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  • Why do we buy certain products or choose certain brands?

    為什麼我們會選擇 特定的產品或品牌呢?

  • This is the sort of question advertisers have always asked,

    廣告商總是在問這類的問題,

  • and there are no easy answers.

    但這並沒有簡單的解答。

  • However, there is a handy tool that helps companies explore this

    然而,有個很棒的工具,

  • and similar questions,

    能幫助公司探討並了解這類問題,

  • and it's called the focus group.

    稱之為「焦點團體訪談法」。

  • Until the 1940s, market research was often quantitative

    直到 1940 年代為止, 市場調查幾乎都以量化方式為主,

  • using things like sales figures and customer polls to track consumption.

    使用銷售圖表和顧客問卷 來追蹤消費行為。

  • But this changed during World War II.

    但這在二次世界大戰中 開始有所轉變。

  • Sociologists Robert Merton and Paul Lazarsfeld

    社會學家羅伯特·默頓 和保羅·拉扎斯菲爾德

  • set out to learn how unprecedented exposure to wartime propaganda

    想了解過去未曾出現的 戰時宣傳內容

  • was affecting the public.

    如何對大眾產生影響。

  • Instead of polling large numbers of people

    他們並沒有採用大量問卷,

  • with straightforward questions and quantifiable answers,

    以簡單直接的問題 去得到可量化的答案;

  • the researchers conducted in-person interviews,

    而是改由研究人員 採取面對面的訪談,

  • sometimes with small groups,

    有時也會用小組方式

  • engaging them in more open discussions.

    讓他們進行更開放的討論。

  • Later, this method was picked up by the advertising industry

    後來,在顧問們的幫助下 這個方法被廣告業所採用,

  • with the help of consultants,

    像是奧地利心理學家 內斯特·迪希特

  • like Austrian-born psychologist Ernest Dichter,

    他是最早使用 「焦點團體訪談法」這個名稱的人。

  • who first coined the term focus group.

    這個新的方法 屬於質化研究的一種,

  • This new technique was a type of qualitative research

    聚焦於人們 真正的喜好和想法上。

  • focused on the nature of people's preferences and thoughts.

    它無法告訴廣告商,有多少比例的人 會買某樣商品或品牌,

  • It couldn't tell marketers what percentage of people buy a certain product or brand,

    但它可以告訴他們 是哪些人會買,

  • but it could tell them more about the people who do,

    以及他們購買的背後原因,

  • their reasoning for doing so,

    甚至是這些原因背後 更深層的動機。

  • and even the unconscious motivations behind those reasons.

    比起為營運和銷售提供確切的結論,

  • Rather than providing definite conclusions for business and sales,

    焦點團體訪問法 更適合用在探索型研究上,

  • focus groups would be used for exploratory research,

    來為產品提供新的點子,

  • generating new ideas for products

    深入了解並且根據消費者行為, 進行行銷活動。

  • and marketing based on deeper understanding of consumer habits.

    例如,早期的焦點團體發現:

  • For example, early focus groups found that contrary to popular opinion at the time,

    與當時民眾普遍的觀點相反,

  • wives often had more influence than their husbands when choosing which car to buy,

    太太對於先生選擇購買車輛 其實有更高程度的影響,

  • so Chrysler shifted gears by marketing cars directly to women.

    所以克萊斯勒公司 轉而向女仕們行銷汽車。

  • And Dr. Dichter himself conducted focus groups for Mattel

    而迪希特博士也為美泰爾公司 舉行焦點團體訪談,

  • to learn what girls wanted in a doll.

    來了解女孩們想要什麼樣的娃娃。

  • The result was the original Barbie doll.

    研究結果成為當時 芭比娃娃的設計原型。

  • So how does a focus group work?

    那麼,焦點團體訪談法 是如何運作的呢?

  • First, companies recruit between six and ten participants

    首先,公司根據特定條件 篩選適合研究主題的對象,

  • according to specific criteria that meet their research objectives.

    並招募六到十位參與者。

  • They could be mothers of children between five and seven,

    這些人可能是 擁有五到七歲小孩的媽媽,

  • or teenagers planning to buy a new phone in the next three months.

    或是計畫在三個月內 要購買新手機的青少年。

  • This is often done through professional recruiters who manage lists of people

    參與者是「專業研究招募員」找來的, 他們的手上掌握許多受試者名單,

  • who've agreed to participate in focus groups for payment or other rewards.

    有些民眾會為了酬勞或其他獎勵 而同意加入受試者名單。

  • During a session, participants are asked to respond to various prompts

    在訪談過程中,參與者需要回應

  • from the group moderator,

    由團體主持人所提出的問題,

  • like sharing their opinions on a certain product,

    例如分享他們對某項產品的意見,

  • or their emotional reactions to an advertisement.

    或是他們看到 某則廣告時的情緒反應。

  • They may even be asked to do seemingly unrelated tasks,

    他們甚至可能被要求 進行一些看似無關的任務,

  • like imagining brands as animals in a zoo.

    例如將品牌想像成 動物園裡的動物。

  • The idea is that this can reveal useful information

    因為這麼做能獲得

  • about the participant's feelings

    關於參與者感受的有用資訊,

  • that traditional questions might not get to.

    而這是傳統的問題無法得到的。

  • Beyond these basics, many variations are possible.

    除了這些基本方法外, 還有許多不同的變化。

  • A focus group may have two or more moderators

    一場焦點團體訪談 可以有兩位以上的主持人,

  • perhaps taking opposite sides on a question,

    針對問題的不同面向進行詢問,

  • or a researcher might be hidden in the focus group

    或是可能會有研究人員 在其他參與者不知情下,

  • unknown to other participants to see how their answers can be influenced.

    藏身於焦點團體中, 看看他們的答案是否會受人影響。

  • And the whole process may also be observed by researchers

    研究員也可能透過單向透視玻璃,

  • through a one-way mirror.

    觀察整個過程。

  • But although they can provide valuable insight,

    雖然焦點團體法 能提供有價值的洞見,

  • focus groups do have their limitations,

    卻也有一些限制,

  • and one of the main ones is that the simple act of observing something

    主要之一就是, 即使只有簡單的觀察行為,

  • can change it.

    也可能改變結果,

  • This principle is called observer interference.

    這個原理稱之為「觀察者效應」。

  • The answers participants give

    參與者所提供的答案

  • are likely to be affected by the presence of the researchers,

    很可能因為研究人員的存在,

  • social pressure from the rest of the group,

    來自團體成員的社會壓力,

  • or simply knowing that they're taking part in a focus group.

    或是受試者知道 自己正參加焦點團體而受到影響。

  • And because researchers often use a small sample size in a specific setting,

    加上研究者往往是在特定的情境下 使用小量的樣本,

  • it's hard to generalize their results.

    因此結果很難類推到其他情況。

  • The findings that researchers do reach from focus groups

    研究員從焦點團體中得到的結果,

  • are often tested through experiments and data gathering.

    常會進行深入的實驗 或是蒐集進一步的資料。

  • Those put numbers on questions like how many potential customers there are

    這是為了更精確掌握問題, 像是有多少潛在顧客、

  • and what price they'd be willing to pay.

    他們願意花多少錢消費。

  • This part of the process changes as technology evolves.

    這個後續的研究階段, 隨著科技進步而有所改變。

  • But focus groups have remained largely the same for decades.

    但幾十年來,焦點團體的 進行方式大致不變。

  • Perhaps when it comes to the big, important questions,

    也許當我們想要瞭解 真正重要的問題時,

  • there's no substitute for people genuinely interacting with each other.

    人與人之間真摯的互動 仍然是無可取代的。

Why do we buy certain products or choose certain brands?

為什麼我們會選擇 特定的產品或品牌呢?

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 焦點 團體 訪談 研究 參與

焦點小組如何運作?- Hector Lanz (How do focus groups work? - Hector Lanz)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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