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  • I am an ideas activist.

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • That means I fight for ideas I believe in

    我是點子活動家。

  • to have their place in the sun,

    意思就是,我會為了 我所相信的點子而戰,

  • regardless of which side of the equator they were born.

    讓它們在太陽底下有一席之地,

  • As well I should.

    不論這些點子是在 赤道的哪一邊誕生的。

  • I myself am from that part of the world

    我也該這麼做。

  • often euphemistically referred to as either "the Global South"

    我的家鄉,在世界上通常被稱為

  • or "the developing world."

    「南方世界」或「開發中世界」。

  • But let's be blunt about it:

    但,就直說吧: 當我們說出那些詞時,

  • when we say those words, what we really mean is the poor world --

    我們要說的其實是貧窮世界——

  • those corners of the world with ready-made containers

    世界上的這些角落都是

  • for the hand-me-down ideas of other places and other people.

    從其他地方的其他人 那邊取得現成的點子。

  • But I'm here to depart a little bit from the script

    但,我來這裡要談的有些不同,

  • and to try and convince you

    我想要試著說服各位,

  • that these places are actually alive and bubbling with ideas.

    這些地方其實充滿了點子。

  • My real issue is: Where do I even start?

    我真正的問題在於: 我該從何談起?

  • So maybe Egypt, Alexandria,

    也許埃及的亞歷山大港吧,

  • where we meet Rizwan.

    這是瑞茲旺。

  • When he walks outside his souk,

    當他走出他的露天市場,

  • walks into a pharmacy for heart medicine

    走去藥房買心臟藥物,

  • that can prevent the blood in his arteries from clotting,

    避免他的動脈栓塞,

  • he confronts the fact that,

    他要面對的事實是,

  • despite a growing epidemic

    儘管這種疾病越來越盛行,

  • that currently accounts for 82 percent of all deaths in Egypt,

    佔目前埃及 82% 的死因,

  • it is the medicines that can address these conditions

    而治療這些疾病的藥物

  • that counterfeiters, ever the evil geniuses they are,

    就被有著才智的邪惡偽造者看上,

  • have decided to target.

    成為目標。

  • Counterfeiters making knockoff medicines.

    偽造者會製造假藥。

  • Luckily for Rizwan,

    瑞茲旺很幸運,

  • my team and I,

    我和我的團隊

  • working in partnership with the largest pharmaceutical company in Africa,

    與非洲最大的製藥公司合作,

  • have placed unique codes -- think of them like one-time passwords --

    將獨一無二的代碼—— 可以把它想成是一次性密碼——

  • on each pack of the best-selling heart medicine in Egypt.

    放在埃及賣得最好的 心臟藥物的包裝上。

  • So when Rizwan buys heart medicine,

    當瑞茲旺在購買心臟藥物時,

  • he can key in these one-time passwords

    他便能將那些一次性密碼,

  • to a toll-free short code

    透過免付費電話輸入,

  • that we've set up on all the telecom companies in Egypt

    這是我們和埃及的所有 電信業者合作設立的機制,

  • for free.

    免費使用。

  • He gets a message -- call it the message of life --

    他會得到一個訊息—— 可以稱為是救命的訊息——

  • which reassures him

    跟他保證

  • that this medicine is not one of the 12 percent of all medicines in Egypt

    這件藥物不屬於埃及所有藥物中

  • that are counterfeits.

    那 12% 的假貨。

  • From the gorgeous banks of the Nile,

    我們從尼羅河的壯麗河岸

  • we glide into the beautiful Rift Valley of Kenya.

    滑進到肯亞的美麗裂谷中。

  • In Narok Town, we meet Ole Lenku, salt-of-the-earth fellow.

    這位是納羅克鎮的 優秀鎮民歐雷林庫。

  • When he walks into an agrodealer's shop,

    當他走進農業經銷商的店,

  • all he wants is certified and proper cabbage seeds

    他想要的只是有認證的 真甘藍菜種子,

  • that, if he were to plant them,

    如果他種下這些種子,

  • will yield a harvest rich enough

    豐富的產出就足以

  • that he can pay for the school fees of his children.

    讓他支付他孩子的學費。

  • That's all he wants.

    他要的就只有這樣。

  • Unfortunately,

    不幸的是,

  • by the reckoning of most international organizations,

    根據大部分國際組織的計算,

  • 40 percent of all the seeds sold in Eastern and Southern Africa

    賣到東非和南非的種子當中 有 40% 的品質很可疑,

  • are of questionable quality,

    有時根本就是假貨。

  • sometimes outrightly fake.

    歐雷很幸運,

  • Luckily for Ole,

    同樣的,我們的團隊也有介入,

  • once again, our team has been at work,

    和肯亞主要的農業監管機構合作,

  • and, working with the leading agriculture regulator in Kenya,

    我們把該國的整個種子認證過程

  • we've digitized the entire certification process

    數位化,

  • for seeds in that country,

    每一個種子都不例外—— 黍、高粱、玉米——

  • every seed -- millet, sorghum, maize --

    這麼一來,

  • such that when Ole Lenku keys in a code on a packet of millet,

    當歐雷林庫將黍類種子 包裝上的代碼輸入後,

  • he's able to retrieve a digital certificate

    他就能夠取得一個數位認證,

  • that assures him that the seed is properly certified.

    向他確保那包種子 有經過妥善的認證。

  • From Kenya, we head to Noida in India,

    從肯亞,我們朝向 印度的諾伊達前進,

  • where the irrepressible Ambika

    在那裡,活力旺盛的安比卡

  • is holding on very fast to her dream of becoming an elite athlete,

    能堅持追尋她的夢想: 成為出色的運動員,

  • safe in the knowledge that

    她感到安全,因為她知道

  • because of our ingredients rating technology,

    有我們的成份評分技術在,

  • she's not going to ingest something accidentally,

    她就不會意外吃下不該吃的東西,

  • which will mess up her doping tests

    讓她過不了禁藥檢測,

  • and kick her out of the sports she loves.

    因而被踢出她最愛的運動圈。

  • Finally, we alight in Ghana,

    最後,我們來到迦納,

  • my own home country,

    我的祖國,

  • where another problem needs addressing --

    在那裡,有另一個 問題需要處理——

  • the problem of under-vaccination or poor-quality vaccination.

    接種疫苗的比率太低, 或疫苗品質太差。

  • You see, when you put some vaccines into the bloodstream of an infant,

    當疫苗被注入到嬰兒的血液當中,

  • you are giving them a lifetime insurance

    就是給予這名嬰兒一生的保證,

  • against dangerous diseases that can cripple them or kill them.

    確保能夠抵抗可能會讓他們 癱瘓或死亡的危險疾病。

  • Sometimes, this is for a lifetime.

    有時,這能維持一生。

  • The problem is that vaccines are delicate organisms really,

    問題是,疫苗其實 是很脆弱的有機體,

  • and they need to be stored between two degrees and eight degrees.

    必須要保存在 2~8 度的環境中。

  • And if you don't do that, they lose their potency,

    如果沒有這麼做,就會失去效力,

  • and they no longer confer the immunity

    不再能給予孩子 他們應得到的免疫力。

  • the child deserves.

    我們和電腦視覺科學家合作,

  • Working with computer vision scientists,

    將疫苗瓶上的簡單標識轉換

  • we've converted simple markers on the vials of vaccines

    成為類似天然溫度計的東西。

  • into what you might regard as crude thermometers.

    這些模式會根據溫度 隨時間緩慢地改變,

  • So then, these patterns change slowly over time in response to temperature

    直到它們在疫苗瓶的表面 留下明確的模式,

  • until they leave a distinct pattern on the surface of the vaccine,

    之後,護士可以用手機掃瞄,

  • such that a nurse, with a scan of the phone,

    偵測出疫苗是否有 儲存在正確的溫度底下,

  • can detect if the vaccine was stored properly in the right temperature

    在為孩子施打疫苗之前, 就先判斷疫苗是否可以使用,

  • and therefore is still good for use

    真正確保下一代的安全。

  • before administering this to the child --

    在世界的這些地區, 有一些實施中的解決方案

  • literally securing the next generation.

    能夠拯救生命,挽救社會。

  • These are some of the solutions at work saving lives, redeeming societies,

    但,我要提醒各位,

  • in these parts of the world.

    在它們背後有著強大的點子,

  • But I would remind you

    讓我重述其中幾項。

  • that there are powerful ideas behind them,

    第一,社會信任 和人際信任是不同的。

  • and I'll recap a few.

    第二,在越來越 相互依賴的世界中,

  • One, that social trust is not the same as interpersonal trust.

    消費和規制之間的分歧

  • Two, that the division between consumption and regulation

    已經不再可行。

  • in an increasingly interdependent world

    第三,分散式的自治,

  • is no longer viable.

    不管在西方的區塊鏈熱衷者—— 我很尊敬他們——

  • And three, that decentralized autonomy,

    重要性不如強化 社會問責性回饋循環。

  • regardless of what our blockchain enthusiasts in the West --

    上述是其中一些想法。

  • whom I respect a lot -- say,

    每當我到某個地方做這樣的演說、

  • are not as important as reinforcing social accountability feedback loops.

    提出這些意見、提供這些例子,

  • These are some of the ideas.

    大家就會說: 「若這些點子這麼棒,

  • Now, every time I go somewhere and I give this speech

    為何沒有散播出去? 我從未聽過它們。」

  • and I make these comments and I provide these examples,

    我要向各位保證,

  • people say, "If these ideas are so damn brilliant,

    你們還沒有聽過這些點子的原因,

  • why aren't they everywhere?

    正是我在一開始所提出的論點。

  • I've never heard of them."

    那個論點就是, 在世界上的某些地區,

  • I want to assure you,

    那些好點子無法做大,

  • the reason why you have not heard of these ideas

    因為它們誕生地緯度限制了它們。

  • is exactly the point I made in the beginning.

    我稱之為「心理緯度帝國主義」。

  • And that is that there are parts of the world

    (笑聲)

  • whose good ideas simply don't scale

    那真的就是背後的原因。

  • because of the latitude on which they were born.

    但,各位可能會反駁說: 「嗯,也許那是個重要的問題,

  • I call that "mental latitude imperialism."

    但似乎只是世界上 某些偏僻地區的問題。

  • (Laughter)

    何必把它們全球化?

  • That really is the reason.

    維持地方性不是更好?」

  • But you may counter and say, "Well, maybe it's an important problem,

    那如果,我的回應是告訴你,

  • but it's sort of an obscure problem in parts of the world.

    在我剛才所描述的 每一個問題背後,

  • Why do you want to globalize such problems?

    都可追溯到一個根本的議題: 對於市場和制度的信任在瓦解,

  • I mean, they are better local."

    沒有任何問題比信任問題更 全球性、更普遍、與你我更切身。

  • What if, in response, I told you

    比如,在美國的海鮮市場中

  • that actually, underlying each of these problems that I've described

    有四分之一的標籤是造假的。

  • is a fundamental issue of the breakdown of trust

    當你在曼哈頓購買 一個鮪魚或鮭魚三明治,

  • in markets and institutions,

    你可能就吃下了在日本 因為有毒而遭禁的成份。

  • and that there's nothing more global, more universal, closer to you and I

    真的。

  • than the problem of trust.

    大部分人應該都聽過

  • For example, a quarter of all the seafood marketed in the US is falsely labeled.

    在歐洲有段時間,馬肉被拿來 頂替漢堡中的牛肉,是吧?

  • So when you buy a tuna or salmon sandwich in Manhattan,

    你們聽過,但你們不知道,

  • you are eating something that could be banned for being toxic in Japan.

    這些假肉餅當中有很大一部分

  • Literally.

    也受到鎘污染, 鎘會傷害你的腎臟。

  • Most of you have heard of a time when horsemeat was masquerading as beef

    這是歐洲。

  • in burger patties in Europe?

    許多人都知道飛機會墜機, 你們會擔心墜機,

  • You have.

    是因為偶爾,就會有一個 墜機事件闖進你的意識當中。

  • What you don't know is that a good chunk of these fake meat patties

    但,我敢說你們不知道,

  • were also contaminated with cadmium, which can damage your kidneys.

    一項調查發現, 在美國的空中供應鏈中

  • This was Europe.

    有一百萬件偽造事件。

  • Many of you are aware of plane crashes and you worry about plane crashes,

    所以這是個全球性的問題,絕對是。

  • because every now and then, one of them intrudes into your consciousness.

    是全球性的。

  • But I bet you don't know

    我們之所以沒有 用它應得的急迫性來處理它,

  • that a single investigation uncovered one million counterfeit incidents

    只因為最佳的解決方案,

  • in the aeronautical supply chain in the US.

    最先進的解決方案, 最進步的解決方案,

  • So this is a global problem, full stop.

    很不幸就存在於世界上 解決方案無法做大的那些地區。

  • It's a global problem.

    那就是為什麼,並不意外,

  • The only reason we are not addressing it with the urgency it deserves

    如今歐美在嘗試針對藥品 做出同樣的驗證模型,

  • is that the best solutions,

    但卻已經落後了十年,

  • the most advanced solutions, the most progressive solutions,

    奈及利亞已經有了。

  • are, unfortunately, in parts of the world where solutions don't scale.

    十年,且成本還要高至少一百倍。

  • And that is why it is not surprising

    那就是為什麼在紐約的沃爾格林 連鎖藥局,無法確認藥的來源,

  • that attempts to create this same verification models for pharmaceuticals

    但在北奈及利亞的 邁杜古里卻可以。

  • are now a decade behind in the USA and Europe,

    那就是現實。(掌聲)

  • while it's already available in Nigeria.

    那就是現實。

  • A decade, and costing a hundred times more.

    (掌聲)

  • And that is why, when you walk into a Walgreens in New York,

    我們再回到點子的議題上。

  • you cannot check the source of your medicine,

    別忘了,解決方案 只是包裝過的點子,

  • but you can in Maiduguri in Northern Nigeria.

    所以,最重要的是點子。

  • That is the reality.

    在這個世界中,我們 忽視南方世界的點子,

  • (Applause)

    我們無法創造出全球 通用的問題解決模型。

  • That is the reality.

    各位可能會說:「嗯,那真糟,

  • (Applause)

    但,在這個世界上, 我們還有許多其他問題,

  • So we go back to the issue of ideas.

    我們還需要另一個目標嗎?」

  • Remember, solutions are merely packaged ideas,

    我會說是,我們需要另一個目標。

  • so it is the ideas that are most important.

    事實上,那個目標會讓你們 驚訝:智慧正義的目標。

  • In a world where we marginalize the ideas of the Global South,

    你們會說:「什麼?智慧正義? 在人權被濫用的世界裡?」

  • we cannot create globally inclusive problem-solving models.

    我會這樣解釋:

  • Now, you might say, "Well, that's bad,

    其他問題的解決方案, 若會影響我們、

  • but in such a world where we have so many other problems,

    對抗我們,就也需要解決方案。

  • do we need another cause?"

    需要用最好的點子來處理它們。

  • I say yes, we need another cause.

    那就是為什麼, 今天我想要問大家:

  • Actually, that cause will surprise you: the cause of intellectual justice.

    我們大家能不能一起給予 智慧正義一次機會?

  • You say, "What? Intellectual justice? In a world of human rights abuses?"

    (掌聲)

  • And I explain this way:

  • all the solutions to the other problems that affect us and confront us

  • need solutions.

  • So you need the best ideas to address them.

  • And that is why today I ask you,

  • can we all give it one time for intellectual justice?

  • (Applause)

I am an ideas activist.

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

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為解決全球問題,請向開發中國家看齊 - Bright Simons (To help solve global problems, look to developing countries | Bright Simons)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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