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  • This is the sound of orcas off the coast of Vancouver.

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: SF Huang

  • (Whale chirps and squeaks)

    這是虎鯨的聲音, 來自溫哥華海岸。

  • They make these fantastic sounds not just to communicate,

    (鯨魚發出的聲音)

  • but also sometimes to echolocate,

    牠們發出這些聲音不只是為了溝通,

  • to find their way around and to find food.

    有時也用做回音定位,

  • But that can be tricky sometimes,

    幫助牠們找到方向和食物。

  • because, well, here is the sound of a ship passing by,

    但,那有時十分棘手,

  • recorded underwater.

    因為,嗯,這是 船隻經過所發出的聲音,

  • (Screeching oscillating sound)

    在水裡錄音的。

  • You know, when we think about marine pollution,

    (尖銳振盪的聲音)

  • I think we usually think about plastics.

    提到海洋污染時,

  • Maybe toxic chemicals,

    我們通常都想到塑膠。

  • or even ocean acidification from climate change.

    也許有毒化學物質,

  • As a science journalist who often writes about environmental issues,

    或甚至氣候變遷造成的海洋酸化。

  • those are the things that have passed my desk

    身為經常撰寫環境 相關議題的科學記者,

  • over the past 10 years or so.

    那些都是過去十年左右 出現在我桌上的題材。

  • But as I recently realized

    但,我最近在幫科學雜誌《自然》 撰寫特別報導時才了解,

  • when I was writing a feature for the science journal "Nature,"

    噪音是另一種重要的污染。

  • noise is another important kind of pollution.

    這種污染常被忽視。

  • One that often gets ignored.

    也許各位聽過暗天運動,

  • You know, maybe you've heard of the dark-skies movement,

    它的目標是要讓大家 意識到光害的議題,

  • which aimed to raise awareness of the issue of light pollution

    並在一些區域創造無光照的夜晚,

  • and create pockets of unilluminated night,

    讓人與動物

  • so that people and animals

    更能享受光與暗、 夜晚與白天的大自然循環。

  • could enjoy more natural cycles of light and dark, night and day.

    現在,有些人用類似的方式想要

  • Well, in much the same way,

    讓大家意識到噪音污染的議題,

  • there are people now raising awareness

    並試著在海洋中 創造出一些安靜的區域,

  • of the issue of noise pollution

    讓海洋生物能夠享受更自然的聲景。

  • and trying to create pockets of quiet in the ocean,

    這很重要。

  • so that marine life can enjoy a more natural soundscape.

    噪音不只是惱人而已。

  • This is important.

    噪音也可能造成慢性壓力

  • Noise isn't just an irritation.

    或甚至實體的傷害。

  • It can cause chronic stress,

    噪音可能會影響海洋生物 覓食和找尋配偶的能力,

  • or even physical injury.

    以及偵聽是否有掠食者等的能力。

  • It can affect marine life's ability to find food and mates

    想想所有我們注入海洋中的聲音。

  • and to listen out for predators and more.

    其中最大的聲音可能是來自

  • Think of all the sounds we inject into the ocean.

    為了尋找石油和天然氣 所做的震波探勘。

  • Perhaps one of the most dramatic is the seismic surveys

    氣槍會產生巨大的聲響,

  • used to look for oil and gas.

    有時每十到十五秒就有一次,

  • Air guns produce loud blasts,

    持續數個月。

  • sometimes every 10 to 15 seconds,

    他們會用這些聲音的反射

  • for months on end.

    來繪製海底的地圖。

  • And they use the reflections of these sounds

    聽起來像是這樣。

  • to map the ground beneath.

    (爆炸聲)

  • It can sound like this.

    接著,還有其他聲音, 來自實際鑽採石油和天然氣、

  • (Explosion sounds)

    建造海岸風車農場、

  • Then, there's the sound of the actual drilling for oil and gas,

    聲納,

  • the construction of things like offshore wind farms,

    當然,還有全球超過五萬多艘

  • sonar

    商船隊所持續製造的聲音。

  • and of course, the nearly constant drone from more than 50,000 ships

    自然界的海洋本身並不安靜。

  • in the global merchant fleet.

    如果你把頭浸入水中,

  • Now the natural ocean itself isn't exactly quiet.

    你可以聽見裂冰聲、風聲、雨聲、

  • If you put your head under the water,

    鯨魚唱歌、魚類咕噥、

  • you can hear cracking ice, wind, rain,

    甚至蝦螯夾鉗的聲音。

  • singing whales, grunting fish,

    所有這些聲音一共能產生出

  • even snapping shrimp.

    也許五十到一百分貝的聲景,

  • Altogether, that can create a soundscape

    依你所在的時間、地點而異。

  • of maybe 50 to 100 decibels,

    但人類外加上去的聲音太大了。

  • depending on where and when you are.

    估計在最近的幾十年,運輸業每十年

  • But mankind's addition to that has been dramatic.

    就讓海洋中增加三分貝的噪音。

  • It's estimated that shipping has added three decibels of noise to the ocean

    聽起來可能沒有很多,

  • every 10 years in recent decades.

    但分貝是對數尺度,

  • That might not sound like a lot,

    就像芮氏地震規模。

  • but decibels are on a logarithmic scale,

    所以,很小的數字 就能代表很大的改變。

  • like the Richter scale for earthquakes.

    三分貝就表示海洋中的噪音強度加倍。

  • So a small number can actually represent a large change.

    加倍。

  • Three decibels means a doubling of noise intensity in the ocean.

    那只是估計,因為沒有人真正

  • A doubling.

    追蹤全世界海洋的噪音有多大。

  • And that's only an estimate,

    有一個團體叫做 國際寧靜海洋實驗計畫,

  • because no one is actually keeping track of how noisy the ocean is

    他們其中一項任務 就是要把那些資料補齊。

  • all around the world.

    比如,去年,

  • There is a body called the International Quiet Ocean Experiment,

    他們想辦法說服了 全球海洋觀測系統

  • and one of their missions

    開始把噪音納入成為 監控的重要變數之一,

  • is to try and plug the hole in that data.

    其他被監控的變數 還有溫度、鹽度等等。

  • So for example, last year,

    我們確實知道的是,

  • they managed to convince the Global Ocean Observation System

    聲納有可能和海底火山

  • to start including noise

    一樣或差不多大聲。

  • as one of their essential variables for monitoring,

    超大型油輪可能 和藍鯨的叫聲一樣大聲。

  • alongside things like temperature and salinity.

    我們加到海洋中的噪音 有各種不同的頻率,

  • We do know some things.

    且可以傳到很遠的地方。

  • We know that sonar can be as loud, or nearly as loud,

    在大西洋中間可以聽到

  • as an underwater volcano.

    美國東岸的震波探勘。

  • A supertanker can be as loud as the call of a blue whale.

    在六〇年代有一項實驗,

  • The noises we add to the ocean come in all different frequencies

    他們在澳洲珀斯的海岸 製造一個很大的噪音,

  • and can travel great distances.

    遠在百慕達都還能偵測到它,

  • Seismic surveys off the East Coast of the United States

    那是兩萬公里之外。

  • can be heard in the middle of the Atlantic.

    對海洋生物而言, 這些聲音是什麼樣子的?

  • In the 1960s, they did an experiment

    牠們會聽見什麼?這有點難描述。

  • where they set off a loud noise off the coast of Perth, Australia,

    比起在空氣中,聲音在水中 傳遞得更快、更遠,

  • and they detected it as far away as Bermuda,

    它也蘊含不同的能量。

  • 20,000 kilometers away.

    同樣壓力所產生的聲音,

  • So what does all this sound like to marine life,

    在空氣中和在水中測量, 會得到不同的強度。

  • what do they hear?

    且鯨魚沒有像人類的耳朵。

  • It's kind of difficult to describe.

    浮游動物這類生物

  • Sound travels further, faster in water than it does in air,

    甚至沒有我們認為是耳朵的部位。

  • and it also packs a different punch.

    所以,這代表什麼?

  • So sound of the same pressure will have a different intensity

    對海洋生物有什麼影響?

  • whether you measure it in the air or underwater.

    也許,科學家最容易評估的

  • Then there's the fact that whales don't have ears exactly like human ears.

    是尖銳噪音的影響,

  • Creatures like zooplankton

    可能會造成實體傷害

  • don't even have what you would consider to be ears.

    或聽覺損傷的突然巨響。

  • So what does this mean,

    舉例來說,劍吻鯨 若暴露在巨大的噪音中,

  • what is the impact on all this marine life?

    牠們可能會慌張地下潛,

  • Perhaps the easiest thing for scientists to assess

    會讓牠們發生類似減壓病的狀況。

  • is the effect of acute noise,

    六〇年代,更強大的 聲納技術問世之後,

  • really loud sudden blasts

    劍吻鯨集體擱淺的狀況

  • that might cause physical injury or hearing loss.

    就開始大增。

  • Beaked whales, for example, can go into panicked dives

    不僅是海洋哺乳類動物,

  • when exposed to loud noises,

    如果魚類離巨大聲響的音源太近,

  • which may even give them a condition similar to the bends.

    牠們的魚囊可能真的會爆炸。

  • In the 1960s, after the introduction of more powerful sonar technologies,

    震波探勘的氣槍響聲

  • the number of incidents of mass whale strandings of beaked whales

    能將一部分的浮游動物掃殺殆盡,

  • went up dramatically.

    牠們是接近食物鏈底層的微小生物,

  • And it's not just marine mammals,

    或者導致發育中的扇貝幼蟲畸形。

  • fish, if they stray too close to the source of a loud sound,

    那麼,長期的噪音又如何呢?

  • their fish bladders may actually explode.

    比如從船舶發出的 背景噪音越來越大,

  • The airgun blasts from seismic surveys

    所引發更普遍的議題。

  • can mow down a swath of zooplankton,

    它有可能會把大自然的 聲景給蓋過或淹沒。

  • the tiny creatures near the base of the food chain,

    有些鯨魚對這個現象的反應方式 就是去改變牠們的音調,

  • or can deform scallop larvae while they're developing.

    有點像是人類在噪音 很大的夜店中大聲喊叫。

  • Well, what about chronic noise,

    有些魚類會花更多時間 去巡邏牠們的邊界,

  • the more pervasive issue of raising background noise

    照顧幼兒的時間就減少了,

  • from things like shipping?

    好像處於高度警戒狀態似的。

  • That can mask or drown out the natural soundscape.

    當然,長期噪音也可能會影響人類。

  • Some whales have responded to this by literally changing their tune,

    已經有研究指出,住在繁忙機場

  • a little bit like people shouting to be heard in a noisy nightclub.

    或高速公路附近的人

  • And some fish will spend more time patrolling their borders

    心血管疾病發生的可能性比較高。

  • and less time caring for their young,

    住在繁忙飛航航線下的學生

  • as if they're on high alert.

    在一些教育測驗的表現會比較差。

  • Chronic noise can affect people too, of course.

    甚至,當我在研究這個主題時,

  • Studies have shown that people living near busy airports

    在我家中辦公室另一頭的工地,

  • or really busy highways

    為了清出空間蓋新房子,

  • may have elevated levels of cardiovascular disease.

    正在震碎三公尺厚的實心花崗石,

  • And students living under busy flight paths

    持續的鑽敲聲

  • may do worse on some educational tests.

    完全要把我逼瘋了。

  • And even while I was researching this subject,

    每當工人停下來一會兒,

  • they were actually blasting out about three meters of solid granite

    我就能感覺到我的肩膀放鬆了。

  • from the lot across from my home office

    在鯨魚身上也能看到這種效應。

  • to make room for a new house,

    在九一一恐怖攻擊之後,

  • and the constant jittering of the rock hammer

    美國東岸的國際運輸

  • was driving me completely insane.

    暫停了一陣子。

  • And whenever the workers stopped for a moment,

    在那暫時的平靜時期, 研究者注意到,

  • I could feel my shoulders relax.

    該區域的瀕臨絕種的北大西洋露脊鯨

  • This effect has been seen in whales, too.

    糞便樣本中壓力相關的 化學標記減少了。

  • After the terrorist attacks of 9/11,

    和我談過的一位研究者很喜歡說:

  • international shipping largely ground to a halt for a little while

    「我們很緊張害怕, 但鯨魚的壓力卻釋放了。」

  • in the waters off the East Coast of the United States.

    各位要記得,

  • And in that lull,

    我們已經演化成視覺的物種。

  • researchers noticed that endangered right whales in that region

    我們很依賴我們的眼睛。

  • had fewer chemical markers of stress in their feces samples.

    但海洋生物對聲音的依賴

  • As one researcher I spoke to likes to say,

    就像我們對視覺的依賴。

  • "We were stressed, but the whales weren't."

    對牠們來說,充滿噪音的海洋

  • Now you have to remember,

    可能會讓牠們迷惑 甚至置牠們於險地,

  • we have evolved to be a visual species.

    就像我們在濃霧中一樣。

  • We really rely on our eyes.

    也許,有時那代表的是更緊繃一點,

  • But marine life relies on sound

    也許,有時,那代表的是 比較少時間照顧孩子。

  • the way that we rely on sight.

    也許有些物種可以適應。

  • For them, a noisy ocean

    但有些研究者擔心,

  • may be as befuddling and even dangerous

    對於瀕臨絕種邊緣的物種而言,

  • as a dense fog is for us.

    噪音可能就足以將牠們推向懸崖邊緣。

  • And maybe sometimes that just means being a little more stressed,

    以南方定居虎鯨群為例,

  • maybe sometimes it means spending a little less time with the kids.

    牠們住在我家鄉溫哥華外的海域。

  • Maybe some species can adapt.

    牠們的數量只剩下

  • But some researchers worry that for endangered species

    七十五或七十六隻。

  • already on the brink,

    且牠們要面臨許多挑戰。

  • noise may be enough to push them over the edge.

    在這些水域中有化學污染物質,

  • So take, for example, the southern resident killer whales

    且牠們賴以為生的鮭魚也越來越少。

  • that live in the waters off my hometown of Vancouver.

    接著,還有噪音。

  • There are only 75, maybe 76, animals left

    研究者研究牠們及類似的虎鯨時,

  • in this population.

    發現在有船隻發出 巨大噪音的情況下,

  • And they're facing a lot of challenges.

    牠們覓食的時間 少了 18%~25%。

  • There are chemical pollutants in these waters,

    對於已經很難找到足夠食物 來成長茁壯的物種而言,

  • and they are running low on the salmon that they really rely on for food.

    這是很嚴重的。

  • And then there's noise.

    好消息是,跟我談過的 研究者都告訴我,

  • When researchers studied these and similar killer whales,

    我們可以用相對簡單的方式 來處理海洋噪音。

  • they found that they spend between 18 and 25 percent less time

    不像氣候變遷及海洋酸化

  • feeding in the presence of loud boat noise.

    這些災害性議題,

  • And that's a lot for a species that's already struggling

    你只要把海洋的噪音降低,

  • to find enough food to thrive.

    幾乎馬上就能見效。

  • The good news, as I heard from all the researchers I spoke to,

    比如,2017 年,

  • is that you can do something relatively easily about ocean noise.

    溫哥華菲沙港口局開始請求船隻

  • Unlike the wicked problems of climate change

    在經過哈羅海峽時要減速,

  • and ocean acidification,

    南方定居虎鯨群 夏末時會在那裡覓食。

  • you can just dial down the knob on ocean noise

    船隻減速之後噪音也會減低。

  • and see almost immediate impacts.

    因為那是加拿大, 用告知的方式即可,屬於自願性。

  • So for example, in 2017,

    (笑聲)

  • the Vancouver Fraser Port Authority

    (掌聲)

  • started asking ships to simply slow down

    2017 年實施測試, 大部分的船隻遵守了,

  • when going through the Haro Strait,

    航程時間要增加大約一個半小時,

  • where the southern resident killer whales are feeding in late summer.

    讓噪音減少 1.2 分貝,

  • Slower ships are quieter ships.

    換算成噪音強度是下降 24%。

  • And because it's Canada, you can just ask,

    今年,他們決定把時間再延長,

  • it can be voluntary.

    並把請求船隻減速通過的區域擴大。

  • (Laughter)

    希望這個措施會對 這些鯨魚有正面影響。

  • (Applause)

    2017 年,溫哥華菲沙港口局

  • In that 2017 trial, most of the ships complied,

    也針對實體設計上比較安靜的船隻

  • adding about half an hour to their travel time,

    提供碼頭碇泊費的折扣做為獎勵。

  • and reducing noise by about 1.2 decibels

    奇怪的是,這類船隻 發出的噪音大多來自

  • or 24 percent of noise intensity.

    螺旋槳後面打出的小泡泡。

  • This year, they decided to extend the length of time

    所以可以在設計上 減少這些泡泡產生,

  • and the area over which they're asking ships to slow down.

    船隻就會比較安靜。

  • So hopefully that has a positive impact for these whales.

    國際海事組織列出了許多

  • In 2017, the Vancouver Fraser Port Authority

    可以讓船隻航行時更安靜的做法。

  • also introduced discounts in docking fees

    他們設定的目標是

  • for ships that are physically designed to be quieter.

    將全球運輸的二氧化碳排放量

  • You know, weirdly, a lot of the noise from a ship like this

    在 2050 年前減少 50%。

  • comes from the popping of tiny bubbles off the back of its propeller.

    好消息是,這兩件事可以並行。

  • And you can simply design a ship to do less of that

    整體而言,比較有效率的船隻 也是比較安靜的船隻。

  • and to be quieter.

    也有人發明了較安靜的方式來錘打

  • The International Maritime Organization has published a huge list of ways

    像這種巨型風力渦輪 所需要的巨型柱樁,

  • that boats can be made quieter.

    以及比較溫和的方式來做震波探勘。

  • And they also have a target

    還有一些激勵措施來鼓勵 使用比較安靜的技術。

  • of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from global shipping

    以歐盟為例,

  • by 50 percent by 2050.

    他們提出了 2020 年 健康海洋系統指南。

  • And the great news is that these two things go hand in hand.

    他們定義健康海洋 系統的其中一種方式

  • On the whole, a more efficient ship is a quieter ship.

    就是有多少噪音在那些水域中。

  • People have also invented quieter ways of hammering in the giant posts

    但整體來說,大部分的水域

  • needed for giant wind turbines, like this one,

    仍然沒有受到海洋噪音的管制。

  • and gentler ways of doing seismic surveys.

    但,跟我談過的多數科學家都說

  • And there are some incentives for using quieter technologies.

    在政策圈現在已經真的動起來

  • The European Union, for example,

    開始注意這個議題了,

  • has a healthy marine system directive for 2020.

    也許還會為這個議題採取一些行動。

  • And one of the ways that they define a healthy marine system

    我們已有足夠的知識可以說: 較安靜的海洋就是較健康的海洋。

  • is by how much noise is going in those waters.

    但,現在科學家 還在努力拼湊整理出細節。

  • But on the whole, most waters remain completely unregulated

    我們到底需要有多安靜?

  • when it comes to ocean noise.

    製造安靜或保持安靜的 最佳地點是哪裡?

  • But again, most of the scientists I spoke to

    我們能把噪音降到多低?

  • said that there's real momentum right now in policy circles

    我並不是在試著告訴各位噪音是

  • to pay attention to this issue

    地球甚或海洋上最大的環境問題。

  • and maybe do something about this issue.

    但,重點是人類對自身的

  • We already know enough to say that quieter seas are healthier seas.

    環境系統有著巨大的影響。

  • But now scientists are really scrambling to come up with the details.

    這些影響並非獨立的。

  • Just how quiet do we need to be?

    它們會一起作用,會加乘。

  • And where are the best places to make quiet or preserve quiet?

    所以即便是對那些不太明顯的影響,

  • And how best can we hush our noise?

    我們也需要多加注意。

  • And you know, I'm not trying to tell you

    讓我再跟各位說最後一個實驗,

  • that noise is the biggest environmental problem on the planet

    因為它真的很美好。

  • or even in the ocean.

    羅勃‧威廉斯是致力研究 南方定居虎鯨群的研究者之一,

  • But the point is that humankind has a lot of impacts

    他在峇里島也做了些研究。

  • on our environmental system.

    那裡的人會慶祝 一種傳統的印度教節日,

  • And these impacts don't act in isolation.

    叫做安寧日或寧靜日。

  • They act together, and they multiply.

    很明顯,這一天被嚴格遵守著。

  • So even for the ones that are not so obvious,

    在機場不能有飛機起飛,

  • we really need to pay attention to them.

    沒有船隻可以出海捕魚,

  • I'll tell you about one last experiment,

    遊客被帶離海灘, 請回他們的飯店房間中。

  • just because it's so beautiful.

    羅勃‧威廉斯在海中放了水中聽音器,

  • So Rob Williams,

    以了解安寧日的影響,結果驚人。