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  • Hello everyone, today I want to tell you about a rare noble gas: xenon

    大家好,今天我想告訴你一種稀有的惰性氣體:氙氣

  • In the periodic table of chemical elements, xenon is located in the last group

    在化學元素週期表中,氙位於最後一組

  • almost at the bottom.

    幾乎在底部。

  • Like its buddy Neon, the heavier Xenon is also part of the noble gas branch.

    與其好友霓虹燈一樣,較重的氙氣也是惰性氣體分支的一部分。

  • The chemical activity of which is very low, due to the lack of free electrons in the outer electron layer.

    由於外電子層中缺少自由電子,其化學活性非常低。

  • To provide a simpler example, as a noble gas can be compared the lazy well-fed cat,

    提供一個更簡單的例子,作為一種惰性氣體可以比較懶惰的餵養良好的貓,

  • who doesn't want to take anything, but also has nothing to give.

    誰不想拿任何東西,也沒什麼可給的。

  • Nevertheless, externally Xenon looks like colourless, odorless gas.

    儘管如此,外部氙氣 看起來像無色無味的氣體。

  • To demonstrate the properties of which, i bought a vial of xenon

    為了證明其中的屬性,我買了一小瓶氙氣

  • wherein the gas is stored at reduced pressure, so that it is easier to conduct demonstrations with it.

    其中氣體在減壓下儲存,因此更容易用它進行演示。

  • Like the other noble gases, while passing a high voltage through xenon,

    像其他惰性氣體一樣,在通過氙氣的高壓時,

  • it glows with a beautiful blue color.

    它發出美麗的藍色。

  • For the glow, you need to create low pressure in the ampule

    對於發光,您需要在安瓿中產生低壓

  • that is approximately 100 times less than atmospheric and also to pass through the vial

    這比大氣壓低約100倍,也可以通過小瓶

  • at high frequency voltage of about 3000V.

    在約3000V的高頻電壓下。

  • This high voltage can be given by the generator of a plasma lamp,

    這種高電壓可以由等離子燈的發生器給出,

  • from the effect of which a glow discharge occurs in xenon.

    從氙氣中發生輝光放電的效果來看。

  • In other words, the gas starts to glow beautifully.

    換句話說,氣體開始發光。

  • The current here is insignificant. So my hand can easily play the role of a conductor here

    目前的情況微不足道。所以我的手很容易在這裡扮演指揮者的角色

  • due to the human body having capacity like in an electrical capacitor.

    由於人體具有像電容器那樣的容量。

  • If the vial of xenon is put in liquid nitrogen,

    如果將氙瓶放入液氮中,

  • The gas inside will freeze,

    裡面的氣體會凍結,

  • because the melting point of xenon is about -111

    因為氙的熔點約為-111

  • degrees celsius. When you get the vial out of liquid

    攝氏度。當你從液體中取出小瓶時

  • nitrogen, you can then observe the solid

    氮氣,然後你可以觀察固體

  • xenon, which quickly melts and immediately

    氙氣,立即迅速融化

  • evaporates, due to the very small difference

    由於差異很小,因此會蒸發

  • between the boiling and melting points of this gas.

    在這種氣體的沸點和熔點之間。

  • [music]

    [音樂]

  • When chilled with the liquid nitrogen,

    當用液氮冷卻時,

  • The vial of xenon lights differently, than when it's at

    氙氣燈的點亮時間不同於它的時間

  • room temperature. It's clearly seen

    室內溫度。它清楚地看到了

  • that the gas is ignited already even at the

    即使在氣體處,氣體也已被點燃

  • small distance from the wire

    距離電線很小

  • as the first illumination is close in colour to yellow.

    因為第一個照明顏色接近黃色。

  • After the gradual warm up of the vial,

    小瓶逐漸熱身後,

  • and increase of the pressure, the colour of the plasma

    並增加壓力,等離子體的顏色

  • becomes more blueish. However

    變得更藍。然而

  • this is just us fooling around. In real

    這只是我們鬼混。現實

  • life, xenon is used in much brighter lamps at which the gas is pressured at about 30 atmospheres.

    壽命,氙氣用於更亮的燈具,在這些燈具中,氣體在約30個大氣壓下受壓。

  • These lamps are just incredibly bright

    這些燈只是非常明亮

  • and are mostly used in cinema projectors. In recent times,

    並且主要用於電影放映機。近來,

  • these lamps are frequently replaced with LEDs,

    這些燈經常被LED取代,

  • due to the low efficency and complexity of maintenance, besides the first heats up very strongly.

    由於低效率和維護的複雜性,除了第一次加熱非常強烈。

  • Also, in recent years, xenon lamps were put into automobiles increasingly more often,

    此外,近年來,氙氣燈越來越頻繁地投入汽車,

  • though internally they are made a little bit differently.

    雖然在內部他們有點不同。

  • Xenon here is used only in order to ignite the arc plasma,

    這裡的氙氣僅用於點燃電弧等離子體,

  • after which the lamp heats up and inside of it

    之後燈會加熱並在燈內部加熱

  • sodium and scandium salts evaporate,

    鈉和鈧鹽蒸發,

  • those salts is what supports the further glow in this case.

    在這種情況下,那些鹽是支持進一步發光的東西。

  • Xenon bulbs are much brighter than incandescent bulbs,

    氙氣燈泡比白熾燈泡亮得多,

  • which often causes frustration for motorists due to it blinding them at night,

    由於晚上使它們眩目,這通常會讓駕駛者感到沮喪,

  • being too bright.

    太亮了。

  • Additionally, all the digital cameras now use a xenon flash,

    此外,所有數碼相機現在都使用氙氣閃光燈,

  • because of the extremely bright glow of this gas at a high voltage discharge.

    因為這種氣體在高壓放電時發出極其明亮的光。

  • Unfortunately, xenon does not like to engage in chemical reactions,

    不幸的是,氙氣不喜歡從事化學反應,

  • so I can't show you experiments with it.

    所以我無法向你展示實驗。

  • I can say though that this gas reacts with fluorine

    我可以說這種氣體與氟反應

  • and later on from the fluorides of xenon you can obtain its oxide and other compounds.

    然後從氙的氟化物中獲得其氧化物和其他化合物。

  • However, of all the noble gases, xenon is the most reactive due to the large atomic radius.

    然而,在所有惰性氣體中,由於原子半徑大,氙是最具反應性的。

  • Forgot to mention that the abundance of xenon in the earth's atmosphere is about 87 parts per billion,

    忘了提到地球大氣層中氙的含量大約是十億分之87,

  • the theory says that this small amount is due to the fact that part of the xenon is stored in quartz rocks coupled with oxygen.

    該理論認為,這一小部分是由於氙的一部分存儲在與氧氣結合的石英岩中。

  • Though on Jupiter there's a lot more xenon than here.

    雖然在木星上有比這裡更多的氙氣。

  • Being on xenon bulbs, this element is now used for general anesthesia

    在氙氣燈泡上,這個元素是 現在用於全身麻醉

  • as it blocks the NMDA receptor, responsible for the regulation of synopses

    因為它阻斷NMDA受體,負責調節大綱

  • that is the transmission of nerve impulses from the brain cell to another.

    這是神經衝動從腦細胞傳遞到另一個細胞。

  • Also, the inhalation of this gas during exercise

    此外,在運動期間吸入這種氣體

  • promotes better muscle grow and more effective training.

    促進更好的肌肉生長和更有效的訓練。

  • From that, xenon has been added to the least of doping substances.

    從那以後,氙氣被添加到最少的興奮劑中。

  • Another interesting application of xenon is in the space ion engines

    氙的另一個有趣的應用是在空間離子發動機中

  • along with cesium because of the large atomic radius.

    由於原子半徑大,所以還有銫。

  • Xenon can be ionised easily and quickly evaporated,

    氙氣可以很容易地電離并快速蒸發,

  • thus maintaining stable operation of the ion engine.

    從而保持離子發動機的穩定運行。

  • Such engines were placed on the space craft ''Deep Space''

    這種發動機被放置在航天器“深空”上

  • that was launched to conduct asteroid research,

    那是為了進行小行星研究而發起的,

  • as well as the ''Smart 1'' satellite.

    以及“智能1”衛星。

  • In the end, we can say that xenon is fairly rare, but also a very useful gas.

    最後,我們可以說氙氣是相當罕見的,但也是一種非常有用的氣體。

  • Now you have learned a little bit of the other elements.

    現在你已經學到了一些其他元素。

  • If you would like to support the continous production

    如果您想支持連續生產

  • of science videos like this one, please support the channel on Patreon

    像這樣的科學視頻,請支持Patreon的頻道

  • Link in the video description.

    鏈接視頻說明。

  • Please like and subscribe to my channel to see many more of new and interesting.

    請喜歡和訂閱我的頻道,看看更多新的和有趣的。

Hello everyone, today I want to tell you about a rare noble gas: xenon

大家好,今天我想告訴你一種稀有的惰性氣體:氙氣

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    李冠緯 發佈於 2020 年 09 月 02 日
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