字幕列表 影片播放 列印英文字幕 Moral psychology isn't always an easy thing to study. First of all, just using a survey to ask people what they think is moral doesn't always reveal what they would do in real life. An experiment that actually puts people in what feels like a real scenario may get more realistic results, but researchers must always balance the benefits of what we could learn with the safety and well-being of the people they study. Secondly, what we learn from moral psychology experiments doesn't always make humans look good. For example, today we're going to look at moral licensing: the theory that when you do something good... you subconsciously feel you've earned a license to then do something bad. I've been working with Dr. Kyle Stanford, from the Department of Logic and Philosophy of Science at the University of California, Irvine, on a way to observe moral licensing in the wild. So I want to see moral licensing in effect. I want to see people who have been led to believe, through their own actions, that they're good. Use that feeling to do bad. The thing to keep in mind, it's like people are keeping tabs, and they give themselves credit for the moral... the good thing they did. But none of that is happening consciously, right? So we shouldn't imagine that a person who's engaged in moral licensing is asking themselves in their head... Right, pulling out their scorecard. ...what should I be? Does it make me a good person? But it is going on, and they don't experience it. -They don't know that it's happening. -Right. I think we're going to learn a lot today. -I say we go get started. -Let's do it. Let's do it. [Michael] So here's how the moral licensing test we designed is going to work. First, we're going to take this beautiful park and, for the purposes of science, throw trash everywhere. Next, we've hired some unsuspecting actors who think they're going to film a public service announcement about the park. -Hey, Jake. Hey, man. -Hi. -Nice to meet you. -Nice to meet you. Once they've arrived, it will be obvious that the trash is a problem. We just need to clean up this little alleyway right here. Will they do a good deed and earn some moral credit by volunteering to help pick up the trash, or not? And to make everything feel more real, we did have them film our fake PSA. Forget the concrete and the heat. Relax in over 16,000 square feet. Of outdoor space that can't be beat. Right outside your door. Right outside your door. Right outside your door. After shooting the PSA, each participant will be asked to wait in a separate area for some final paperwork. There, our confederate Cameron, who appears to be homeless, will ask them for money. Meanwhile, Dr. Stanford and I will be watching behind the scenes to observe how our subjects react. So, will our participants keep their subconscious moral scorecards balanced by giving money when they didn't clean, or feeling like they don't need to give money if they did? -Hey! -Makaylo. Makaylo, nice to meet you. First up in our demo was Makaylo. We used our actual Mind Field crew as the crew of the fake PSA who are overwhelmed with the task of cleaning up all the trash. We normally sort of never ask this, but... we've got, like, all this stuff that we're trying to clean up. I'm going to grab some gloves. I was wondering, would you help me? -I'm sorry... -Let's do it. Let's do it. All three of us can triple-team it. -and we can get this thing going. -Let's do it. Let's do it. Yeah, this is just what we wanted to do today. It looks like someone had a good time, though. [Michael] All right, so picking up the trash. How do you think that's currently sitting with our actor? He's thinking of himself as having done a good deed that he didn't need to do, that he didn't have to do. Right? And so the moral credit is high. [Michael] Then it was time to shoot our PSA. [man] Take it away. Forget the concrete and the heat. Relax in 16,000 square feet. [man] That was great! All right, man. -Hey, thanks so much. -Cool. No problem, man. We compensated our participants for the PSA in small bills so they would have plenty to give the homeless man, should they choose to do so. -Here's $50. -Thank you, thank you. Then we asked them to wait in a nearby tent for their final paperwork. Will Makaylo's good deed be enough moral credit for him to pass on helping the homeless guy? All right, Cameron, this is Michael. You can go ahead. What's up? -What's up? -Hi. Are you with this? Yeah, I'm just waiting for someone to help me out here. Could you help me out with like a dollar or two? Just, I can go to the vending machine? Sorry, my man, I ain't got nothing but $20 bills on me right now. Oh, I got nothing but $20 bills. [laughs] -You sure? -Yeah, man. All right, well... [Michael] We're going to go talk to him. Hey, Makaylo. -Hey. -Thanks for waiting. -I'm Michael. Nice to meet you. -No problem. Makaylo. -This is Kyle. -Nice to meet you. Nice to meet you, Makaylo. We really appreciate your help today. -I just saw-- Did a guy come by? -Yes. What did he ask? -For a dollar bill. -[Michael] Oh, for a dollar bill? Yeah. Did you give him money? -No. -What'd you tell him? I just told him I didn't have anything. So I'm going to debrief you on what we're doing here today. We're doing a psychological exploratory experiment on what's called moral licensing. We're looking at the correlation between people who do volunteer to help pick up the trash, and how generous you are later to a homeless person who walks by. Interesting. Now, you just exhibited the exact pattern of moral licensing, right? In that you had already done a good deed-- So I was good for the day. Right. [Michael] Did we just see moral licensing in effect? Perhaps. Let's see what our other subjects do. Here, let me just have you hang out here. Is there anybody that can help us clean up this? -I'm going to go look around. -All right. Okay, so this is Alex. And Alex is just messing with his stuff. [Kyle] He's either not really noticing, or pretending not to notice. But all of that is just fine. The question is what he then goes on to do. [Michael] So Alex didn't help pick up trash. Will his guilt put him at a moral deficit, and therefore motivate him to give money to the homeless man? Hey. Can you spare some money? Maybe help me out? -You want a buck? -A buck? Yeah. Can I give you a buck? Is that cool? [Cameron] That's more than cool, man. I just got paid to be here. -Really? -Yeah. Helping to shoot a PSA, yeah. Where do I sign up? -Thank you. -All right, take care. All right. Very interesting. I do wonder if he felt a little bit of guilt. We got it in the opposite direction, -which was going to be the hard thing to do. -Yeah. I'm very happy about this. [Michael] Next, we have Jake. So I'm on set doing a PSA shoot. [Michael] Hey, he's doing a vlog. And I get here, and it appears that someone had a... what could only be described as a trash party. I mean, they just threw trash literally everywhere, all over where they want to shoot. So I'm going to go help them pick up some of the trash. First, I'm going to make sure that I document that I'm a helper. I would also like to point out, though, that he has not helped. -[Kyle] Right. -He's gone back into the tent. And I wonder, when it comes to moral licensing, does this play an effect? I can check the box. Not only am I good, but the world knows I'm good. Now, this is something we haven't seen before. [Michael] I love this. I love that he got credit for helping, -but didn't. -Right. What's interesting but hard to know is how that'll look to him, whether he'll see himself as having done a good deed, or seeing himself as kind of skated on the obligation, because he didn't really help. Hey, do you think you could spare some money, maybe help me out? Here, man. Here's a dollar. -Really? -Yeah. Go for it. All right, you're a good man. Thank you. We were really curious as we were watching this all unfold, because you agreed to help, and then you recorded a video about how you were going to help, but by the time all that was over, you didn't need to help. It was all cleaned up. -Right. -So we were wondering, did you feel like you had helped, or not? No. I didn't have time to. And you didn't feel guilty. Like, ooh, I kind of like got out of helping. No, I didn't feel bad about that. I would have definitely picked up trash. Erin's likely to be thinking that she's doing a good deed. Yeah. Could you maybe help me out, give me some money? I'm sorry, I don't have anything on me here. -No? -They won't let me. -Oh. -Yeah. -That was great. -Yes, we have a couple good illustrations in both directions. [Michael] We seemed to have witnessed moral licensing at play in several cases. But, of course, as with any demonstration like this, our results weren't always cut-and-dry. I'm going to go try to clean this up myself, and then... Gotcha. Yeah, yeah. Some of the participants both didn't help clean and declined to give our homeless man money. Could you maybe spare some change? I just want to go to the vending machine? Uh... However, they did find other ways to help hiim that could qualify as a good deed. They have snacks, maybe. I'm going to take a pop. [laughs] Okay. Do you want a soda or something? Yeah, that'd be... Do you maybe have a little money as well? -I don't, sorry. But... -Okay. ...which one do you want? So what was going through your mind when you made the decision not to give some of the cash that we know you had to the man who was asking?