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  • Sweat stung Marie's eyes.

    汗水刺痛了瑪麗的眼睛。

  • Her drab gray dress clung to her damp and itchy skin.

    她那件灰暗的衣服緊緊貼在她潮溼發癢的皮膚上。

  • No matter the time of year, the laundry room was always humid.

    不管什麼時候,洗衣房總是很潮溼。

  • It was Marie's job to feed the heavy damp sheets through large hot rollers to dry them.

    瑪麗的工作是把沉重的溼床單送進大熱的滾筒裡烘乾。

  • Many a time she had burned her hands.

    很多時候,她的手都被燙傷了。

  • The nuns walked back and forth supervising the long rows of women washing, mending and

    修女們來回走動,監督著一長排的婦女們洗衣服、補衣服和

  • ironing.

    熨燙。

  • Each nun carried a long, thick strap tied to their belt.

    每個修女都帶著一根又長又粗的帶子系在腰帶上。

  • If you worked too slow, you got the strap.

    如果你工作太慢,你就會被帶。

  • The room was quiet.

    房間裡很安靜。

  • In fact the only sounds were the clanking of machinery, rasp of scrub brushes and the

    事實上,唯一的聲音是機器的叮噹聲,刷子的摩擦聲和... ...

  • hiss of steam.

    嘶嘶的蒸汽聲。

  • Singing or chit chat was not allowed.

    不允許唱歌或閒聊。

  • The Magdelenes needed to work hard, contemplate their sins and be penitent in order for God

    馬格德萊尼人需要努力工作,思考自己的罪行,併為上帝懺悔。

  • to forgive them.

    寬恕他們。

  • A nun paused by a girl just down the row from Marie--the girl was new, Marie thought the

    一個修女在一個女孩身邊停了下來,就在離瑪麗一排的地方--這個女孩是新來的,瑪麗認為這個

  • girl's name was Grace, but wasn't sure.

    女孩的名字是Grace,但不確定。

  • The nun said something to Grace.

    尼姑對恩典說了些什麼。

  • Before Grace could answer, a strap whistled as it flew through the air, before landing

    格蕾絲還沒來得及回答,一條帶子就呼嘯著從空中飛過,然後落地。

  • with a loud crack on her arm.

    隨著她手臂上的一聲巨響。

  • Marie flinched, she knew well that pain.

    瑪麗退縮了,她很清楚那種痛苦。

  • The last time she had been whipped, her bruises had taken several days to fade.

    上一次被鞭打,她的傷痕花了好幾天才消退。

  • Grace cried out, and tried to back away down the aisle, but she was trapped; a second nun

    格蕾絲大喊一聲,想從過道上退下來,但她被困住了;第二個修女

  • approached her from the other direction.

    從另一個方向走近她。

  • One of the nuns began dragging Grace by her ear towards the door.

    其中一個修女開始拖著格蕾絲的耳朵往門口走。

  • She screamed for someone, anyone to help her.

    她大叫著要人,要人幫她。

  • But the other women kept their eyes on their work and pretended not to hear.

    但其他女人一直盯著自己的工作,裝作沒聽見。

  • They couldn't, wouldn't come to her aid lest they be punished too.

    他們不能,不會來幫助她,以免他們也受到懲罰。

  • In 1993, Sisters of Our Lady of Charity in Dublin, Ireland sold part of the land of High

    1993年,愛爾蘭都柏林的聖母慈善會修女會出售了High-Level的部分土地。

  • Park Convent to a developer for £1.5 million [about 2 million USD at the time].

    公園修道院以150萬英鎊[當時約200萬美元]的價格轉讓給了一家開發商。

  • However, there was an unusual provision to the sale.

    不過,這次銷售有一個不同尋常的規定。

  • The land contained a mass grave of 133 Magdalenes or women had been institutionalized in High

    這塊土地上有一個亂葬崗,有133名抹大拉人或婦女被送進了高等法院。

  • Park's Magdalene Laundry.

    公園的麥格達林洗衣店。

  • In fact, High Park had been the largest such laundry in Ireland.

    事實上,高園一直是愛爾蘭最大的此類洗衣店。

  • The plan was that the nuns and the developer split the costs of exhuming and cremating

    計劃是修女和開發商分擔挖掘和火化的費用。

  • the bodies.

    屍體。

  • Then the ashes would be reburied in another mass grave, in Glasnevin cemetery.

    然後,骨灰會被重新埋在另一個亂葬崗,在格拉斯文公墓。

  • But when the project got underway, the mass grave was found to have a dark secret.

    但當工程進行時,發現亂葬崗有一個不為人知的祕密。

  • The first Magdalene Asylum was opened in 1758 in London, England by a trio of philanthropist

    1758年,英國倫敦第一家瑪格達林瘋人院由三位慈善家開設。

  • businessmen.

    商人。

  • They wanted to create a place where prostitutes could be rehabilitated.

    他們想建立一個能讓妓女恢復正常生活的地方。

  • In addition to attending church and learning manners, the women did household chores and

    除了上教堂和學習禮儀外,婦女們還做家務,並做了很多事情。

  • various crafts to contribute to the institution.

    各種手藝,為該院做出貢獻。

  • Generally, the women earned a small sum of money for their craft work.

    一般來說,婦女們的手藝活能掙到一點錢。

  • The idea of Magdalene Asylums spread.

    馬格達林瘋人院的理念傳播開來。

  • Soon there were homes in several countries including the United States, Canada and Sweden.

    很快,美國、加拿大、瑞典等多個國家都有了家。

  • The asylums were run by several different religious organizations.

    精神病院由幾個不同的宗教組織管理。

  • Each group had different regulations governing its homes and experienced varying degrees

    每個群體都有不同的家規,經歷了不同程度的

  • in successfully rehabilitating the Magdelenes or penitents as they were now called.

    在成功地改造Magdelenes或現在所說的懺悔者方面。

  • Over time the asylums began to function as penitentiary work-houses where the women were

    隨著時間的推移,精神病院開始發揮感化工作場所的作用,婦女們在那裡接受治療。

  • required to labor.

    需要勞動。

  • That was especially true of Ireland, where after the Great Famine the Magdalene Asylums

    愛爾蘭的情況尤其如此,大饑荒之後,在那裡,馬格達林療養院。

  • started to evolve into forced labor laundries run by 4 female Catholic religious orders.

    開始演變為由4個天主教女教團經營的強迫勞動洗衣店。

  • By the late 1800s, innstead of just sex workers, Magdalene Laundries also came to house any

    到了19世紀末,除了性工作者之外,瑪格達林洗衣店也開始收容所有的人。

  • women considered outside the bounds of regular society.

    被認為不屬於正常社會的婦女;

  • That meant women who became pregnant outside of marriage, women who were seen as promiscuous

    這意味著婚外懷孕的婦女,被視為濫交的婦女。

  • or wayward, etc.

    或走樣等。

  • Not only did this open up a larger labor pool for the laundries, but promoted a Catholic

    這不僅為洗衣店開闢了更大的勞動力庫,而且促進了天主教徒的

  • viewpoint and removed undesirables from the wider populace.

    觀點,並將不良分子從廣大民眾中清除出去。

  • Following Irish independence in 1922, there were 10 Magdalene laundries throughout the

    1922年愛爾蘭獨立後,全國有10家馬格達林洗衣店。

  • country run by the 4 orders.

    由4個訂單管理的國家。

  • They operated with quiet support from the state and even received lucrative laundry

    他們在國家的支持下默默經營,甚至還獲得了豐厚的洗衣費收入

  • contracts from the army and other government departments.

    軍隊和其他政府部門的合同;

  • The judicial system even sentenced women to the laundries.

    司法系統甚至將婦女送進洗衣店。

  • It would make sense that some penitents of High Park ended up buried on the covnent grounds.

    高園的一些懺悔者最後被埋在了科文特的土地上,這是有道理的。

  • However, instead of the 133 bodies the nuns claimed were buried, there were 155 bodies

    然而,尼姑們聲稱被埋葬的133具屍體,而不是155具屍體

  • exhumed.

    挖出。

  • 22 women were unlisted.

    22名婦女未被列入名單。

  • Also, despite it being a criminal offence to fail to register a death which occurs on

    此外,儘管在下列情況下不登記死亡是刑事犯罪:

  • one's premises, only 75 death records were found.

    的處所,只找到75條死亡記錄。

  • Many records were missing names, the penitents were listed as Magdalene of St Cecilia, Magdalene

    許多記錄都沒有名字,懺悔者被列為聖塞西莉亞的抹大拉,抹大拉。

  • of Lourdes, etc.

    的盧爾德等。

  • The discovery of the extra bodies in the mass grave not to mention the shoddy records ripped

    亂葬崗發現了更多的屍體 更不用說那些被撕毀的劣質記錄了。

  • open a poorly healed wound in Irish society, creating a public scandal.

    揭開了愛爾蘭社會一個難以癒合的傷口,製造了一樁樁公共醜聞。

  • How could the Magdalenes have received proper care in these institutions, yet their burial

    抹大拉人怎麼可能在這些機構中得到適當的照顧,然而他們的葬禮

  • records didn't even state their names?

    記錄甚至沒有說明他們的名字?

  • Survivors began coming forward telling stories of what their lives were like in the laundries.

    倖存者們開始站出來講述他們在洗衣店的生活情況。

  • It wasn't pretty; many described harsh conditions, enslavement, starvation, severe psychological

    它並不漂亮;許多人描述了惡劣的條件,奴役,飢餓,嚴重的心理。

  • and physical abuse.

    和身體虐待。

  • The Magdalenes' reasons for ending up at the laundries were varied and in many cases

    抹大拉人到洗衣店的原因是多種多樣的,而且在很多情況下

  • arbitrary.

    任意的。

  • Unwedded mothers, promiscuous women, outspoken women, women deemed too pretty, orphans, women

    未婚母親、濫交婦女、直言不諱的婦女、被認為太漂亮的婦女、孤兒、婦女。

  • who had been sexually abused, women who had broken the law and on and on.

    受過性虐待的人,犯過法的婦女,等等。

  • All were neatly tucked away in laundries out of the view of regular society.

    所有的人都被整齊地藏在洗衣房裡,不被正常社會所關注。

  • Unwedded mothers were especially harshly treated.

    未婚母親受到特別嚴厲的對待。

  • In many cases the women were separated from their newborns.

    在許多情況下,婦女與新生兒分離。

  • Their babies were adopted out or sent to orphanages.

    他們的嬰兒被領養出去或送到孤兒院。

  • After a short stay in the infirmary, new mothers would quickly be sent back to work.

    在醫務室短暫停留後,新媽媽會很快被送回工作崗位。

  • One woman recalled being warned by other penitents to pad her chest, the nuns hated any evidence

    一名婦女回憶說,其他懺悔者警告她要墊胸,修女們討厭任何證據。

  • of unwed mothers and she would be singled out for punishment if she leaked milk--a common

    她是未婚媽媽,如果她漏奶,就會被挑出來受罰--這是一個常見的現象。

  • problem for new mothers.

    新媽媽的問題。

  • Some mothers were punished by the nuns for begging to see their babies one last time

    有的母親因為求見自己的孩子最後一面而被修女懲罰。

  • before the child was adopted.

    在孩子被收養之前;

  • In other cases the nuns ran orphanages, industrial schools and Magdalene laundries all on the

    在其他情況下,孤兒院、工業學校和Magdalene洗衣店都是由nuns經營的。

  • same plot of land.

    同一塊土地。

  • Though they lived but few buildings away, mothers were not allowed contact with their

    雖然他們住在幾棟樓外,但母親不被允許與他們的孩子接觸。

  • illegitimate children.

    非婚生子女;

  • Many survivors spoke of being held prisoner.

    許多幸存者談到了被囚禁的情況。

  • Some had their names changed or were assigned and called by a number when they entered the

    有的人在入伍時改了名字,或被分配了號碼並被稱為 "號碼"。

  • institution.

    機構。

  • Also the women were forced to cut their hair and give up personal mementos.

    此外,這些婦女還被迫剪掉頭髮,放棄個人紀念品。

  • Their clothing was replaced with coarse, drab dresses in dull colors such as gray or brown.

    他們的衣服被灰色或棕色等暗淡顏色的粗布衣服所取代。

  • Magdalenes were not permitted to make friends with their comrades; they were only there

    抹大拉人不允許和同志們交朋友,他們只是在那裡

  • to work.

    來工作。

  • Their correspondence with the outside world was limited and in some cases nuns hid or

    她們與外界的聯繫是有限的,在某些情況下,修女們會隱藏或改變自己的身份。

  • stole letters from family or sweethearts.

    偷了家人或夫妻的信。

  • The women were made to work 6 days a week, 52 weeks a year.

    這些婦女被迫每週工作6天,每年工作52周。

  • Schedules mentioned by the survivors varied, but generally they involved waking very early

    倖存者提到的時間安排各不相同,但一般都是很早起床。

  • in the morning, going to morning prayers, then a quick breakfast, working a 12 or 13

    早晨,去做晨禱,然後快速吃早餐,工作12或13個小時

  • shift before dinner and having an hour or so afterwards for more prayers or quiet contemplation

    晚飯前換班,飯後有一個小時左右的時間多做祈禱或靜靜地思考。

  • before lights out.

    熄燈前。

  • The dormitories had bars on the windows, and the women were locked in at night.

    宿舍的窗戶上有鐵欄杆,晚上婦女們被鎖在裡面。

  • When penitents were allowed outside, they were confined to the grounds of the laundries

    當允許懺悔者外出時,他們被限制在洗衣店的場地上。

  • by high bricked walls topped with glass or barbed wire.

    由高高的磚牆組成,上面有玻璃或鐵絲網。

  • When women did escape, if caught they were sent back to the institution.

    如果婦女真的逃跑了,如果被抓到,就會被送回機構。

  • Girls as young as 12 or 13 were sent to the laundries.

    12歲或13歲的女孩被送到洗衣店。

  • One girl was only 8 when she entered.

    有一個女孩進門時只有8歲。

  • Some Magdalenes ended up functionally illiterate because they were pulled out of school and

    一些抹大拉的婦女最終成為功能性文盲,因為她們被趕出了學校,而且...

  • sent to the laundries.

    送到洗衣店。

  • Even when women were of legal age, they were not allowed to leave.

    即使婦女到了法定年齡,也不允許她們離開。

  • Some Magdalenes were poorly fed, bread and water was a common diet.

    有些抹大拉人吃得很差,麵包和水是常見的飲食。

  • They were kept just shy of malnourishment while the nuns allegedly ate well.

    他們被養得只差營養不良,而修女們據說吃得很好。

  • The laundry work was hot, tedious and dangerous.

    洗衣服的工作很熱,很繁瑣,也很危險。

  • Many survivors described being burned by steam or hot irons.

    許多幸存者描述了被蒸汽或熱熨斗燒傷的情況。

  • The long hours spent standing or bent over sewing caused varicose veins and lifelong

    長時間的站立或彎腰縫紉,造成靜脈曲張,終生受益。

  • back problems in young women.

    年輕女性的背部問題;

  • All the while, nuns would watch the women work and hit them with straps if they were

    同時,修女們會看著婦女們工作,如果她們是

  • too slow or made mistakes.

    太慢或犯了錯誤。

  • After their laundry shift, a penitent might have had further chores contributing to the

    懺悔者在洗完衣服後,可能會有更多的家務事,對他們的生活造成影響。

  • upkeep of the institution.

    機構的維護。

  • Every moment of their waking hours, the penitents were governed by the nuns.

    懺悔者每時每刻都受到修女的管理。

  • Verbal abuse and beatings were common.

    辱罵和毆打是常見的。

  • Many Magdalenes also experienced religious, emotional or sexual abuse.

    許多抹大拉人還經歷過宗教、情感或性虐待。

  • Nuns shamed them for vanity, being wicked and their burgeoning bodies.

    尼姑羞辱他們虛榮、邪惡和他們暴發的身體。

  • Some penitents were made to bind their chest because they had large breasts.

    有的懺悔者因為胸大,被逼著束胸。

  • Some were made to feel useless, worthless and that the world didn't want them.

    有些人被逼得覺得自己一無是處,毫無價值,世界不需要他們。

  • Many nuns took delight in their positions of power, punishing every little infraction

    許多修女對自己的權力地位感到高興,懲罰每一個小的違規行為

  • including Magdalenes looking them in the eye and not showing proper authority.

    包括抹大拉人看他們的眼睛,沒有表現出應有的權威。

  • Most penitents ended up staying at a laundry for an average of 3 years.

    大多數懺悔者最後在洗衣店平均呆了3年。

  • Rules stated that a woman could only be released if someone, generally a family member, requested

    規則規定,只有在某人(一般是家庭成員)提出請求的情況下才能釋放婦女。

  • their release.

    他們的釋放。

  • When the women left, they were not given wages or were given an insultingly small amount

    當婦女離開時,她們沒有得到工資,或者得到的工資少得可憐。

  • of money for their years of hard labor.

    的錢,以換取他們多年的辛勤勞動。

  • Long after they had left the laundries, the memories heavily affected some Magdalenes.

    在他們離開洗衣店很久之後,這些記憶重重地影響了一些馬格達倫人。

  • Many women suffered nightmares or struggled with healthy sexual relationships when they

    許多女性在做噩夢或在健康的性關係中苦苦掙扎時

  • married because ideas of purity and sin were so ingrained.

    結婚是因為純潔和罪惡的觀念太過根深蒂固。

  • After the initial scandal over the mass grave of High Park, several Magdalene survivors

    在最初的高樸亂葬崗醜聞之後,幾位抹大拉的倖存者。

  • bravely provided their testimonies for documentaries and other media.

    勇敢地為紀錄片和其他媒體提供證詞。

  • This helped to alert the public about the abuses that had happened at the laundries.

    這有助於提醒公眾注意在洗衣店發生的虐待行為。

  • After several years of lobbying, in 2001 the Irish government acknowledged that the women

    經過幾年的遊說,2001年,愛爾蘭政府承認,婦女

  • enslaved in Magdalene laundries were victims of abuse.

    在馬格達林洗衣店受奴役的人是虐待的受害者。

  • Despite calls for a thorough investigation the Irish government refused, claiming that

    儘管有人要求進行徹底調查,但愛爾蘭政府拒絕了,聲稱:

  • the institutions were privately run and it would be outside the bounds of the state to

    這些機構都是私人經營的,國家不可能對其進行干預。

  • probe their history, completely ignoring the fact that the government repeatedly awarded

    探究他們的歷史,完全無視政府屢次授予

  • lucrative contracts to laundries with no oversight of how their operations were being run.

    將利潤豐厚的合同交給洗衣店,而不監督其經營情況。

  • Furthermore, it was an open secret that the state even used the laundries as a de facto

    此外,國家甚至將洗衣店作為一個事實上的 "祕密",這已經是一個公開的祕密。

  • jail or halfway home.

    監獄或半路回家。

  • In 2001, an advocacy group called Justice for Magdalenes presented its case to the United

    2001年,一個名為 "為馬格達林人伸張正義 "的宣傳團體向聯合國提交了其案件。

  • Nations Committee Against Torture.

    聯合國禁止酷刑委員會:

  • They claimed that the exploitation of women that took place at the Magdalene laundries

    他們聲稱,在馬格達林洗衣店發生的對婦女的剝削。

  • amounted to human-rights violations.

    構成侵犯人權。

  • At the urging of the UN panel, the Irish government finally created an inquiry into the laundries.

    在聯合國小組的敦促下,愛爾蘭政府終於成立了一個調查洗衣店的小組。

  • After an 18 month investigation, the government issued a report that found considerable state

    經過18個月的調查,政府發佈了一份報告,發現相當多的國家。

  • involvement in the admission of thousands of women into the laundries.

    參與將數千名婦女送入洗衣店;

  • The report also found that while the penitents suffered significant levels of verbal abuse,

    該報告還發現,雖然囚犯遭受了嚴重的辱罵。

  • there wasn't evidence of physical and sexual abuse.

    沒有身體和性虐待的證據。

  • Some survivors felt that the report swept some of the abusive treatment they endured

    一些倖存者認為,該報告將他們所遭受的一些虐待待遇一掃而空。

  • under the rug.

    在地毯下。

  • The nuns in the Catholic Church felt vindicated, sure maybe the institutions were overly strict,

    天主教會的修女們覺得平反了,當然也許是機構過於嚴格。

  • but they provided a service, taking in women who had nowhere else to go.

    但他們提供了一種服務,接納那些無處可去的婦女。

  • About 2 weeks after the government report was issued, the government bowed to pressure

    政府報告發布約2周後,政府屈服於壓力。

  • from the survivors and advocacy groups and the Irish prime minister issued a formal state

    倖存者和維權團體提供的資料,以及愛爾蘭總理髮表的正式聲明。

  • apology.

    歉。

  • The government also created a £50 million victim's compensation fund.

    政府還設立了一個5千萬英鎊的受害者賠償基金。

  • Most of the laundries closed in the early 1970's; Irish society was changing and new

    大多數洗衣店在1970年代初關閉;愛爾蘭社會正在發生變化,新的洗衣店也在不斷湧現。

  • advanced and cheap technology for laundering was making the institutions obsolete.

    先進而廉價的洗錢技術正在使這些機構過時。

  • The last Magdalene Laundry closed in 1996.

    最後一家Magdalene洗衣店於1996年關閉。

  • It was a small institution with only 40 women.

    這是一個只有40名婦女的小機構。

  • The women were mainly elderly or developmentally disabled and chose to stay with the nuns despite

    這些婦女主要是老年人或發育障礙者,儘管她們選擇與修女們在一起。

  • the closing of the laundry.

    洗衣店的關閉。

  • The horrors of the Magdalene Laundries will never be fully known.

    馬格達林洗衣店的恐怖永遠不會被完全瞭解。

  • Many of the victims passed away long before any inquiries began.

    許多受害者在任何調查開始之前就已經去世了。

  • It's estimated that some 11,000 women were confined to these institutions in the 20 century.

    據估計,在20世紀,約有11 000名婦女被關在這些機構中。

  • Today, various historical and media groups continue to collect the stories of survivors

    今天,各種歷史和媒體團體繼續收集倖存者的故事。

  • and delve into the history of the Magdalene Laundries.

    並深入瞭解馬格達林洗衣店的歷史。

  • The Catholic Church is adamant that it did nothing wrong and that the institutions were

    天主教會堅稱自己沒有做錯任何事,機構是

  • run as non profits.

    作為非營利性機構經營。

  • As a result, the church has refused to contribute to any victim's compensation fund.

    是以,該教會拒絕向任何受害者賠償基金捐款。

  • Also the religious orders have declined to provide records and archival information for

    此外,宗教團體也拒絕提供記錄和檔案資料。

  • investigators and historians.

    調查員和歷史學家。

  • Now that you've reached the end of our video, why not keep the watch party going?!

    既然你已經到了我們視頻的最後,為什麼不把看片會繼續下去呢?

  • Have you ever wondered if a totalitarian society like Gilead, in the Handmaiden's Tale could

    你有沒有想過,像《女僕的故事》中的吉利德那樣的極權社會,是否可以

  • happen in our modern world?

    在我們的現代世界裡發生了什麼?

  • Don't wait, click now!

    別等了,馬上點擊!

  • Also, just how much power does the Vatican have?

    另外,梵蒂岡的權力到底有多大?

  • Go here to find out:

    到這裡來了解一下。

Sweat stung Marie's eyes.

汗水刺痛了瑪麗的眼睛。

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B2 中高級 中文 洗衣店 婦女 修女 愛爾蘭 倖存 政府

馬格達林瘋人院的邪惡酷刑尼姑

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    Summer 發佈於 2020 年 08 月 06 日
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