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Chapter X. TERRAIN
1. Sun Tzu said: We may distinguish six
kinds of terrain, to wit: (1) Accessible
ground; (2) entangling ground; (3)
temporizing ground; (4) narrow passes; (5)
precipitous heights; (6) positions at a
great distance from the enemy.
2. Ground which can be freely traversed by
both sides is called accessible.
3. With regard to ground of this nature, be
before the enemy in occupying the raised
and sunny spots, and carefully guard your
line of supplies.
Then you will be able to fight with
advantage.
4. Ground which can be abandoned but is
hard to re-occupy is called entangling.
5. From a position of this sort, if the
enemy is unprepared, you may sally forth
and defeat him.
But if the enemy is prepared for your
coming, and you fail to defeat him, then,
return being impossible, disaster will
ensue.
6. When the position is such that neither
side will gain by making the first move, it
is called temporizing ground.
7. In a position of this sort, even though
the enemy should offer us an attractive
bait, it will be advisable not to stir
forth, but rather to retreat, thus enticing
the enemy in his turn; then, when part of
his army has come out, we may deliver our
attack with advantage.
8. With regard to narrow passes, if you can
occupy them first, let them be strongly
garrisoned and await the advent of the
enemy.
9. Should the army forestall you in
occupying a pass, do not go after him if
the pass is fully garrisoned, but only if
it is weakly garrisoned.
10. With regard to precipitous heights, if
you are beforehand with your adversary, you
should occupy the raised and sunny spots,
and there wait for him to come up.
11. If the enemy has occupied them before
you, do not follow him, but retreat and try
to entice him away.
12. If you are situated at a great distance
from the enemy, and the strength of the two
armies is equal, it is not easy to provoke
a battle, and fighting will be to your
disadvantage.
13. These six are the principles connected
with Earth.
The general who has attained a responsible
post must be careful to study them.
14. Now an army is exposed to six several
calamities, not arising from natural
causes, but from faults for which the
general is responsible.
These are: (1) Flight; (2)
insubordination; (3) collapse; (4) ruin;
(5) disorganization; (6) rout.
15. Other conditions being equal, if one
force is hurled against another ten times
its size, the result will be the flight of
the former.
16. When the common soldiers are too strong
and their officers too weak, the result is
insubordination.
When the officers are too strong and the
common soldiers too weak, the result is
collapse.
17. When the higher officers are angry and
insubordinate, and on meeting the enemy
give battle on their own account from a
feeling of resentment, before the
commander-in-chief can tell whether or not
he is in a position to fight, the result is
ruin.
18. When the general is weak and without
authority; when his orders are not clear
and distinct; when there are no fixes
duties assigned to officers and men, and
the ranks are formed in a slovenly
haphazard manner, the result is utter
disorganization.
19. When a general, unable to estimate the
enemy's strength, allows an inferior force
to engage a larger one, or hurls a weak
detachment against a powerful one, and
neglects to place picked soldiers in the
front rank, the result must be rout.
20. These are six ways of courting defeat,
which must be carefully noted by the
general who has attained a responsible
post.
21. The natural formation of the country is
the soldier's best ally; but a power of
estimating the adversary, of controlling
the forces of victory, and of shrewdly
calculating difficulties, dangers and
distances, constitutes the test of a great
general.
22. He who knows these things, and in
fighting puts his knowledge into practice,
will win his battles.
He who knows them not, nor practices them,
will surely be defeated.
23. If fighting is sure to result in
victory, then you must fight, even though
the ruler forbid it; if fighting will not
result in victory, then you must not fight
even at the ruler's bidding.
24. The general who advances without
coveting fame and retreats without fearing
disgrace, whose only thought is to protect
his country and do good service for his
sovereign, is the jewel of the kingdom.
25. Regard your soldiers as your children,
and they will follow you into the deepest
valleys; look upon them as your own beloved
sons, and they will stand by you even unto
death.
26. If, however, you are indulgent, but
unable to make your authority felt; kind-
hearted, but unable to enforce your
commands; and incapable, moreover, of
quelling disorder: then your soldiers must
be likened to spoilt children; they are
useless for any practical purpose.
27. If we know that our own men are in a
condition to attack, but are unaware that
the enemy is not open to attack, we have
gone only halfway towards victory.
28. If we know that the enemy is open to
attack, but are unaware that our own men
are not in a condition to attack, we have
gone only halfway towards victory.
29. If we know that the enemy is open to
attack, and also know that our men are in a
condition to attack, but are unaware that
the nature of the ground makes fighting
impracticable, we have still gone only
halfway towards victory.
30. Hence the experienced soldier, once in
motion, is never bewildered; once he has
broken camp, he is never at a loss.
31. Hence the saying: If you know the
enemy and know yourself, your victory will
not stand in doubt; if you know Heaven and
know Earth, you may make your victory
complete.
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孫子兵法10/13 (Chapter 10 - The Art of War by Sun Tzu - Terrain)

4307 分類 收藏
richardwang 發佈於 2014 年 3 月 22 日
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