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  • The Higgs Boson Part I: What it is and why it matters

    希格斯玻色子第一部分:它是什麼以及它為什麼重要?

  • Let's cut to the chase: as of July 4, 2012, the Higgs Boson is the last fundamental piece

    讓我們'切入正題:截至2012年7月4日,希格斯玻色子是最後的基本件。

  • of the Standard Model of Particle Physics to be discovered experimentally. "But," you

    粒子物理學標準模型的,要通過實驗來發現。 "但是,"你

  • might ask, "why was the Higgs Boson included in the Standard Model alongside well-known

    也許有人會問,"為什麼希格斯玻色子與著名的 "希格斯玻色子 "一起被列入標準模型?

  • particles like electrons and photons and quarks if it hadn't been discovered back then in

    粒子,如電子和光子和夸克,如果它沒有被發現當時在。

  • the 1970s?" Good question. There are two main reasons:

    20世紀70年代?" 好問題。主要有兩個原因。

  • First, just like the electron is an excitation in the electron field, the Higgs boson is

    首先,就像電子是電子場中的一個激發物一樣,希格斯玻色子也是

  • simply a particle which is an excitation of the everywhere-permeating Higgs field. The

    只是一個粒子,這是一個激發的無處不在滲透希格斯場。該

  • Higgs field, in turn, plays an integral role in our model for radioactive decay, called

    希格斯場則在我們的放射性衰變模型中扮演了不可或缺的角色,稱為

  • the weak nuclear force (in particular, the Higgs field helps explain why it's so weak).

    弱核力(特別是,希格斯場有助於解釋為什麼它'的如此之弱)。

  • We'll talk more about this in a later video, but even though weak nuclear theory was confirmed

    我們'會在後面的視頻中多說幾句,但即使弱核理論被證實了。

  • in the 1980s, in the equations the Higgs field is so inextricably jumbled with the weak force

    在20世紀80年代,在方程中,希格斯場與弱力是如此密不可分地混在一起。

  • that until now we've been unable to confirm its actual and independent existence.

    直到現在我們還無法確認它的實際和獨立存在。

  • The second reason to include the Higgs in the standard model is some jargony business

    將希格斯納入標準模型的第二個原因是一些行話式的商業行為。

  • about the Higgs field giving all other particles mass. But why does stuff need to be "given"

    關於希格斯場 給所有其他粒子的品質。但為什麼東西需要"給予&quot。

  • mass in the first place? Isn't mass just an intrinsic property of matter, like electric

    品質在首位?品質不就是物質的一種內在屬性嗎,就像電一樣。

  • charge? Well, in particle physicsno. Remember that in the Standard Model, we first write

    電荷?嗯,在粒子物理學中......不是。請記住,在標準模型中,我們首先要寫出

  • down a mathematical "ingredients list" of all the particles that we think are in nature

    我們認為自然界中的所有粒子的數學"成分表"。

  • (and their properties). You can watch my "theory of everything" video for a quick refresher.

    以及它們的特性)。你可以看我的"萬物理論"視頻來快速複習。

  • We then run this list through a big fancy mathematical machine, which spits out equations

    然後,我們通過一個大型的數學機器運行這個列表,它吐出方程。

  • that tell us how these particles behave.

    告訴我們這些粒子的行為方式。

  • Except, if we try to include mass as a property for the particles on our ingredients list,

    除非,如果我們嘗試將品質作為粒子的屬性列入配料表。

  • the math-machine breaks. Maybe mass was a poor choicebut most particles we observe

    數學機器壞了也許品質是一個糟糕的選擇... 但我們觀察到的大多數粒子... ...

  • in nature do have mass, so we have to figure out some clever way of using ingredients that

    在自然界中是有品質的,所以我們要想出一些巧妙的方法來使用原料,以達到

  • will spit out mass in the final equations without it being an input - kind of like how

    會在最後的方程中吐出品質,而不需要輸入--這就像是

  • you can let yeast, sugar and water ferment into alcohol that wasn't there to begin with.

    你可以讓酵母,糖和水發酵成酒精,是不是有開始。

  • And as you may be thirstily anticipating, the solution is to toss a yeasty Higgs field

    而你可能會渴求,解決方案是折騰一個酵母希格斯場。

  • in with the other ingredients of the Standard Model, so that when we let the math ferment,

    在與標準模型的其他成分,所以當我們讓數學發酵。

  • we get out particles that have mass! But this model also brews up something we DIDN'T intend:

    我們得到了有品質的粒子!但這個模型也醞釀了一些我們DIDN'T打算:但這個模型也釀成了我們DIDN'T打算的東西。

  • a solitary Higgs particle, the infamous boson. And since the model works so well to explain

    一個孤獨的希格斯粒子, 臭名昭著的玻色子。由於該模型的工作原理如此之好,以解釋

  • everything else, we figured it was pretty likely that the lonely boson is right, too!

    其他的一切,我們認為這是非常可能的 孤獨玻色子是正確的,太!

  • To summarize, the Higgs Boson is a particle which is a left-over excitation of the Higgs

    綜上所述,希格斯玻色子是一種粒子,它是希格斯的遺留激發。

  • field, which in turn was needed in the Standard Model to 1) explain the weak nuclear force

    場,而在標準模型中,這又是需要的,以1)解釋微弱的核力

  • and 2) explain why any of the other particles have mass at all. However, the boson is the

    和2)解釋為什麼其他粒子都有品質。然而,玻色子是

  • only bit of the Higgs field which is independently verifiable, precisely because the other bits

    只有希格斯場的位是可以獨立驗證的,正因為其他位

  • are tangled up in the weak nuclear force and in giving particles mass. The fact that the

    是糾結於弱核力和賦予粒子品質。的事實。

  • Higgs Boson is so independent from the rest of the Standard Model is why it's the last

    希格斯玻色子是如此獨立於標準模型的其餘部分是為什麼它'是最後一個。

  • piece of the puzzle to be discovered - and if it turns out to be exactly what was predicted,

    片的謎題被發現--如果它的結果和預測的完全一樣。

  • the Standard model will be complete.

    標準模型將完成。

  • The only problem is that we know that the standard model ISN'T a complete description

    唯一的問題是,我們知道,標準模型ISN'T一個完整的描述。

  • of the universe (it entirely misses out on gravity, for example). So to physicists, it

    的宇宙(比如說它完全忽略了引力)。所以對物理學家來說,它

  • would be much more interesting AND helpful if the Higgs boson turns out to be not quite

    將是更多的有趣和有用的,如果希格斯玻色子原來是不太

  • what we expectthen we might get a clue as to how to reach a deeper understanding

    我們所期待的... ...那麼我們可能會得到一個線索,如何達到更深的理解。

  • of the universe. So even though we just made a discovery, we can't sit back and relax.

    的宇宙。所以,即使我們剛剛有了發現,我們也不能坐以待斃。

  • We need a hint, Mr. Higgs.

    我們需要一個提示, Higgs先生.

  • Continued in Parts II and III

    續在第二和第三部分

The Higgs Boson Part I: What it is and why it matters

希格斯玻色子第一部分:它是什麼以及它為什麼重要?

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B1 中級 中文 希格斯 粒子 玻色子 希格斯場 品質 標準

希格斯粒子(Higgs particle)是粒子物理標準模型中最後一個尚未被發現的粒子。(The Higgs Boson, Part I)

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    Why Why 發佈於 2013 年 03 月 29 日
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