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  • So you and your crack team of convicts have come up with the most brilliant escape plan

  • ever.

  • You've spent weeks making a tunnel with nothing but spoons you've had smuggled into

  • the prison, and you've got dummies that look just like you which you'll put on your

  • bed while you're busy crawling through your escape tunnel.

  • Yep, you've heard that story before because it's actually been done.

  • The problem with escaping from prison is getting out is just the beginning, staying out is

  • actually the hard part.

  • It's not exactly easy to leave a prison and then just mingle with the local population,

  • and the reason for that of course is you might not have any civilian clothes.

  • We are going to focus on the USA today because that's where the black and white stripes

  • were first worn.

  • In fact, if you look at many prisons around the world today, the inmates can wear what

  • you might call normal clothing, often a t-shirt and jogging pants, or something similar.

  • The rigid rules about what men have to wear in American prisons is actually quite unique.

  • You might wonder why the USA is special in this regard, and the topic is actually quite

  • controversial.

  • We'll get to that controversy later and first give you a short history lesson.

  • So, the black and white stripes came into being during something called theAuburn

  • system.”

  • This system was developed in the 1820s in New York state and it was supposed to be an

  • improvement on other prison systems.

  • What it basically meant was that prisoners were no longer confined to their cells all

  • the time and they were told they had to work throughout the day.

  • During the night they had to stay in their cells, but the catch was they had to remain

  • silent.

  • The guards were very strict about this, and it drove some prisoners half crazy.

  • This system was supposed to rehabilitate people rather than just let them rot.

  • The rules were incredibly strict and that was supposed to make the men more disciplined,

  • something that might change their unruly behavior.

  • Not only did they have to remain silent at night, but when they walked in the day they

  • marched in single file, locked to the prisoner in front of them.

  • When they marched in the daytime they were neither allowed to look at the guards or even

  • at other prisoners.

  • If that sounds dehumanizing, that's exactly what it was supposed to be.

  • This system was all about making the men conform to rules, and so another thing they had to

  • conform to was wearing the correct uniform.

  • That uniform was the famous black and white stripes.

  • The governor of Auburn prison at the time said he wanted to take away the men's “sense

  • of self”.

  • He wanted them to become more like robots, men who did exactly what they were told.

  • He wanted to take their identity away from them and reeducate them.

  • This is why they all had to look the same.

  • So, while the uniform was supposed to make the men stand out if they should escape, it

  • was also about trying to rid them of their character – a character that was seen as

  • criminal.

  • We should also point out that this was around the time that whipping or flogging a prisoner

  • was seen as inhumane, so the system wanted to beat the men psychologically.

  • In the 20th century attitudes started to change and the dehumanization of prisoners was viewed

  • by some more progressive people as not the best way to treat a prisoner.

  • They saw those stripes as humiliating, something you might call a “badge of shame”.

  • Those progressives said the uniforms only served to make the men feel like convicts

  • and that was hardly in line with rehabilitation.

  • That's why a lot of prisons then changed and had prisoners wear things such as blue

  • jeans and a white t-shirt, or maybe khaki pants and a denim work shirt.

  • It all depended on where a person was imprisoned.

  • Ok, so why did the orange jumpsuit take over many U.S. prisons?

  • That's a good question.

  • Thanks for asking.

  • It's a complicated answer, because some prisons don't make men wear orange and others

  • do.

  • In some facilities the prisoners will only don those orange suits when they are out in

  • public or being moved around.

  • The reason of course is so they stand out.

  • Some prisons might make men and women wear pink shirts and yellow-and-white striped pants,

  • and again, the reason is so they stand out.

  • Sheriff Joseph Arpaio of Maricopa County, Arizona, who's detested by some progressives

  • and loved by hardliners, has made men wear pink underwear to humiliate them and he's

  • also had men wear black and white stripes.

  • That sheriff adheres to that old concept that men should be dehumanized.

  • He also went a step further, as he usually does, and got inmates to writeEscapee

  • on the inside of their black and white striped uniforms, so if they escaped they couldn't

  • turn the uniforms inside out.

  • In the American system you've also got color codes which designate what kind of prisoner

  • is locked up.

  • In some prisons if a person wears dark red he is designated as theworst of the worst”,

  • a violent individual who should be feared.

  • You might have red as a designation of just high risk, and you might have yellow as a

  • designation of low risk.

  • So, the black and white stripes went out and the orange came in, along with all kinds of

  • other colors.

  • But then something strange happened in the early 2000s, and that was prisons all over

  • the U.S. started bringing back the black and white stripes.

  • What was the reason for that?

  • The problem according to some authorities was that if prisoners in jumpsuits escaped

  • they might blend in on the outside with workmen, or highway workers, or any other law-abiding

  • citizen that wears a jumpsuit to work.

  • The zebra look made a comeback, even though many years earlier that look was said to be

  • too dehumanizing.

  • Does this mean the system is in a state of regression and actually becoming more inhumane?

  • That's an ongoing argument.

  • One sheriff interviewed by the New York Times said it was not about humiliating prisoners

  • with a badge of shame but just about preventing them from successfully escaping.

  • He said this, “The likelihood of recovering someone in stripes is 100 percent better than

  • if they're not.

  • It turns the public into one heck of an eye for us.”

  • Actually, prison escapes in the USA are very rare.

  • If you look at the statistics they are a bit misleading, because they include prisoners

  • who are allowed outside during the day and then have to check back in at night.

  • Some of those guys fail to check back in.

  • This is more like going AWOL.

  • Maximum security breakouts are so rare these days that one researcher said it was hard

  • to research them.

  • Out of the 2.3 million or so incarcerated people in the USA very few of them escape...

  • and we mean hardly any at all.

  • Even if men do escape, they usually have some help on the outside and can quickly take off

  • that uniform and change into civilian clothes.

  • So, with that in mind, you could say the uniform is related to that badge of shame as well

  • as being an escape deterrent.

  • Some might say the uniformity of prison dress makes the prisoner more manageable, and he

  • should be stripped of his dignity.

  • Others would counter, saying the badge of disgrace is not effective in terms of rehabilitating

  • someone.

  • Soldiers or some school kids might wear a uniform but this is supposed to bring the

  • people together, it's for the purpose of a common cause and to foster cohesion... working

  • for the same team, but the question is, does prison uniform create a kind of criminal cohesion.

  • Is that really necessary, or even negative?

  • In 1955 the United Nations came out with theStandard Minimum Rules for the Treatment

  • of Prisonersand that was later revised as theMandela Rulesin 2015.

  • This is one part of those rules: “Every prisoner who is not allowed to wear

  • his or her own clothing shall be provided with an outfit of clothing suitable for the

  • climate and adequate to keep him or her good health.

  • Such clothing shall in no manner be degrading or humiliating.”

  • This is another part: “In exceptional circumstances, whenever

  • a prisoner is removed outside the prison for an authorized purpose, he or she shall be

  • allowed to wear his or her own clothing or other inconspicuous clothing.”

  • It seems in the U.S., some states are more concerned with following these rules than

  • others, and maybe it's a matter of opinion if pink underwear or black and white stripes

  • are degrading or humiliating.

  • Maybe you believe an orange jumpsuit doesn't have to be worn when a prisoner is being transported,

  • or maybe you think that's necessary.

  • In some countries, prisoners are still shackled when they have a court date or are moved,

  • so don't think every nation follows these Mandela Rules.

  • Like we said at the start, it's a controversial hot potato of a topic and it's not easy

  • to come to a conclusion as to what is right or wrong.

  • That's why we'd love to know what you think about prison uniforms.

  • Should prisoners be able to wear casual dress like in most countries, or should they wear

  • the stripes or the orange jumpsuits?

  • Since we've talked today about culture and how things are different in various countries,

  • we'll stick with the topic of culture and give you two fascinating videos to watch.

  • Have a look at one of these, “Taboos Around the WorldandEmbarrassing Tourist Mistakes

  • You Make In Different Countries.”

So you and your crack team of convicts have come up with the most brilliant escape plan

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為什麼囚犯們真的穿上了條紋? (Why Prisoners ACTUALLY Wore Stripes)

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    劉婕安 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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