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  • The world we live in is made of things,

    我們生活的世界由各種「物品」組成

  • billions and billions of different things,

    億萬復億萬不同的物品

  • like pickles

    像酸黃瓜

  • and pianos

    鋼琴

  • and dump trucks

    砂石車

  • and octopi.

    章魚

  • And even though these things seem totally different,

    即使這些物品看起來完全不同

  • they're all made of the same stuff,

    它們都是由同樣的「東西」組成

  • just combined in different ways.

    只是以不同方式結合

  • To give you an idea of how this combining works,

    為了讓你知道這結合的原理為何

  • let's take something apart.

    我們來做拆解動作

  • Let's start with this bowl of macaroni salad.

    就從這碗通心粉沙拉講起吧

  • If you were to reverse a recipe for macaroni salad,

    假使你倒著看通心粉沙拉食譜

  • you'll see it's made by mixing together

    你會發現它是由

  • a bunch of ingredients,

    一堆食材製成的

  • like macaroni,

    像是通心粉

  • mayo,

    美乃滋

  • vinegar,

  • vegetables,

    蔬菜

  • and mustard.

    和芥末醬

  • This type of combining is called a mixture.

    這種類型的結合稱作混合物

  • When you make a mixture,

    當你做一種混合物

  • you're combining two or more things together

    你是將兩種或兩種以上的物品結合

  • without actually changing

    但沒有改變

  • the chemical identity of those things,

    任何物品的化學特性

  • like mud, for example.

    舉例來說,泥漿

  • The soil and water in mud haven't actually changed.

    泥漿由土壤和水結合,本質並沒有改變

  • They're still soil and water,

    它們還是土壤和水

  • you've just created a mixture of soil and water,

    你只是創造了土壤和水的混合物

  • mud.

    泥漿

  • It turns out that macaroni salad

    事實上通心粉沙拉

  • is actually a mixture of mixtures

    是由許多混合物所組成的混合物

  • because many of the ingredients,

    因為裡面有許多食材

  • like mayo and mustard,

    像是美乃滋和芥末醬

  • are already mixtures themselves,

    本身就已經是混合物

  • which is nice for us

    這樣對我們正好

  • because if we look closely,

    因為如果我們仔細看

  • we'll the see the three main types of mixtures that exist.

    我們會看到三種主要的混合物存在

  • The size of the particles in a mixture

    混合物中的顆粒大小

  • determines the type of mixture.

    決定了混合物的類型

  • On one end of the scale is a suspension,

    在刻度的一端是懸浮液

  • like our muddy water example.

    就像剛剛舉的泥水的例子

  • You get this if you take big chunks of something

    你得到懸浮液,如果你把大塊的物質

  • and mix it with something else

    和其他物質混合

  • so those chunks are just floating around.

    所以這些大塊物質只是分散浮動

  • Take runny mustard for example.

    芥末醬就是個例子

  • You'll see a bunch of little particles

    你會看到一堆小顆粒

  • like mustard seeds,

    像芥菜種子

  • pepper,

    胡椒

  • allspice,

    多香果

  • and minced shallots

    及剁碎的青蔥

  • all floating around in a liquid,

    都飄浮在液體中

  • in this case vinegar and water.

    在這裡也就是醋和水

  • This is called a suspension

    這稱作懸浮液

  • because you've got particles of one thing

    因為你得到的是一種物品的顆粒

  • suspended in another.

    懸浮在另一種物品裡

  • Now, on the other end of the spectrum

    現在,在範圍的另一端

  • is a solution.

    是溶液

  • The particles in this mixture are so small,

    這種混合物內的顆粒是如此的小

  • they are the actual molecules.

    它們其實是分子

  • A solution is sort of like a suspension of molecules

    溶液有點像分子懸浮液

  • where one type of molecule is blended

    其中的一種分子會與

  • or dissolved with another.

    另一種混合或分解

  • Vinegar is an example of a solution

    醋就是溶液的一個實例

  • where the molecules of acetic acid

    其中的醋酸分子

  • are blended with molecules of water.

    與水分子混合

  • The chemical properties of the molecules haven't changed,

    這些分子的化學性質不會改變

  • they're just evenly mixed together now.

    它們只是均勻的混在一起而已

  • Saltwater and carbonated soda

    鹽水及氣泡飲料

  • are both examples of solutions

    兩者都是溶液的例子

  • where other molecules are dissolved in water.

    有其它的分子溶解在水中

  • The last type of mixture is called a colloid,

    最後一種混合物稱為膠體

  • which is somewhere between a suspension and a solution.

    介於懸浮液及溶液間

  • It's when you take two materials that don't dissolve

    這是當你把兩種 原來不能混合的物質結合

  • and you make the particles so small

    且把顆粒弄得非常小

  • that they can't separate.

    以至於不能分開

  • Mayo is what happens

    美乃滋是

  • when you take oil and water,

    你把油及水

  • which don't mix,

    這兩種不能混合之物

  • and you bind them together,

    結合在一起後的產物

  • usually with the help of another substance

    這通常需要另一種物質的幫助

  • called an emulsifier.

    稱為乳化劑

  • In the case of mayo, it's lecithin, found in eggs.

    在美乃滋這個例子中 就是卵磷脂,存在於蛋內

  • And now, you are left with really small globs of oil

    所以現在你得到了由非常小的油滴

  • hanging out with really small droplets of water.

    與非常小的水滴混合在一起的物品

  • Whipped cream,

    鮮奶油

  • hairspray,

    髮膠

  • styrofoam,

    保利龍

  • and Jello

    及果凍

  • are all other examples of colloids.

    是膠體的其他例子

  • So, let's get back to macaroni salad.

    所以讓我們回到通心粉沙拉

  • You've call colloids like mayo,

    你有了稱作膠體如美乃滋

  • suspensions like mustard,

    懸浮液如芥末醬

  • and solutions like vinegar,

    及溶液如醋

  • but you've also got celery,

    但你還有西洋芹

  • shallots,

    青蔥

  • and all other vegetable chunks

    及其它切塊的蔬菜

  • that are also part of the salad.

    也是這種沙拉的一部分

  • These aren't mixtures, really,

    這些不能稱作混合物

  • but we can break them up,

    但我們能分解它們

  • just like a TV can be broken up

    就像一台電視可以被分解成

  • into smaller and smaller complex component parts.

    愈來愈小的複雜零件

  • In the case of vegetables,

    在蔬菜這個例子中

  • if you keep breaking things up,

    如果你持續分解它們

  • they'll eventually end with thousands

    最終會得到成千上萬的

  • of complex organic molecules,

    複雜的有機分子

  • things like ATP synthase

    物品如三磷酸腺苷合酶

  • and RNA transcriptase

    逆轉錄酶

  • and water.

    及水

  • So now, once we've unblended all the solutions,

    所以現在,一旦我們還原溶液共混狀態

  • unmixed all the colloids,

    還原混合的膠體

  • separated all the suspensions,

    分開所有的懸浮液

  • and taken apart all of our vegetables,

    拆解我們所有的蔬菜

  • we've reached the end of what we can unmix physically.

    我們就會達到 物理性分解的極限

  • What we're left with is a whole bunch of molecules,

    我們所剩的是一大堆的分子

  • and these molecules remain chemically the same

    而這些分子仍然保持相同的化學性質

  • whether they are by themselves

    無論它們是自己獨個存在

  • or thrown together in a salad.

    或丟在一起拌成沙拉

  • If you want to separate these guys even further,

    如果你想要進一步分解這些傢伙

  • we need to unmix things chemically,

    我們必須在化學上分解物品

  • which means we need to start breaking some bonds.

    意思是我們必須開始打斷一些鍵結

The world we live in is made of things,

我們生活的世界由各種「物品」組成

字幕與單字

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 混合物 溶液 分子 顆粒 分解

【TED-Ed】通心粉沙拉的科學搭配。混合料裡有什麼?- Josh Kurz (【TED-Ed】The science of macaroni salad: What's in a mixture? - Josh Kurz)

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    阿多賓 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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