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  • Welcome everyone, I'm Carl Azuz for CNN 10.

    嗨,我是 CNN10 的 Carl Azuz。

  • After more than two months, the lockdown has been lifted in the first Chinese city to see coronavirus cases.

    在超過兩個多月的封鎖後,中國第一個出現確診案例的城市終於要解封了。

  • Is this something we can expect to happen in other places in the months ahead?

    我們是否也能預期其他城市在近期解封?

  • Wuhan, China was where the outbreak was first reported last December though there are indications it was spreading before that.

    中國武漢在去年十二月傳出史上第一個確診新冠肺炎的病例,雖然有跡象顯示該病毒早就開始傳播了。

  • The city of 11 million people was put on lockdown on January 23, two-and-a-half-months later on Wednesday Wuhan's borders were reopened.

    這個 1,100 萬人口的城市在 1 月 23 日被封鎖,而兩個半月後,武漢的邊界再次開啟。

  • People in good health could leave the city.

    健康狀態良好的人被允許離開城市。

  • Trains started running.

    火車開始運行。

  • Flights resumed, though there are no direct routes to the Chinese capital, Beijing.

    飛機航班也恢復了,雖然還是沒有飛往中國首都北京的直航航班。

  • There are still some restrictions in place in Wuhan and the coronavirus threat isn't over in China or elsewhere.

    在武漢仍然有一些限制,且疫情的威脅在中國或他處仍未消減。

  • There are indications that some European countries are planning to follow China's example in terms of when to lift their lockdowns and the timing of that is tricky.

    某些歐洲國家似乎打算效仿中國解封城市的時機,但這個時機實在不好抓。

  • It's better for economies if restrictions are lifted.

    如果解除限制,對經濟而言較好。

  • But health officials say if that's done too soon the virus could surge again leading to more problems.

    但衛生官員表示,如果太快解除縣市,病毒又會再次猖獗,會導致更多問題。

  • The disease continues to spread and claim lives in the United States.

    新冠肺炎持續在美國散播並奪走人命。

  • Officials are hoping that after this week things will start to get better with the number of deaths decreasing and the spread slowing down in some hard-hit areas.

    官員希望在這週後,疫情會開始趨緩,死亡人數下降且重災區的新增確診數可以降下來。

  • But this doesn't mean that businesses and schools will reopen soon.

    但這並不代表企業與學校會很快就重新開放。

  • Companies are still laying off employees or suspending their hours and pay.

    許多企業仍在裁員,或是讓員工留職停薪。

  • And a top U.S. health official says he's optimistic that schools will be open nationwide by the fall, though communities will have to be more proactive in identifying and isolating the virus.

    一名美國高級衛生官員表示,他有信心在秋季時全國學校會再度開放,但大家得對防疫更加主動用心。

  • Before many schools closed and shifted to online learning.

    許多學校都已關閉,且轉向線上教學。

  • Professional sporting events were cancelled across America.

    全美的專業運動賽事也全數取消。

  • When might game clocks start ticking again?

    比賽的鐘聲何時才會再響起?

  • A computer helping call the balls and strikes to keep umpires at a distance.

    用電腦來幫忙判斷好壞球與出局,可以讓裁判與球員保持距離。

  • No consultations on the pitching mound.

    投手丘上也再也看不到球員討論戰術。

  • Players not in crowded dugouts but spread out in the empty stands and every team, every game in Arizona.

    亞利桑納州的每個球隊、每場比賽中,球員不再是在擁擠的休息區,而是分散到不同的座位。

  • That's how it may look if Major League Baseball says play ball next month according to multiple reports.

    根據多個報導,如果棒球大聯盟下個月宣布復賽,就會是這個場景。

  • Baseball's official stance remains unchanged.

    棒球的擊球姿勢並沒有更改。

  • We're going to resume playing when it's safe for our fans, our players and the public for us to resume playing.

    當對粉絲、球員與大眾而言是安全的之時,我們就會復賽。

  • The plan under discussion would attempt to create a safe zone with teams operating in isolation for months amid rigorous virus testing at their hotels, on buses, in stadiums, closed to all fans.

    正在討論中的方案是要創造一個安全的環境,各隊伍會獨自訓練數個月,且會有嚴謹的病毒檢測,不管是在飯店、巴士、體育館都會有。

  • Other pro sports are nibbling at resuming with similar plans to limit exposure but only tentatively.

    其他專業賽事也很謹慎,提出類似的方案來減少接觸,但這只是試驗性的。

  • Basketball commissioner, Adam Silver.

    NBA 聯盟主席 Adam Silver。

  • At least for the month of April, we won't be in a position to make any decisions.

    至少在整個四月,我們是沒有權力做出任何決定的。

  • And I don't think that necessarily means on May 1 we will be.

    但這也不表示五月一號我們就會有決定權。

  • Hockey's Stanley Cup playoffs should have started this week.

    冰上曲棍球的比賽本來也該在這週開始。

  • Instead ideas are being floated for returning to the ice maybe this summer in North Dakota.

    但有計畫指出,他們可能會在夏季時才會於北達科塔州重返賽事。

  • Those seem barely more than rumors.

    這看似只是謠言。

  • The league is saying little.

    但冰球聯盟並沒有發聲。

  • And the biggest game around, football, the NFL's draft is this month with teams planning virtual parties to celebrate.

    而最大型的賽事——橄欖球,國家美式橄欖球聯盟這個月的計畫變成舉行虛擬派對慶祝。

  • In a conference call to sports officials days ago, the president said he hopes the league can kickoff on time in September.

    數天前在運動官員們的一場會議中,總裁表示他希望聯盟能在九月時準時開球。

  • But many state and local officials are questioning all this talk of sports coming back soon.

    但許多州與地方官員都在對這些事提出疑問。

  • That's not something I anticipate happening in the next few months.

    這不是我預期會在幾個月內看到的事。

  • With billions of dollars and thousands of jobs at stake, of course everybody would like to see sports up and running again.

    數十億的金錢與數千個工作都危在旦夕,理所當然地大家會想要看到運動員重返賽事。

  • But for now, the teams and the towns that host them seem to be saying they will let health officials make that call.

    但現在,職業隊伍與舉辦賽事的城市都表示,他們要讓衛生官員來做最後的決定。

  • Tom Foreman, CNN, Bethesda, Maryland.

    CNN 記者 Tom Foreman,在馬里蘭州的 Bethesda。

  • 10 Second Trivia.

    十秒問答。

  • What is the term for a part of the ocean that's beyond a nation's control?

    當一個國家沒有某個海域的控制權,叫做什麼?

  • High seas, off-shore territory, contiguous zone or limited enforcement zone.

    公海、離岸領土、鄰接海域還是限制執法區?

  • According to the United Nations Law of the Sea, the high seas are outside territorial claims.

    根據聯合國海洋法公約,公海指非屬於任何一個國家領海的海域。

  • Last week a Vietnamese fishing boat was sunk in the South China Sea.

    上週,一艘越南的漁船於南海沉沒。

  • It was sailing near a group of islands claimed by both Vietnam and China and the two countries blame each other for sinking the boat who's crew was rescued by the Chinese coast guard.

    該船當時在一個島群附近航行,越南與中國皆宣稱有該島群的管轄權,而兩國都將沈船事件怪罪至對方頭上,該船船員最後被中國海巡隊救上。

  • The South China Sea is an important part of the ocean.

    南海是海洋中非常重要的一環。

  • Since 2014, China has come under international scrutiny for building artificial islands there.

    從 2014 年起,中國因為在南海填海造陸而受到審查。

  • It sees this body of water as its territory.

    中國更將此海域視為領土。

  • Other nations in the region and the United States say China's claims are illegal.

    該地域的國家與美國都表示中國如此的舉動為非法的。

  • The islands and reefs of the South China Sea are variously claimed by six different governments.

    有六個不同的國家,宣稱他們有南海各島礁的統治權。

  • That's right, six.

    沒錯,六個。

  • And sovereignty over these islands is significant because of something called the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, or UNCLOS.

    而這些島嶼的主權歸屬非常重要,因為一個叫做聯合國海洋法公約的東西,簡稱 UNCLOS。

  • UNCLOS states that every coastal nation has the rights within a 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone off its coastal waters.

    聯合國海洋法公約提到,每個海島有專屬 200 海浬的經濟海域。

  • Ownership of the islands, therefore, dictates who has the rights to the resource-rich South China Sea.

    因此,島嶼的主權歸屬於誰,就等於誰有權開發南海的豐富資源。

  • Who owns the seas has always been a difficult concept.

    海洋究竟是誰的,一直都是個難解的議題。

  • In the 18th century, Dutch legal theorist Cornelis van Bynkershoek stated that a nation owned the amount of sea it could defend from the land.

    十八世紀,荷蘭法律學家 Cornelis van Bynkeshoek 提出國家可以從陸地保衛海上領土的理論。

  • At the time, that was the distance of cannon fire around 3 nautical miles.

    而在當時,是指大砲最遠的射擊距離,也就是大約三海浬。

  • The cannon shot rule is still used by several countries to this day including Jordan and Singapore.

    這個大砲規則現在仍有幾個國家遵守,包含約旦與新加坡。

  • In 1945, President Truman extended U.S. jurisdiction to the end of its continental shelf.

    1945 年時,美國總統杜魯門將管轄區擴大至大陸棚尾端。

  • The continuation of the land mass underwater until it drops down to the ocean floor.

    大陸棚指的是海底的大陸,直到突然陡降至海床。

  • Then the U.S. built the world's first offshore oil platform out of sight of land in the Gulf of Mexico in 1947, 10 and a half miles off the Louisiana coast.

    然後,美國於 1947 年於墨西哥灣外,路易斯安那海岸外 10.5 哩處建造了世上第一個離岸煉油平台。

  • That started a race to claim oceanic resources far beyond the cannon shot distance from the shoreline.

    這使得全球開始爭奪海洋資源,而非遵從所謂的大砲射擊距離規則。

  • This lead to a lot of countries clashing over their perceived rights.

    也導致許多國家對於他們受到威脅的權利開始起了衝突。

  • For example, the UK and Iceland had no less than three disputes known as "Cod Wars" over the fish in what are now Icelandic waters.

    舉例來說,英國與冰島有超過三次以上的「鱈魚戰爭」,他們為了冰島水域的漁獲而爭吵不休。

  • We will feel ourselves obliged to several diplomatic nations.

    我們將會對許多邦交國感到感激。

  • To mediate these disputes, UNCLOS was drawn up and came into force in 1994.

    為了調停這些糾紛,聯合國起草了聯合國海洋法公約,並於 1994 年實施。

  • It carved up maritime territory into four main sections, typically measured from the low water line on a nation's shores.

    他們將海洋領土分成四大部分,從一個國家的沿岸低水區開始計算。

  • Within the territorial waters, a state can regulate use and has ownership over any resources found within.

    在 12 海浬的領海中,該國擁有領海資源的所有主權。

  • Foreign states can sail through but they have to abide by the nation's laws.

    外國國家可以航行通過,但得遵守該國的法律。

  • Within the contiguous zone, a state can continue to enforce laws in four specific areas, customs, taxation, immigration and pollution.

    而在鄰接海域中,該國可以在四大部分持續執法——關稅、稅收、移民與污染。

  • Within the EEZ, the state has the sole rights over natural resources.

    而在 EEZ 中,該國有 200 海浬的自然資源所有權。

  • But foreign states may sail through, lay underwater cables and even pass through for military reasons.

    但其他國家可以航行經過、鋪設海底電纜,甚至以軍事理由通過。

  • And on the continental shelf, a state has the rights to resources in the subsoil of the continental shelf but not the water column above if it is beyond the EEZ.

    至於大陸棚,該國有大陸棚土壤的開發權,但對於超過 EEZ 範圍的水域則沒有權利。

  • Although 168 parties have ratified UNCLOS, it has far from resolved maritime territory disputes.

    雖然有 168 國認同 UNCLOS,但對於海洋領地的糾紛,還是沒有解決。

  • For example, France went up against Canada outside the Gulf of Saint Lawrence over its overseas territory at Saint Pierre and Miquelon.

    舉例來說,法國與加拿大在聖羅倫斯灣外對槓,為的是法國在 Saint Pierre 與 Miquelon 的海權。

  • Their fight is with Canada...

    他們與加拿大爭吵...

  • Even sending in navy frigate and seismic ship to test for oil in disputed waters before the two came to an agreement in 1992.

    他們甚至派出海軍驅逐艦與震測船來探勘爭議水域的石油,直到他們在 1992 年達成協議。

  • And then there's the South China Sea.

    接下來還有南海。

  • Based on it's claim over the Spratly Islands, China states its EEZ covers pretty much the whole of the South China Sea violating the EEZ's of several countries.

    中國宣稱擁有南沙群島的主權,並說他們的 EEZ 涵蓋幾乎整片南海,侵犯了許多國家的 EEZ。

  • Despite the wording of UNCLOS, China believes it can control military activity in the EEZ too, leading to numerous clashes with the U.S. which regularly holds frequent navigation patrols in the South China Sea.

    無視於 UNCLOS 的規定,中國深信他們在 EEZ 上也有軍事管轄權,導致南海上發生數起美國與南海的衝突,因美國經常在南海進行巡航。

  • Leading to the question, if one country can ignore UNCLOS, what's stopping the rest?

    這也衍生出一個問題:如果有國家可以無視 UNCLOS,那其他的國家呢?

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  • Pennsylvania is burying it's graffiti highway once and for all.

    美國賓州決定永遠埋葬「塗鴉之路」。

  • The 3/4 mile stretch of road has been closed since 1993 because the coal that runs beneath it had been burning for decades.

    這條長 0.75 哩的道路從 1993 年起便關閉了,因為底下的煤炭數十年來都沒有停止燃燒。

  • But after the road was covered with graffiti, it became an unofficial tourist attraction despite being extremely dangerous.

    但曾幾何時起,該道路覆蓋滿了塗鴉,儘管非常危險,它成為了非官方的景點。

  • With crowds gathering there during the coronavirus pandemic, the highway's private owner decided to cover the highway with dirt and the company doing that says it will probably be planted with trees and grass.

    許多群眾在疫情爆發時仍聚集於此,於是該道路的主人決定用泥土覆蓋該路,而負責執行的公司表示將會在上頭種樹植草。

  • If covering it was a crime that will now be covered up.

    若在上面塗鴉是違法的,現在這件事也會被掩蓋起來了。

  • Officials have plenty of dirt on the vandals and while they've all hit road by now thinking their "gra-free-ti."

    官員們可能有些塗鴉者的把柄,但現在他們都要自由了。

  • It's still sad when art gets "buried and burned," it seems a low way for a highway to go.

    當藝術被掩蓋燃燒還是很令人傷心的,這似乎是個低俗的方式對待一個高速公路。

  • Before we go, shout out to Lafayette High School in Lafayette, Louisiana.

    結束之前,為路易斯安那的 Lafayerre 高中讚聲一下。

  • We're grateful to have you watching. I'm Carl Azuz for CNN 10.

    謝謝你們有看 CNN 10,我是 Carl Azuz。

Welcome everyone, I'm Carl Azuz for CNN 10.

嗨,我是 CNN10 的 Carl Azuz。

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