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  • As we gaze up into the vastness of outer space, we are reminded of just how small we are in

    當我們仰望浩瀚的外太空時,我們被提醒,我們是多麼的渺小。

  • the grand scheme of the universe.

    宇宙的大計。

  • We've only explored just a small fraction of the universe, and even physicists know

    我們只探索了宇宙中的一小部分,甚至物理學家也只知道

  • that there's more that we don't understand about outer space than what we've figured

    我們對外太空的瞭解比我們所想的要多得多

  • out.

    出。

  • A new paper that was published in the Journal of High-Energy Physics in March twenty-twenty,

    一篇新的論文,發表在《高能物理學雜誌》三月二十日。

  • calledNothing Really Matters” - great title - is why scientists are freaking out

    稱為 "沒有什麼真正重要的"--偉大的標題--這就是為什麼科學家們都嚇壞了。

  • overbubbles of nothingthat eat spacetime.

    在 "虛無的保麗龍 "吞噬時空。

  • Marjorie Schillo is one of the authors of this amazing new study.

    Marjorie Schillo是這項驚人新研究的作者之一。

  • She is a researcher at Sweden's Uppsala University in their Department of Physics

    她是瑞典烏普薩拉大學物理系的研究員。

  • and Astronomy where she studies theoretical physics.

    和天文學,她在那裡學習理論物理學。

  • Physics is the study of matter, energy and the interactions between them, but it's

    物理學是研究物質、能量和它們之間的相互作用的,但它是

  • a much more exciting science than that description makes it sound.

    一個更令人興奮的科學 比描述使它聽起來。

  • Physicists try to answer big questions likeHow did the universe begin?” orWhat

    物理學家試圖回答諸如 "宇宙是如何開始的?"或 "什麼?

  • are the basic building blocks of the universe”, or evenHow will the universe end?”

    是宇宙的基本構件",甚至 "宇宙將如何結束?"

  • Theoretical physics and math may not sound very cool, but some of the biggest rock stars

    理論物理和數學可能聽起來並不酷,但一些最偉大的搖滾明星。

  • of science have come out of this field.

    科學的領域已經出現了。

  • Isaac Newton invented calculus and discovered gravitation; Albert Einstein came up with

    牛頓發明了微積分,發現了引力;愛因斯坦提出了。

  • the Theory of Relativity, among many other important discoveries, and Stephen Hawking

    相對論等多項重要發現,以及霍金

  • was one of the most recognizable scientists of all time.

    是有史以來最知名的科學家之一。

  • Many physicists use experiments to test their theories, but theoretical physics is different

    許多物理學家用實驗來檢驗他們的理論,但理論物理學是不同的

  • in that they use math to attempt to answer these big questions in areas where scientists

    因為他們用數學來嘗試回答這些大問題,而這些問題的領域是科學家們

  • can't yet perform experiments.

    還不能進行實驗。

  • Marjorie Schillo and her colleagues have spent years studying the phenomenon ofspacetime

    Marjorie Schillo和她的同事們花了多年時間研究 "時空 "現象。

  • decay”, trying to answer the big questions about how the universe might end.

    衰變",試圖回答關於宇宙可能如何結束的大問題。

  • This newest paper explores one possible answer - a bubble of nothing that eats spacetime.

    這篇最新的論文探討了一個可能的答案--一個無中生有的氣泡,吃掉了時空。

  • As she explains it: “A bubble of nothing describes a possible channel for universe

    正如她所解釋的那樣:"一個虛無的保麗龍描述了一個可能的宇宙通道

  • destruction; in that the bubble of nothing expands and can 'eat' all of spacetime,

    毀滅;在無的保麗龍膨脹,可以'吃掉'所有的時空。

  • converting it into 'nothing'.”

    將其轉化為'無'"。

  • Umm...OK.

    呃......好吧。

  • Translated fromscienceto plain English, what she and her team of researchers at the

    從 "科學 "翻譯成通俗易懂的英語,她和她的研究團隊在的。

  • University of Uppsala in Sweden are saying is that a bubble of nothing that eats spacetime

    瑞典烏普薩拉大學說的是,一個無物的氣泡,吃時空。

  • is just one of the theoretically possible ways that our universe could be destroyed.

    只是理論上宇宙可能被毀滅的方式之一。

  • To be honest, that doesn't sound much better...

    說實話,這聽起來並沒有好多少... ...

  • There's plenty of things in the universe worth freaking out about - black holes, supernovas,

    宇宙中有很多值得驚嚇的東西--黑洞、超新星。

  • even rogue asteroids.

    甚至流氓小行星。

  • But could a bubble of nothingness really eat all of space and time, devouring the universe

    但是,虛無的保麗龍真的會吞噬所有的空間和時間,吞噬宇宙嗎?

  • and ending life as we know it?

    並結束我們所知道的生命?

  • Is the universe really eating itself from the inside out?

    宇宙真的是由內而外地吞噬自己嗎?

  • The idea of a “bubble of nothingnessin space isn't a new one.

    太空中的 "虛無之泡 "並不是一個新的想法。

  • In nineteen-eighty-two, theoretical physicist Edward Witten first posited that the universe

    一九八二年,理論物理學家愛德華-威騰首次提出宇宙

  • could be devouring itself when he wrote about a hole thatspontaneously forms in space

    當他寫到一個 "在空間中自發形成的洞 "時,可能會吞噬自己。

  • and rapidly expands to infinity, pushing to infinity anything it may meet.”

    並迅速擴展到無限大,將任何可能遇到的東西推向無限大。"

  • To understand these bubbles of nothing, we need to wrap our heads around vacuums.

    要了解這些無中生有的保麗龍,我們需要繞開真空。

  • No, not that kind of vacuumIn physics, a vacuum is an empty space devoid of all matter.

    不,不是那種真空......在物理學中,真空是指沒有任何物質的空洞空間。

  • In Quantum Field Theory, the theory that connects quantum physics with spacetime, a vacuum is

    在量子場論中,連接量子物理學與時空的理論中,真空是指

  • the lowest possible energy state.

    儘可能低的能量狀態。

  • More 'excited' or higher-energy quantum states tend to decay very quickly into lower

    更多的 "激發 "或更高能量的量子態往往會很快衰變為更低的量子態。

  • energy states as they give off energy.

    能量狀態,因為它們發出的能量。

  • Since a vacuum doesn't have a lower energy state to decay to, vacuums are relatively

    由於真空沒有較低的能量狀態來衰變,所以真空相對來說是比較

  • stable.

    穩定。

  • It's commonly accepted that outer space is a vacuum, so the universe should be pretty

    人們普遍認為,外太空是真空的,所以宇宙應該是相當的

  • stable, right?

    穩定,對吧?

  • Well, it's not quite that simple.

    嗯,這不是很簡單。

  • Outer space certainly isn't devoid of matter - it's full of stars, planets, particles

    外太空當然不是沒有物質的,它充滿了恆星、行星、粒子。

  • and, umm ... people!

    還有,嗯......人!

  • It's the extremely low density of the matter that's important - between the planets in

    重要的是極低的物質密度--------------------------------------------------------------------在行星之間

  • our solar system there is an average of five atoms per cubic centimeter.

    我們的太陽系平均每立方厘米有五個原子。

  • In interstellar space - between the stars and molecular clouds - there is only one atom

    在星際空間--恆星和分子云之間--只有一個原子。

  • per cubic centimeter, and in intergalactic space - between galaxies - there's one-hundred

    而在星系間的空間--星系之間--有一百個

  • times less matter per cubic centimeter than in interstellar space.

    每立方厘米的物質比星際空間中的物質少幾倍。

  • This extremely low density of matter, combined with the incredibly low pressure in space,

    這種極低的物質密度,加上空間中不可思議的低壓。

  • creates an almost perfect vacuum ... but not quite.

    創造了一個幾乎完美的真空......但並不完全。

  • Quantum theory actually suggests that a perfect vacuum is impossible, since energy fluctuations,

    量子理論實際上表明,完美的真空是不可能的,因為能量波動。

  • known as 'virtual particles' happen even in empty space.

    被稱為'虛擬粒子',即使在空曠的空間也會發生。

  • In the nineteen-seventies, some Russian physicists were the first to suggest that there could

    在十九世紀七十年代,一些俄羅斯物理學家率先提出,可能有

  • be a middle ground between a stable vacuum and an unstable non-vacuum.

    是穩定的真空和不穩定的非真空之間的中間地帶。

  • These 'false vacuums' stay in a metastable, or semi-stable, state for an incredibly long

    這些 "假真空 "保持在一個可轉移的,或半穩定的狀態,令人難以置信的長。

  • time before decaying, giving them the illusion of being a stable vacuum when in fact they

    時間後才腐爛,給人一種穩定的真空的錯覺,但實際上它們

  • are not.

    不是。

  • The quantum force field that pervades the universe and gives all matter its mass is

    宇宙中瀰漫著的、賦予所有物質以品質的量子力場是:。

  • called the Higgs Field, and it was first detected by the Large Hadron Collider at CERN.

    稱為希格斯場,它是由歐洲核子研究中心的大型強子對撞機首次探測到的。

  • It would take a whole other video to even begin to explain the Higgs field, but as far

    這將需要一個完整的其他視頻 甚至開始解釋希格斯場,但就

  • as understanding bubbles of nothing is concerned, here's why it matters: Recent research into

    至於對無物之物保麗龍的理解,這裡的原因很重要。最近的研究

  • the Higgs Field suggests that we may actually be living in a false vacuum after all.

    希格斯場表明,我們可能實際上是生活在一個虛假的真空畢竟。

  • If that's true, our university is not the safe and stable place we once thought - it's

    如果真是這樣,我們的大學就不是我們曾經想象的安全穩定的地方了--它是

  • actually unstable, and this is where the bubbles of nothing have their opportunity.

    其實是不穩定的,這也是一無所有的保麗龍的機會所在。

  • A bubble of nothing is one of the ways that a false vacuum could theoretically decay to

    虛無的氣泡是假真空理論上可以衰變到的方式之一。

  • a more stable energy state.

    較穩定的能量狀態。

  • If a bubble of nothing were to form within the apparently false vacuum that is our universe,

    如果在我們的宇宙這個明顯虛假的真空中,形成了一個虛無縹緲的氣泡。

  • it would start out as a small hole in the fabric of our reality.

    它將開始作為一個小洞 在我們的現實結構。

  • The tiny space of emptiness would then quickly begin to expand outward, picking up speed

    虛空中的小空間就會迅速開始向外擴張,加快了速度

  • as it expands until it's growing at the speed of light.

    隨著它的膨脹,直到它以光速增長。

  • As it grows, the bubble of nothing would eat all of the matter it encounters, gobbling

    隨著它的成長,虛無的保麗龍會吃掉它所遇到的所有物質,吞吃

  • up everything in its path and converting all matter into nothingness until the universe

    將所有的物質化為虛無,直至宇宙

  • is erased completely.

    被完全抹去。

  • So what are these 'bubbles of nothing' exactly?

    那麼,這些'虛無縹緲的保麗龍'到底是什麼呢?

  • As you can imagine, describing 'nothing' is not exactly easy.

    你可以想象,描述 "無 "並不完全是件容易的事。

  • It's tempting to compare a bubble of nothing to another phenomenon of 'nothingness'

    很想把虛無的保麗龍與另一種 "虛無 "的現象相提並論。

  • that we know exists in our universe - black holes - but a bubble of nothing couldn't

    我們知道宇宙中存在著黑洞,但一個什麼都沒有的氣泡不可能存在。

  • be more different from a black hole.

    與黑洞的區別更大。

  • A black hole is an area of such intense gravity that it sucks anything, including light, into

    黑洞是一個具有強烈引力的區域,它將包括光在內的任何東西都吸進了黑洞。

  • its center.

    其中心。

  • A bubble of nothing, on the other hand, expands outward and devours everything in its path,

    而一個虛無縹緲的泡泡,則會向外擴張,吞噬所經之處的一切。

  • turning anything it encounters into more nothing.

    把它遇到的任何東西都變成了更多的虛無。

  • If you threw something into a black hole, it would disappear forever, and we would have

    如果你把某樣東西扔進黑洞裡,它就會永遠消失,而我們就會有

  • no idea what happened to it once it passed through the black hole, since we've never

    不知道它穿過黑洞後發生了什麼,因為我們從來沒有見過這種情況

  • seen the inside of one.

    見過裡面的一個。

  • But if you could throw an object into a bubble of nothing, it would bounce right back out

    但如果你能把一個物體扔進一個無物的泡泡裡,它就會馬上彈回來

  • - for all intents and purposes, it would have hit the edge of the universe.

    - 對於所有的意圖和目的, 它將有打 宇宙的邊緣。

  • A bubble of nothing is not the only kind of bubble that might exist in space.

    虛無縹緲的保麗龍並不是空間中可能存在的唯一一種保麗龍。

  • A spacetime bubble is any area of space that has different properties inside the bubble

    時空泡是指泡內具有不同性質的任何空間區域。

  • than the space outside the bubble.

    比氣泡外的空間。

  • For example, some bubbles could have different strengths of dark energy inside and out.

    比如,有些氣泡內外的暗能量強度可能不同。

  • Bubbles of nothing have no interior at all - they are totally empty inside.

    虛無縹緲的氣泡根本沒有內部--它們的內部完全是空的。

  • As the bubble grows, it 'eats' all the regular matter it encounters and converts

    隨著氣泡的增長,它 "吃掉 "所有它遇到的常規物質,並將其轉化為......。

  • it to 'nothing'.

    變成 "無"。

  • So how could a bubble of nothing form in the first place?

    那麼,一開始怎麼會形成一無所有的保麗龍呢?

  • To understand how bubbles of nothing might form, we have to dive into string theory a

    要了解無物的氣泡是如何形成的 我們必須深入研究弦理論

  • bit.

    位。

  • Don't worry, it won't be that bad

    別擔心,沒那麼糟... ...

  • String theory attempts to tie together the two most basic laws of physics: the theory

    弦理論試圖將兩個最基本的物理學定律聯繫在一起:論

  • of general relativity, or gravity - with quantum physics, the study of the very smallest particles

    廣義相對論,或引力 - 與量子物理學,研究最微小的粒子。

  • that make up the universe.

    組成宇宙的。

  • String theory also attempts to unify the four forces in the universe - electromagnetic force,

    弦理論還試圖統一宇宙中的四種力量--電磁力。

  • strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force and gravity - into one model.

    強核力、弱核力和重力--融為一體的模型。

  • String theory may indeed turn out to be thetheory of everything”, but it's important

    弦理論也許真的會變成 "萬物之理",但重要的是

  • to know that String Theory relies on a lot of assumptions about particles and forces

    要知道,弦理論依賴於很多關於粒子和力的假設。

  • that can't yet be proven.

    還不能證明

  • Don't worry, scientists aren't just blindly guessing - these assumptions are all based

    別擔心,科學家並不是盲目猜測,這些假設都是根據

  • on solid scientific evidence and complex mathematical equations - needless to say, you'd need

    在堅實的科學證據和複雜的數學公式的基礎上--不用說,你需要的是

  • a PhD in physics to truly understand the intricacies of String Theory.

    物理學博士才能真正理解弦理論的複雜性。

  • The biggest problem with string theory is that it requires more than the four observable

    弦理論最大的問題是,它需要比四個可觀察的

  • dimensions to work.

    維度來工作。

  • We can easily observe the three dimensions of space and the extra dimension of time,

    我們可以很容易地觀察到空間的三維和時間的額外維度。

  • but for string theory to work there must be at least a few other dimensions that are invisible

    但弦理論要發揮作用,至少要有其他一些看不見的維度。

  • to us.

    對我們來說。

  • As cool as the idea of hidden dimensions sounds, it's not the parallel universe you might

    雖然隱藏維度的想法聽起來很酷,但它不是你可能的平行宇宙。

  • be picturing - you know, the one where you're you, but with money and power and good looks

    你知道,在那裡你是你,但與金錢和權力和良好的外觀。

  • and….*coughs* anyway

    而且......*咳嗽*反正... ...

  • Physicists theorize that these extra dimensions could actually be incredibly tiny and curled

    物理學家推測,這些額外的維度其實可能非常微小,而且是捲曲的。

  • up below the observable scale, making them too small for us to see them.

    上升到可觀測尺度以下,使它們太小,我們無法看到它們。

  • Scientists can still account for these extra dimensions mathematically, but we have yet

    科學家們仍然可以用數學方法解釋這些額外的維度,但我們還沒有

  • to actually prove they exist.

    來實際證明它們的存在。

  • For some reason, bubbles of nothing can't form in four dimensional spacetime - don't

    由於某些原因,四維時空中無法形成無物的氣泡--不要。

  • ask us to explain the math behind why, it would take years!

    要我們解釋其中的原因,那得花上好幾年的時間!

  • But scientists believe that they can form in stringy multidimensional spacetime like

    但科學家們認為,它們可以在弦狀的多元時空中形成像

  • the spacetime described by string theory.

    弦理論所描述的時空。

  • In fact, one model of stringy space time, the Kaluza-Klein model, states that across

    事實上,有一種弦空間時間模型,即Kaluza-Klein模型,指出跨

  • infinite space the probability of a bubble of nothing destroying everything is one-hundred

    虛無縹緲的空間 虛無縹緲的保麗龍摧毀一切的概率是一百倍

  • percent.

    %。

  • So, should we be concerned about bubbles of nothing appearing in space and devouring the

    那麼,我們是否應該擔心太空中出現的虛無的氣泡,吞噬了。

  • entire universe?

    整個宇宙?

  • Apparently not.

    顯然不是。

  • Most scientists believe that since the universe hasn't eaten itself in the thirteen billion

    大多數科學家認為,由於宇宙在這13億年裡沒有吃掉自己

  • years since the Big Bang, it's an unlikely scenario.

    自大爆炸以來的幾年,這是一個不太可能的情況。

  • One Czech string theorist named Lubos Motl went so far as to say that we should use the

    一位名叫Lubos Motl的捷克弦理論家甚至說,我們應該用 "弦 "這個詞。

  • idea of bubbles of nothing to rule out certain descriptions of our universe, since if it

    虛無保麗龍的想法,排除了對我們宇宙的某些描述,因為如果它

  • was going to happen it would have happened by now.

    如果要發生的話,現在就已經發生了。

  • That doesn't totally negate the possibility, but it's also reassuring to know that scientists

    這並不能完全否定這種可能性,但也讓人放心的是,科學家們

  • consider this to be something to rectify, not something to agonize over.

    認為這是要糾正的,而不是要苦惱的。

  • We're not sure exactly how scientists would suggest that we fix a bubble of nothing, but

    我們不知道科學家們到底是如何建議我們修復一個什麼都沒有的保麗龍的,但是。

  • it's nice to know that they at least think we can...right?

    很高興知道他們至少認為我們可以......對吧?

  • Perhaps most importantly, physicists think that studying these bubbles of nothingness

    也許最重要的是,物理學家認為,研究這些虛無的保麗龍

  • can give us important clues about the very beginnings of our universe.

    可以給我們提供關於宇宙起源的重要線索。

  • The study authors think that the mathematical models used to describe a bubble of nothing

    研究作者認為,用數學模型來描述一個什麼都沒有的保麗龍。

  • could also be used to model the birth and expansion of the universe.

    也可以用來模擬宇宙的誕生和膨脹。

  • Marjorie Schillo, the researcher we met at the beginning of this video, has saidIt

    Marjorie Schillo,我們在這段視頻開始時遇到的研究者,曾說過 "它是

  • would be interesting to work out under what conditions an observer could 'ride' on

    有意思的是,在什麼情況下,觀察者可以 "騎 "上。

  • the bubble of nothing and see a universe that is similar to the one we live in.

    虛無的保麗龍,看到的是一個和我們生活的宇宙相似的宇宙。

  • Because the bubble expands, such an observer would see an expanding universe.”

    因為氣泡會膨脹,這樣的觀察者會看到一個膨脹的宇宙。"

  • Riding on a bubble of nothing may be a bit far-fetched, but this research is important

    乘著一無所有的保麗龍,可能有點牽強,但這項研究很重要。

  • for helping us understand our universe, according to the researchers who authored theNothing

    根據撰寫《一無所有》一書的研究人員的說法,為了幫助我們瞭解宇宙。

  • Really Matterspaper.

    真的很重要 "文件。

  • They argue that we can learn important lessons from these bubbles of nothing that might help

    他們認為,我們可以從這些虛無縹緲的保麗龍中吸取重要的教訓,這或許有助於

  • us better connect the current best theories about fundamental building blocks of the universe

    我們更好地將目前關於宇宙基本構件的最佳理論聯繫起來。

  • with theories about space and time, and hopefully, finally, help us finalize String Theory - the

    與空間和時間的理論,並希望最終能幫助我們最終確定弦理論--------。

  • theory of everything.

    萬物理論。

  • So, what are your thoughts on the bubble of nothing that eats spacetime?

    那麼,對於無物之泡吞噬時空,你有什麼看法?

  • Do you think we should be worried about the universe eating itself from the inside out?

    你覺得我們應該擔心宇宙會從內部吃掉自己嗎?

  • Be sure and let us know in the comments!

    請務必在評論中告訴我們!

  • If you thought this video was interesting, be sure and check out our other videos, like

    如果你覺得這段視頻很有趣,請務必查看我們的其他視頻,如

  • Astronomers Discover Mysterious Radio Signal From Another Galaxy”, or this other one

    "天文學家發現來自另一個星系的神祕射電信號",或者是另外這個

  • instead.

    而不是。

  • See you next time!

    下次見!

As we gaze up into the vastness of outer space, we are reminded of just how small we are in

當我們仰望浩瀚的外太空時,我們被提醒,我們是多麼的渺小。

字幕與單字
自動翻譯

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 宇宙 保麗龍 真空 虛無 理論 氣泡

科學家們為 "無物氣泡 "吃掉時空而大驚失色。

  • 7 1
    Summer 發佈於 2020 年 08 月 10 日
影片單字