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  • When I look at science education,

    譯者: Ning Zhang 審譯者: Anny Chung

  • I see a divide.

    當今的科學教育裡

  • I see a divide between

    有一條鴻溝

  • doing science

    這道鴻溝

  • and learning science.

    存在於做科學研究

  • And now if you're a kid in that system of education,

    與學習科學知識之間

  • and you want to do science,

    如果你是教育體制之內的一個孩子

  • you want to do authentic research,

    你想做科學研究

  • you may have to wait a long time for that

    你想做真正的科學研究

  • because the first moment

    你可能要為此等很長時間

  • in our system of science education

    因為在我們科學教育體制內

  • where we universally expect students to do science

    最初普遍期望學生去做科學研究

  • often doesn't come until graduate school.

    最初普遍期望學生去做科學研究

  • And this is what sets up the divide.

    要等到上了研究所才行

  • It sets up a divide between teachers and scientists,

    這就是鴻溝的來源

  • and it sets up a divide in general

    它在教師和科學家之間製造隔閡

  • between learning science and doing science.

    也在將學習科學知識 和做科學研究

  • But I think we can overcome this divide

    著實地分隔兩派

  • if teachers and scientists work together.

    但我相信如果教師和科學家一起合作

  • And I think teachers are uniquely positioned

    我們能克服這道鴻溝

  • to reach out to scientists

    我並認為教師具有獨特的條件

  • and make this happen.

    能夠獲得科學家的支持

  • In my own classroom,

    來促成這個願景

  • I've had some success with this model.

    在我的課堂上

  • And so I'd like to use my own experiences

    我有利用這種模式小有成就

  • to kind of illustrate

    所以我希望以我個人的經驗

  • how an individual teacher can reach out to scientists

    來說明

  • and make more science happen in their classrooms.

    一個老師如何能夠聯繫上科學家

  • I had the opportunity to develop

    讓他們的課堂上融入更多的科學研究

  • my own professional development program

    我有一年夏天

  • in the summer through an organization

    透過一個名為“教師基金”(Fund for Teachers)的組織

  • called Fund for Teachers.

    提供我機會實現自己的職業發展計畫

  • The way they work is they're kind of like

    提供我機會實現自己的職業發展計畫

  • venture capitalists for educators.

    這個組織的運作方式

  • You go to them with an idea and you say,

    有點像是教育界的風險投資家

  • 'Hey, this is going to make me a better teacher.

    你帶著你的想法去找他們,說

  • This is going to help my students learn.'

    「嘿,這會令我成為更好的老師。

  • And if they like your idea and they're able,

    這會幫助我的學生學習。」

  • they fund it, and they make that idea happen for you.

    如果他們喜歡你的想法

  • So, the idea that I pitched to them

    他們夠提供資金幫你實現那個想法

  • was an idea that would get me doing more science

    所以,我向他們提出的想法

  • because that was important to me.

    是讓我有機會做更多的科學研究

  • But it was also important to me

    因為這對我來說很重要

  • that I do it in such a way

    但是更重要的是

  • that it would capture the imagination of my students.

    我做的研究

  • So, the idea that I pitched to them

    要能夠捕捉我的學生們的想像力

  • was a thousand-mile expedition on the Mississippi River

    所以,我告訴他們我的想法

  • to gather data on nutrient pollution.

    是在密西西比河上進行一千英里的探險

  • And for 27 days that summer,

    沿途搜集肥水污染的數據

  • I was immersed in the process of doing science

    那年夏季中的 27 天

  • on one of the mightiest rivers on the planet.

    我在世界最強大的一個河流之一上漂流

  • When we would come ashore,

    沈浸於做科學研究的過程之中

  • after paddling six to ten hours a day,

    每天經過 6-10 小時的划行之後

  • we would set up a temporary lab,

    我們靠岸

  • and we'd conduct water tests.

    建立一個臨時實驗室

  • In prepping for this,

    並做水質檢測

  • I quickly realized how poorly my own education

    在為此做準備時

  • had prepared me to do science

    我很快意識到我自己的教育

  • of this nature and of this scope.

    對於做這種性質的科學研究

  • So, what I did was I reached out to experts.

    無法派上用場

  • I just simply looked through journals,

    於是,我聯繫了專家

  • and I found who was the leading experts

    我只是簡單地翻閱期刊

  • in nutrient pollution in major rivers,

    找到主要河流肥水污染物方面的專家

  • and I started firing off emails with questions.

    找到主要河流肥水污染物方面的專家

  • And I was astounded at the responses I got.

    並把我的問題用郵件發送給他們

  • Scientists responded thoroughly,

    我收到的回響使我大吃一驚

  • and they were genuinely interested

    科學家們回覆得很詳細

  • in helping me do better science.

    他們真的很感興趣

  • So, I kind of put that information in my back pocket

    幫助我完成更好的研究

  • that professional scientists were a resource

    所以,我腦海裡就記著

  • that I could draw from.

    專業的科學家們

  • When I went back to my classroom in the fall,

    是我可以依靠的資源

  • my students were able to use the same methods

    那個秋季,當我回到課堂

  • that I had learned in the summer

    我的學生就用我在那年夏天相同的方法

  • on a river in their own back yard, the Chicago River,

    我的學生就用我在那年夏天相同的方法

  • to do real science.

    在他們臨近的芝加哥河

  • And I could see this breakdown of the barrier

    做真正的科學研究

  • between doing science and learning science,

    在我眼中,這打破了

  • and it was happening in my classroom,

    在做研究和學習科學之間的屏障

  • and I wanted more of it.

    並且這就發生在我的教室裡

  • So, the next summer, I reached out to scientists again.

    於是我想要實現更多

  • And I pretty quickly came across

    所以隔年夏天,我又聯繫了ㄧ些科學家

  • an evolutionary ecology lab at Iowa State.

    並很快遇見了

  • And they shared my philosophy

    一個在愛荷華州的演化生態實驗室

  • that there should be no separation

    他們和我有相同的理念

  • between doing science and learning science.

    那就是在做科學實驗 和學習科學知識之間

  • They worked on turtle reproduction,

    不應該有任何區別

  • specifically how climate change

    他們研究烏龜的繁殖

  • affects the evolution of turtle reproductive behavior,

    特別是氣候變遷

  • and they worked on an island in the Mississippi River.

    如何影響烏龜繁殖行為的演化

  • So, I was thrilled again to be out

    並且他們在密西西比河的島上進行研究

  • on the river for another summer.

    所以,我很高興在另一個夏天

  • But, because they shared my believes on education,

    又回到到這裡

  • we were able to bring high school students out there

    因為他們與我在教育方面理念相同

  • for two weeks at a time

    所以我能夠把高中學生帶到那裡

  • and turn them loose

    待了兩週

  • on their own authentic research projects

    然後放手讓他們

  • on the biology of turtles,

    做他們自己真正的科學研究計畫

  • snakes,

    針對烏龜、

  • lizards.

    蛇、

  • And, in that experience,

    蜥蜴的生態研究

  • working side by side with people

    這個經驗

  • at all different stages of their academic career,

    讓許多來自不同的學術階段的人

  • we had the high school students working beside undergrads,

    一同工作學習

  • working beside graduate students,

    我的高中生與大學生、

  • working beside professionals.

    研究生、

  • I left that experience absolutely convinced

    與專家們一同工作

  • that this is the right way to teach science,

    這經歷讓我完全確信

  • with no separation between doing science

    這才是教授科學的正確的方法

  • and learning science.

    在做科學研究與學習科學知識之間

  • I continued to keep up my relationships

    不應該有區分

  • with these scientists,

    我一直都和這些科學家們

  • and I got to the point where I wanted to try something new,

    保持著聯繫

  • something that hadn't been done before.

    我後來達到能夠嘗試全新想法的地步

  • I wanted to bring those kinds of science experiences

    一個從來沒有人做過的計畫

  • that we were having with kids out at the river,

    我想將親手做研究的經驗

  • and I wanted to put those into our classroom.

    像是我帶學生在河流上的經驗

  • And it was important to me

    帶到我們的課堂上

  • that it wasn't simply a one-off

    對我而言重要的是

  • or a one-day special field trip.

    這不是個一次結束的經驗

  • I wanted this kind of science

    或一天的戶外教學

  • to be a part of the everyday science curriculum

    我想讓這種科學研究

  • for an entire school year.

    成為我們整個學年的

  • So, as we were thinking of this,

    普通科學課程的一部分

  • in planning for how we could make this happen realistically,

    所以,考慮到這一點

  • we reached out to the National Science Foundation,

    在計劃我們如何能讓它變成現實的時候

  • and we applied to a Research Experience for Teachers grant,

    我們聯繫了國科會 (National Science Foundation),

  • or the RET.

    向「教師研究經驗計畫」申請經費 (Research Experience for Teachers)

  • And now, teachers have to partner

    或者稱為 RET

  • with a researcher who is already supported by the NSF

    教師們必須和一位 已有國科會經費的研究者合作

  • to apply for this grant,

    教師們必須和一位 已有國科會經費的研究者合作

  • but I think that just gives you one more great excuse

    才能申請這個計畫

  • to partner with a scientist.

    這對我而言是和科學家合作的好藉口

  • And what we did is we used our NSF funding

    這對我而言是和科學家合作的好藉口

  • to travel down to Florida,

    我們利用國科會經費

  • with the permission of the state Florida

    到了佛羅里達州

  • catch a bunch of lizards,

    經過佛羅里達州的同意

  • and FedEx them back to my classroom in Chicago

    抓了一些蜥蜴

  • where we had set-up a functioning, live animal lab.

    然後將牠運回到我在芝加哥的教室

  • So, when my students came to school

    並在那裡建了一個 完整的活體動物實驗室

  • for the first day in September,

    所以,當我的學生

  • they immediately began work on a scientific experiment

    在 9 月開學的第一天來到學校

  • that would answer a very specific question.

    他們立刻就開始了科學實驗

  • Our question was,

    來回答一個非常具體的問題

  • "How do females make choices when they lay eggs?

    我們的問題是

  • How do they choose a nest site?

    雌蜥蜴產卵時如何作選擇?

  • And what effect does that choice have on their offspring?"

    牠們如何選擇巢穴?

  • And, by the end of the year,

    以及這個選擇對牠們的後代有何影響?

  • they had generated data

    在那一年年底

  • and performed science that answered that question.

    學生們已經收集了數據

  • And I was extremely happy

    並科學地回答了這個問題

  • when our work was recently published

    我非常高興

  • in the January edition of Behavioral Ecology.

    我們的研究最近於

  • And, to my knowledge, this is the first time

    《行為生物學》一月期發表了

  • that work conducted as part

    據我所知

  • of a normal high school curriculum

    這是第一次

  • resulted in a peer-reviewed paper.

    普通高中課程的中的研究

  • So, I have three pieces of advice

    發表於具審查制度的期刊

  • for teachers who want to make these connections

    所以,我有三點建議想給

  • with scientists and want to blur the line

    那些想和科學家們建立聯繫

  • between doing science and learning science.

    和打破科學研究和學習科學之間的界限

  • Number 1,

    的老師們

  • look out for those great resources that are out there.

    第一點

  • Apply for an RET grant,

    向外界尋找資源

  • apply for a Fund for Teachers fellowship.

    申請一個RET計畫

  • I know what a difference those resources can make.

    申請教室基金會的獎金

  • And there's more resources available locally,

    那些資源能帶來很大幫助

  • and you should look for those, too

    並且在當地可能還有更好的資源

  • because they can influence the amount

    你也應該去找找看

  • that you are able to accomplish. I know that.

    因為它們能影響

  • However, my number 2 piece of advice is

    你所能夠完成的事情。這我了解。

  • don't let a lack of resources stop you

    但是,我的第二點建議是

  • from making those connections with professional science.

    不要讓資源的短缺阻止你

  • Reach out to a scientist today,

    與那些專業科學工作者建立聯繫

  • no matter what your resource level is.

    今天就和科學家們聯繫吧

  • You can start small.

    無論你有多少資源

  • Invite a scientist in for a talk.

    你可以從小開始

  • Set up a Skype chat between a scientist and their lab.

    邀請一個科學家來演講

  • Then, maybe you can move up to

    和科學家以及他們的實驗室 Skype 聊天

  • more large-scale project-based learning.

    那樣,你有可能進一步去做

  • But, whatever you do,

    更大規模的計畫性學習

  • make sure that you're forming these partnerships

    但無論你做什麼

  • with people who do science for a living.

    確保你是和

  • And my third point acknowledges

    以科學為主業的人合作

  • some of the realities that teachers are facing today.

    我的第三點建議是

  • I know that the pressure of high-stakes testing

    我承認如今教師們面臨的現實

  • and the climate that creates

    我知道高風險考試的壓力

  • can make it feel almost a little bit subversive

    以及由那而來的氣氛

  • to deviate from the standard curriculum.

    會讓人感覺偏離標準課程

  • So, my final piece of advice is

    幾乎有點不應該

  • be a bit subversive if you have to.

    所以,我的最後一點建議是

  • Make sure, though, that you are doing science.

    如果你不得不顛覆傳統,那就放手去做吧

  • And I don't mean be confrontational when I say this

    但是,確定你真的是在做科學研究

  • because that's not productive.

    我的意思並不是要對抗現況

  • But take the steps you need to

    因為那並無用處

  • to blur those lines between doing science

    但當你一步一步地

  • and learning science for your students.

    為你的學生們模糊那些

  • And I think you'll find that when people see

    做科學研究和學習科學知識之間的界限

  • how engaged in learning your students are,

    你會發現當人們看到

  • and you're getting good results,

    你的學生們是多麼愛學習

  • all your opposition is just going to kind of

    而且你得到了好的效果

  • melt away from that,

    那時所有反對的聲音

  • and you're going to turn people into supporters.

    都會因此而瓦解

  • So, I think that this is the right way to teach science

    而且你將使大家變成支持者

  • where we're teaching the doing of science.

    所以,我認為這是教授科學的正確方法

  • And I think it's important to do this also

    是教授做科學研究的方法

  • because this is the way

    並且,我認為這麼做很重要

  • that you would have wanted to learn science as a kid,

    因為這大概是

  • and, more importantly, I think this is the way

    當你還是學生時想學習科學的方法

  • that you would want your kids to be taught science.

    更重要的是,我認為

  • And this is the highest standard

    你也希望你的孩子是如此學習科學知識

  • that you can hold yourself to as a science educator.

    這是作為一位科學教育者

  • So, good luck making those connections,

    你能夠保有的最高的標準

  • and go do some science!

    所以,祝各位在聯繫科學家時好運

  • Thank you.

    去做一些科學研究吧!

When I look at science education,

譯者: Ning Zhang 審譯者: Anny Chung

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A2 初級 中文 TED-Ed 科學 研究 科學家 學生 學習

克服科學鴻溝----Aaron Reedy。 (Overcoming the scientific divide - Aaron Reedy)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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