • Other scientists have different  theories about white holes that help  

    其他科學家有不同的理論,關於白洞,幫助。

  • explain some of the inconsistenciesSteven Hawking discovered back in the  

    解釋一些不一致的地方。 史蒂文-霍金早在

  • 1970s that black holes leak energy, which  led him to wonder - how do black holes die?  

    20世紀70年代,黑洞會洩漏能量,這讓他產生了疑問--黑洞是怎麼死的?

  • And what happens to everything that's been  trapped inside of a black hole when it dies?  

    而當黑洞死後,被困在黑洞裡的一切又會怎樣?

  • The theory of general relativity holds that  nothing can get out of a black hole, but quantum  

    廣義相對論認為,沒有什麼東西能走出黑洞,但量子的

  • mechanics prevents any information inside a black  hole from being deleted. So where does it go?

    機械學可以防止黑洞內的任何資訊被刪除。那它會去哪裡呢?

  • Some have taken this to mean that a white hole is  actually the result of the death of a black hole.  

    有人認為,這意味著白洞其實是黑洞死亡的結果。

  • As a black hole dies, it may become so  small - as small as one microgram in size,  

    隨著黑洞的死亡,它可能會變得如此之小--小到只有一微克大小。

  • about the mass of a human hair - that it would no  longer obey the laws of physics as we know them.  

    關於人的頭髮的品質 - 它將不再服從我們所知道的物理定律。

  • This infinitesimally tiny object would  be so small that it would defy gravity,  

    這個無限小的物體會小到無視重力。

  • but inside it would hide a cavernous  interior full of everything it swallowed  

    但它的內部卻隱藏著一個洞,裡面裝滿了它所吞下的所有東西

  • in its previous life as a black holeIt's small size and gravity-defying  

    在它的前世是一個黑洞。 它的體積小,引力也大得驚人

  • behaviour could allow it to remain stable  enough to eventually spit out information  

    行為可以讓它保持足夠的穩定性,最終吐出資訊。

  • and matter that had been swallowed by the black  hole, becoming a “burpingwhite hole instead.

    和被黑洞吞噬的物質,變成了一個 "打嗝 "的白洞。

  • If this theory holds true, the universe could  one day come to be dominated by white holes.  

    如果這個理論成立,宇宙有一天可能會被白洞主宰。

  • After all of the stars in the universe have burnt  out and imploded into black holes, and then after  

    在宇宙中所有的恆星都燃燒殆盡並內爆成黑洞之後,然後在... ...

  • all of those black holes themselves have all diedthe universe might be nothing but a sea of burping  

    所有這些黑洞本身都死了,宇宙可能只是一片打嗝的海洋。

  • white holes. Thankfully, this could only happen  in a universe countless trillions of times older  

    白洞。幸運的是,這隻可能發生在一個比它大無數萬億倍的宇宙中。

  • than our universe currently is, so it's notscenario we need to worry about any time soon.

    比我們的宇宙目前的情況,所以這不是我們需要擔心的情況,很快。

  • There are many more questions than answers when  it comes to white holes, and that leaves room for  

    談到白洞,問題多於答案,這就有了空間。

  • plenty of imaginative theories about what a white  hole actually is. Some scientists actually think  

    關於白洞到底是什麼,有很多充滿想象力的理論。一些科學家實際上認為

  • that we are currently living inside the ultimate  white hole. To these black hole physicists,  

    我們目前正生活在終極白洞中。對於這些黑洞物理學家來說。

  • the behavior of a white hole looks suspiciously  similar to a little thing we call the Big Bang.  

    白洞的行為看起來和我們稱之為大爆炸的小東西很相似。

  • The explosion of matter and energy resulting  from the Big Bang that created our universe  

    宇宙大爆炸產生的物質和能量的爆炸,創造了宇宙

  • is remarkably similar to the way theorists  suspect that white holes release matter.

    與理論家懷疑白洞釋放物質的方式非常相似。

  • The geometry is very similar in the two cases,"  Hal Haggard, the physicist from Bard College, has  

    "這兩種情況下的幾何形狀非常相似,"來自巴德學院的物理學家哈爾-哈格德已經。

  • said. "Even to the point of being mathematically  identical at times." This theory has attracted  

    說道:"甚至有時在數學上完全相同。"甚至有時到了數學上相同的地步。"這一理論吸引了

  • plenty of criticism, but Haggard intends  to follow this rabbit hole to the very end,  

    大量的責備,但Haggard打算跟隨這個兔子洞到最後。

  • sayingWhy wouldn't you investigate whether white  holes have interesting consequences? It may be  

    說:"你為什麼不調查白洞是否有有趣的後果?它可能是

  • that those consequences aren't what you expectedbut it would be foolhardy to ignore them.”

    這些後果並不是你所期望的,但忽視它們是愚蠢的。"

  • We may still be a long way off from being able  to look into a telescope and watch with our own  

    我們可能離能夠用自己的望遠鏡觀察還很遠。

  • eyes as a white hole burps out matter into the  surrounding universe. Although we've only just  

    眼看著一個白洞將物質打入周圍的宇宙中。雖然我們才剛剛

  • gotten our first glimpse of a black hole - and  though we have yet to even lay eyes on a white  

    我們第一次看到了黑洞 雖然我們還沒有看到白色的黑洞。

  • hole - scientists will undoubtedly discover more  about these mysterious phenomena in the future.  

    洞--科學家們無疑會在未來發現更多關於這些神祕現象。

  • If the past has taught us anything, it's  that just because we can't see something  

    如果說過去教會了我們什麼 那就是我們看不到的東西

  • doesn't mean it isn't out there. Only time  will tell which theory about white holes  

    並不意味著它不存在。只有時間才能證明哪種關於白洞的理論

  • will prove to be correct - or if we had it  completely wrong all along. One day we may  

    將被證明是正確的--或者說如果我們一直以來都是完全錯誤的。有一天,我們可能

  • get an answer to the questionWhat iswhite hole?” but until then, it remains  

    得到一個答案 "什麼是白洞?"但在此之前,它仍然是

  • yet another of the countless as-yet-unsolved  mysteries of our vast and unknowable universe.

    又是我們浩瀚不可知的宇宙中無數未解之謎中的一個。

  • If you thought this video was fascinatingyou'll definitely want to check outWhat  

    如果你覺得這段視頻很吸引人,你一定會想看看 "什麼"。

  • Would Happen to Your Body in Space?”, oryou might like this other interesting one!

    你的身體在太空中會發生什麼事?",或者,你可能會喜歡這個其他有趣的東西!"。

A celebrated astrophysicist is intently studying  the skies in search of his elusive quarry,  

一位著名的天體物理學家正在專心致志地研究天空,尋找他難以捉摸的獵物。

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B1 中級 中文 黑洞 地平線 宇宙 事件 物理學家 恆星

什麼是白洞?(黑洞的反義詞) (What Is a White Hole? (Opposite of Black Hole))

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 11 月 15 日
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