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  • I have spent the last years

    我花了過去幾年時間

  • trying to resolve two enigmas:

    試著解決兩個謎題:

  • Why is productivity so disappointing

    為什麼所有跟我合作過的公司

  • in all the companies where I work?

    其生產力總是這麼令人失望?

  • I have worked with more than 500 companies.

    我與超過 500 家公司合作過,

  • Despite all the technological advances --

    不管那些先進科技—

  • computers, I.T., communications, telecommunications,

    電腦、資訊科技、傳播、電信

  • the Internet.

    及網路;

  • Enigma number two:

    謎題二:

  • Why is there so little engagement at work?

    為什麼員工沒有完全投入工作?

  • Why do people feel so miserable,

    為什麼大家覺得這麼痛苦,

  • even actively disengaged?

    甚至要積極地擺脫現狀?

  • Disengaging their colleagues.

    不願投入與同事合作,

  • Acting against the interest of their company.

    做出損害公司利益的事,

  • Despite all the affiliation events,

    儘管有那些員工聯誼活動,

  • the celebration, the people initiatives,

    慶祝活動、員工倡議、

  • the leadership development programs to train

    領導力發展課程

  • managers on how to better motivate their teams.

    來訓練經理人如何更有效

  • At the beginning, I thought there was

    一開始,我以為那是

  • a chicken and egg issue:

    先有雞還是先有蛋的問題:

  • Because people are less engaged, they are less productive.

    因為大家不投入,所以生產力也較差,

  • Or vice versa, because they are less productive,

    或反之,因為生產力較差,

  • we put more pressure and they are less engaged.

    就算我們施加更多壓力

  • But as we were doing our analysis

    但當我們進行分析時,

  • we realized that there was a common root cause

    就瞭解到有一個共同根源

  • to these two issues.

    造成這兩個問題,

  • That relates, in fact, to the basic pillars of management.

    而事實上與基本的管理支柱有關。

  • The way we organize is based on two pillars.

    我們組織的方式基於二個支柱,

  • The hard -- structure, processes, systems.

    硬性 — 結構、流程、系統,

  • The soft --

    軟性 —

  • feelings, sentiments, interpersonal

    感覺、情緒、人際關係、特質、個性,

  • And whenever a company

    無論何時一間公司

  • reorganizes, restructures, reengineers,

    改組、重組、重新設計,

  • goes through a cultural transformation program,

    經歷文化轉型計畫,

  • it chooses these two pillars.

    都要選擇這兩種支柱。

  • Now, we try to refine them,

    現在,我們試著改進它們,

  • we try to combine them.

    嘗試著結合它們,

  • The real issue is --

    真正的問題是 —

  • and this is the answer to the two enigmas --

    這也是兩個謎題的解答 —

  • these pillars are obsolete.

    這些支柱已經過時,

  • Everything you read in business books is based

    你在企業書上讀到的一切都是

  • either on one or the other

    建立在其中一個基礎上

  • or their combination.

    或兩者的組合體,

  • They are obsolete.

    它們已經過時了。

  • How do they work

    當你在企業的新複雜度前,

  • when you try to use these approaches

    試著使用這些方法,

  • in front of the new complexity of business?

    怎麼可能還有用啊?

  • The hard approach, basically

    強硬的方式基本上就是從策略、

  • requirements, structures, processes,

    條件、結構、流程

  • committees, headquarters, hubs, clusters,

    委員會、總部、中心、群組開始,

  • you name it.

    各式各樣你說得出的,

  • I forgot all the metrics, incentives, committees,

    我還忘了提那些度規、激勵措施、

  • What happens basically on the left,

    基本上在左邊的那些

  • you have more complexity, the

    複雜性更大,是企業的新複雜度,

  • We need quality, cost, reliability, speed.

    我們需要品質、成本、信度、速度,

  • And every time there is a new requirement,

    而每次有新的條件,

  • we use the same approach.

    我們就用同樣的措施,

  • We create dedicated structure processed systems,

    我們設立專門的結構流程系統,

  • basically to deal with the

    在根本上處理企業的新複雜度,

  • The hard approach creates just complicatedness

    強硬的方案只會產生

  • in the organization.

    組織的複雜度。

  • Let's take an example.

    讓我們舉個例,

  • An automotive company, the engineering division

    一家汽車製造公司的工程部門

  • is a five-dimensional matrix.

    使用一個五維矩陣,

  • If you open any cell of the matrix,

    如果你看看矩陣內任何一個小組,

  • you find another 20-dimensional matrix.

    就會發現另一個二十維的矩陣,

  • You have Mr. Noise, Mr. Petrol Consumption,

    噪音先生、油耗先生、

  • Mr. Anti-Collision Properties.

    防撞性能先生,

  • For any new requirement,

    如出現任何新的條件,

  • you have a dedicated function

    就有專門的功能小組

  • in charge of aligning engineers against

    負責指揮工程師

  • the new requirement.

    應付這項新條件。

  • What happens when the new

    當新的條件出現時會怎麼樣?

  • Some years ago, a new requirement

    幾年前,一項新條件

  • appeared on the marketplace:

    在市場出現,

  • the length of the warranty period.

    就是保固期限。

  • So therefore the new requirement is repairability,

    那麼這項新的條件就是可維修性,

  • making cars easy to repair.

    讓維修汽車變得容易,

  • Otherwise when you bring the car

    不然當你要修燈把車送到修車廠,

  • if you have to remove the engine

    如果你必須拆掉引擎

  • to access the lights,

    才能碰到燈,

  • the car will have to stay one week in the garage

    車輛必須留在修車廠一星期,

  • instead of two hours, and the

    而不是兩小時,那麼保固預算會爆掉,

  • So, what was the solution using the hard approach?

    使用強硬方式的解決方案是什麼?

  • If repairability is the new requirement,

    如果可維修性是新的條件,

  • the solution is to create a new function,

    解決方案即是建立一個新的函數

  • Mr. Repairability.

    可維修性先生,

  • And Mr. Repairability creates

    而可維修性先生建立

  • With a repairability scorecard,

    設計可維修性記分卡,可維修性度規,

  • and eventually repairability incentive.

    最終則是可維修性激勵方案,

  • That came on top of 25 other KPIs.

    這可在其他二十五項關鍵績效指標上,

  • What percentage of these people is variable compensation?

    這些人領取變動薪酬佔百分之幾?

  • Twenty percent at most, divided by 26 KPIs,

    最多百分之二十,

  • repairability makes a difference of 0.8 percent.

    可維修性可多拿 0.8%。

  • What difference did it make in their actions,

    他們會做些什麼行動

  • their choices to simplify? Zero.

    去選擇簡化流程?沒有。

  • But what occurs for zero impact?

    到底零影響會帶來什麼事?

  • scorecard, evaluation, coordination

    記分卡、評估

  • to have zero impact.

    帶來零影響。

  • Now, in front of the new complexity of business,

    現在,在企業的新複雜度前,

  • the only solution is not drawing boxes

    唯一的解決方案不是畫框框,

  • with reporting lines.

    並連上從屬關係線,

  • It is basically the interplay.

    它基本上是交互作用,

  • How the parts work together.

    不同的部門如何一起合作、

  • The connections, the interactions, the synapses.

    各式各樣的連接、交互作用、突觸,

  • It is not the skeleton of boxes,

    這不是程序框框,該是具適應性

  • of adaptiveness and intelligence.

    及智能的神經系統,

  • You know, you could call it cooperation, basically.

    你知道,基本上你可以稱之為合作。

  • Whenever people cooperate,

    無論何時只要大家合作,

  • they use less resources. In everything.

    就可減少使用資源,

  • You know, the repairability issue

    你知道,可維修性問題

  • is a cooperation problem.

    是一個關於合作的問題。

  • When you design cars, please take into account

    當你設計不同的汽車時,請考慮到

  • the needs of those who will repair the cars

    那些提供售後服務的修車人

  • in the after sales garages.

    在修車場裡的需要,

  • When we don't cooperate we need more time,

    當我們不合作時就需要更多時間、

  • more equipment, more systems, more teams.

    更多器材、更多系統、更多團隊,

  • We need -- When procurement, supply

    我們需要 — 當採購、

  • we need more stock, more inventories,

    我們就需要進更多貨、

  • Who will pay for that?

    誰要為這些買單?

  • Shareholders? Customers?

    股東?顧客?

  • No, they will refuse.

    不,他們會拒絕的。

  • So who is left?

    那麼誰留下來?由於缺乏合作,

  • who have to compensate through their super

    各個員工必須付出超級努力

  • individual efforts for the lack of cooperation.

    去補償損失,

  • Stress, burnout, they are

    壓力、燃燒殆盡、壓倒、意外,

  • No wonder they disengage.

    難怪他們不投入。

  • How do the hard and the soft

    各式軟硬的方法如何嘗試促進合作?

  • The hard: In banks, when there is a problem

    硬性:在銀行,當問題發生在

  • between the back office and the front office,

    前綫部門與後勤辦公室,

  • they don't cooperate. What is the solution?

    他們就是不合作。有什麼解決方法?

  • They create a middle office.

    他們設立一個中間部門,

  • What happens one year later?

    一年後結果如何?

  • Instead of one problem

    本來只有一個問題存在

  • now I have two problems.

    現在我有兩個問題

  • Between the back and the middle

    存在於後勤辦公室與中間部門之間

  • and between the middle and the front.

    及中間部門與前線部門之間,

  • Plus I have to pay for the middle office.

    此外我還要支付中間部門的開銷。

  • The hard approach is unable to foster cooperation.

    強硬的方式不能促進合作,

  • It can only add new boxes,

    它只能加上新的程序、

  • The soft approach:

    軟性措施:

  • To make people cooperate, we need

    我們需讓他們彼此喜愛對方

  • Improve interpersonal feelings,

    增進人與人之間的感情,

  • the more people like each other,

    彼此愈喜愛對方,合作就愈多。

  • It is totally wrong.

    這是大錯特錯的。

  • It is even counterproductive.

    這甚至會產生不良後果。

  • Look, at home I have two TVs. Why?

    看,我家有兩部電視。為什麼?

  • Precisely not to have to cooperate with my wife.

    就是因為不用跟我老婆合作,

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Not to have to impose tradeoffs to my wife.

    不用跟我老婆談交換條件,

  • And why I try not to impose tradeoffs to my wife

    我不跟老婆談交換條件的原因

  • is precisely because I love my wife.

    正是因為我愛老婆,

  • If I didn't love my wife, one TV would be enough:

    如果我不愛老婆,一架電視就夠了:

  • You will watch my favorite football game,

    你要跟著看我喜愛的足球賽,

  • if you are not happy, how is the book or the door?

    如果你不高興,

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • The more we like each other,

    我們愈是彼此相愛

  • the more we avoid the real cooperation

    就愈要避免真正的合作,

  • that would strain our relationships

    因為勉為其難的讓步

  • And we go for a second TV or we escalate

    於是我們買第二部電視

  • the decision above for arbitration.

    或者就結論得進行仲裁程序,

  • Definitely, these approaches are obsolete.

    這些方法無疑早已過時。

  • To deal with complexity, to enhance the nervous system,

    因應複雜度,要增強神經系統,

  • we have created what we call

    建立於一些簡單規則,

  • based on simple rules.

    簡單智慧型的措施。

  • Simple rule number one:

    簡單規則一:

  • Understand what others do.

    瞭解別人做什麼,

  • What is their real work?

    他們真正的工作是什麼?

  • We need to go beyond the boxes,

    我們需要超越程序框框、

  • the job descriptions, beyond the surface

    職務說明書、容器的表面,

  • of the container, to understand the real content.

    瞭解真正的內容。

  • Me, designer, if I put a wire here,

    我作為設計師,