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  • When you look out onto the world,

    當你仰望世界

  • it certainly appears the Earth is flat.

    理所當然地地球看起來似乎是個平面

  • The ground beneath you is stable and unmoving,

    你腳下的是穩固且恆久不動的地面

  • and stars and sun circle the Earth.

    且星星與太陽環繞在地球周邊

  • Hundreds of years ago,

    數百年前

  • elaborate theories were developed based on these common sense observations

    許多複雜的理論都是基於這些生活常識發展而來

  • to explain and predict the reach of the oceans

    用來解釋與預測目前能觸及的海洋範圍

  • and the movement of celestial bodies.

    及天體運行

  • When science demonstrated that these common sense observations were illusions,

    當科學方法驗證這些常識都只是幻覺

  • and depicted the Earth and the Universe in a completely different way,

    並以截然不同的方式描繪這個地球及宇宙時

  • people slowly came to accept that the world was not as it seemed.

    人們慢慢接受這個世界似乎不是他們看到的這樣

  • Scientific measurements and sophisticated calculations

    科學觀測方法與複雜的計算

  • have repeatedly demonstrated that

    不斷地論證

  • what we think is intuitive, obvious and common sense

    那些我們認為很直觀、很顯而易見,猶如常識般的事實

  • cannot be trusted to be true.

    並不能相信那就是真理

  • For that reason, modern science is based on the denial of common sense

    因此,現代科學就是基於否定這些常識

  • until apparently it comes to ourselves:

    直到我們認清事實

  • when science confirms a particular way of thinking about our mind and behaviour,

    當科學證實一個有關我們的心智與行為的特殊思維方式

  • or depicts it in an unusual and a new way,

    或是以一個新的、不同於平常的方式描繪時

  • we tend to be skeptical that such a science is worthwhile

    我們傾向於懷疑這樣的科學結果是不是值得相信

  • even if possible.

    即使是有可能的

  • And instead, we fall back on intuition, prior beliefs, and yes, common sense.

    相反的,我們寧願回歸到直覺、信念以及,常識

  • For instance, if I told you,

    例如,如果我告訴你

  • scientific research's demonstrated that opposites attract,

    科學研究結果顯示同極相斥、異極相吸

  • wouldn't you tell me that we don't need a science to tell us something we already know?

    難道你們不會告訴我,我們不需要科學來證明這些早就知道的事情?

  • But what if I told you that birds of a feather flock together according to scientific research,

    但如果我告訴你根據科學研究,鳥類有聚集現象

  • wouldn't you say, we don't need a science to tell us something we already know?

    你們不會說,我們不需要科學來告訴我們這些已經知道的事?

  • Or you may have realised already,

    或是你早就已經明白

  • of course, that these both may be self-evident truths,

    當然,這兩個或許都是不證自明的事實

  • but they can't both be true

    但它們都不能成為真理

  • since they are internally inconsistent.

    因為它們本身有所矛盾

  • The science of mind and behaviour is full of such examples:

    像這樣的例子在心智與行為科學裡到處皆是

  • self-evident truths that both can't be true.

    不證自明的事實,兩者都不可能為真理

  • We know, for instance,

    我們都知道,舉例來說

  • that two heads are better than one

    三個臭皮匠勝過一個諸葛亮

  • and we know that too many cooks spoil the broth.

    我們也知道,廚子成群,煮壞肉羹

  • The next time you hear a science report of some obvious result,

    下次你聽到一個有著明顯結果的科學報告時

  • remember that the obvious result was equally obvious,

    記住這明顯的結果同樣地顯而易見,

  • but it'd just been proven to be wrong.

    但它才剛被證實是錯的

  • It's obvious there we're rugged individualists.

    很顯然地,我們是完全的個人主義

  • True, true, true!

    千真萬確!

  • We're born to the most prolonged period of dependency,

    我們出生後便要渡過最長的依賴期

  • but in our transition to adulthood, we achieve autonomy, independence,

    但在成年期之後,我們開始自治、獨立

  • to become kings of the mountain,

    成為自己王國中的領袖

  • captains of our universe.

    生命的領航員

  • It's easily (easy) to think about our brain,

    我們可以將我們的腦袋看得很單純

  • how's deep within a cranial vault, separated, isolated, protected from others,

    在頭蓋骨下有多少容量,由其他器官組織分開、獨立、保護著

  • when we look out onto the social world

    當我們望向這個群居世界

  • other individuals certainly look distinct, independent, self vicinities

    其他個體當然看起來與眾不同、獨立

  • with no forces binding them together.

    沒有強硬的規範便發展出自己的領域

  • No wonder that we forget

    難怪我們忘記了

  • that we are members of a social species,

    我們也是群居物種

  • born dependent on our parents, for our species to survive,

    生下來便得依靠我們的父母,為了我們的物種生存

  • these infants must instantly engage their parents in protective behaviour

    這些嬰兒必須立即進入父母的保護傘下

  • and the parents must care enough about these offspring to nurture and protect them.

    父母們也必須妥善照顧這些幼童,給予充足養份並保護他們

  • Even once grown, we are not particularly splendid specimens.

    即使長大了,我們也不是特別了不起的種類

  • Other animals can run faster

    其他的動物可以跑得更快

  • see and smell better,

    看得更遠,嗅覺更好

  • and fight much more effectively than we can.

    在爭鬥中比我們更加兇猛有力

  • Our evolutionary advantage

    我們演化的優勢

  • is our brain and our ability to communicate, plan and reason and work together.

    就是我們的腦袋,還有溝通、計畫、推導、合作的能力

  • Our survival depends on our collective abilities,

    我們的生存能力依賴群體能力而定

  • not on our individual mind.

    而非個體心智

  • We are connected across our lifespan to one another,

    我們將自己的生命與他人連結在一起

  • through a myriad of invisible forces,

    透過無數無形的力量

  • they're, like gravity, are ubiquitous and powerful.

    就像地心引力,無所不在且強大

  • After all, social species, by definition, create a merging structures

    畢竟,群居物種,就定義上來說,創造了一個可以不斷合併的組織

  • that extend beyond an organism,

    可以透過一個一個生物個體擴張

  • structures that range from couples and families

    這樣的組織範圍從伴侶、家庭

  • to schools and nations and cultures.

    以至於學校、國家甚至文化

  • These structures evolved hand in hand with neural, hormonal and genetic mechanisms to support them

    這些組織在神經系統、荷爾蒙分泌系統、遺傳基因的機制運作下攜手進化

  • because the consequent social behaviour

    因為理所當然的群居行動

  • helps these organisms survive,

    協助這些生物體生存

  • reproduce and leave a genetic legacy.

    繁殖並留下遺傳基因

  • To grow to an adulthood for a social species, including humans,

    對群居物種來說,進入成年期,包括人類

  • is not to become autonomous and solitary,

    不代表就變得自治、獨立生活

  • it's to become the one on whom others can depend.

    而是變得能讓他人依靠

  • Whether we know it or not, our brain and biology

    不論我們是否知道這個事實,我們的頭腦與身體

  • have been shaped to favour this outcome.

    已經被打造得有利於這樣的演變

  • The evolutionary biologist, David Sloan Wilson,

    一位演化生物學家,David Sloan Wilson

  • notes that if you ask people:

    提及,如果你問人們:

  • "What are the traits of a good person?",

    「 什麼是一個好人具備的特徵? 」

  • you'll hear traits such as kind, generous, compassionate and empathic.

    你會聽到如仁慈的、慷慨的、有同情心的、有同理心的

  • If you ask people what are the traits of an evil person,

    如果你問人們,一個壞人有什麼樣的特徵

  • you'll hear traits such as

    你會聽到的特徵可能是

  • cruel, greedy, exploitative and selfish.

    殘忍的、貪婪的、刻薄的與自私的

  • Said differently, the traits of a good person

    換句話說,那些好人的特徵

  • depict someone who cares about themselves and others,

    描述一個人在乎的是他們自己與他人

  • and an evil person cares about themselves

    而一個壞人在乎的是他們自己

  • at the expense of others.

    以及消費他人

  • Across our biological heritage,

    綜觀我們的生物遺傳史

  • our brain and biology have been sculpted to incline us

    我們的頭腦與身體已經被雕塑成傾向

  • to certain ways of feeling, thinking and behaving.

    以特定的方式來感受、思考與行動

  • For instance,

    舉例來說

  • we have a number of biological machineries

    我們有一些生物機制

  • that capitalise on aversive signals to motivate us to act

    利用反感信號來刺激我們做出行動

  • in ways that are essential for our survival.

    做出足以讓我們生存的行動

  • Hunger, for instance, is triggered by low blood sugar

    例如飢餓,是由低血糖引發的反應

  • and motivates you to eat,

    並刺激你,讓你想進食

  • an important early warning system for an organism

    一個重要的預警系統

  • that'd require much more time and effort to find food

    對一個需要花費許多時間與精力才能找到食物的生物體來說相當重要

  • than going to the refrigerator door, kitchen cabinet

    相較於打開冰箱門、櫥櫃

  • or fast food restaurants.

    或直接去速食餐廳就能找到食物的生物體來說就不那麼重要

  • Thirst is an aversive signal,

    口渴也是個反感信號

  • that motivates us to search for drinkable water

    刺激我們去尋找可飲用水

  • prior to falling victim to dehydration.

    在脫水死亡之前

  • And pain is an aversive system that notifies us of potential tissue damage

    疼痛也是個反感系統,通知我們潛在的身體危害

  • and motivates us to take care of our physical body.

    並刺激我們好好照顧自己的身體

  • You might think that the biological warning machinery stops there

    你可能會想,生物的警示機制就到此為止

  • but there's more.

    但其實不然

  • Although not common sense, although not intuitive,

    雖然這並非常識,雖然這不直觀

  • the pain and aversiveness of loneliness,

    寂寞造成的痛苦與厭惡感

  • of feeling isolated from those around you,

    被周遭孤立的痛苦與厭惡感

  • is also a part of biological early warning machinery

    也是生物預警機制的一部分

  • to alert you to threats and damage to your social body,

    警告你身為群居動物,目前的情況已經造成威脅與損害了

  • which you also need to survive and prosper.

    那也是你為了生存及再次振作所必需的預警機制

  • Just about all of us have felt physical pain

    我們所有人都曾感受到身體上的疼痛

  • and nearly all of us have felt

    也幾乎所有人都曾感受

  • the heartbreak of home sickness,

    痛苦的思鄉之情

  • the agony of bereavement,

    生離死別

  • the torment of unrequited love

    單相思的折磨

  • and the pain of being shunt.

    及分離的痛苦

  • All of these are variations on the experience of loneliness.

    這些各式各樣的感受都屬於寂寞的經歷

  • When I started to study the effects of loneliness

    當我數十年前開始研究寂寞

  • and brain and biology a couple of decades ago,

    頭腦與身體間的關係時

  • loneliness has been characterized as a non-chronic disease

    寂寞曾經被歸類為非慢性疾病

  • without redeeming features.

    沒有改善的特徵

  • It was even equated with shyness and depression

    孤獨的人同時也被視為是害羞的、壓抑的

  • with being a loner, a person with marginal social skills.

    他們是不善於社交活動的人

  • Scientific measurements and sophisticated calculations,

    科學量測方法與複雜的計算

  • to our surprise, revealed that these were myths.

    出乎意料地,顯示這些都只是迷思

  • Science and common sense had again produced

    科學與常識間

  • two very different depictions of a phenomenon.

    再次對一個現象做出兩個迥異的解釋

  • And yet if you look at the way we are increasingly living our lives,

    然而,如果你仔細看看我們生活周遭

  • it shows the extent to which we still buy into

    在某種程度上我們還是對這些迷思買帳

  • those myths of loneliness and values of autonomy and independence.

    那些對寂寞的迷思,以及自治與獨立的價值觀

  • For instance, if you look at

    舉例來說,如果你看到這張圖

  • the percentage of one-person households in 1940 across the United States

    這是美國西元 1940 年一人家戶單位的百分比分佈圖

  • it was largely less than 15% of the households by state.

    美國大部份地區地一人家戶單位都在 15 % 以下

  • Fast-forward to 1970,

    快速地來到西元 1970 年

  • and it's grown to be between 15 and 20%.

    現在大部分地區都落在 15 到 20 %

  • Fastforward to 2000

    到了西元 2000 年

  • and it now exceeds 25% in most states in America.

    在美國大部份地區,都已經超過 25%

  • And that light blue state, Utah

    而那個淡藍色區塊,猶他州

  • in 2010 census has gone darker blue.

    在西元 2010 年的人口統計數據下顯示,它已經變成深藍色了

  • The prevalence of loneliness is also on the rise.

    名為「 寂寞 」的傳染病不斷蔓延

  • In the 1980s, scholars have estimated that about 20% of Americans

    西元 1980 年代,學者的評估結果顯示大約有 20% 的美國人

  • felt lonelier than at any given point of time.

    感覺寂寞,比例為歷年來最高

  • Two recent nationally representative surveys indicate

    而兩個近年來進行的全國性問卷調查顯示

  • that this number has doubled,

    這個數據已經到達 40%

  • but you don't hear people talking about feeling lonely,

    但你不會聽到人們提到他們感到寂寞

  • and that's because loneliness is stigmatised.

    因為寂寞已經被汙名化

  • The psychological equivalent to being a loser in life or a weak person.

    這樣的心理問題等同於你是一個人生失敗者或是一個脆弱的人

  • And this is truly unfortunate,

    這也的確是個不幸的事

  • because it means we are more likely to deny feeling lonely,

    因為這代表我們更有可能否認自己感到寂寞

  • which makes no more sense than denying we feel hunger, thirst or pain.

    這比我們否認自己感到饑餓、口渴或疼痛還要沒有意義

  • For living with loneliness we now know is the major risk factor

    我們現在已經了解孤獨的生活是最主要的風險因子

  • for broad-based morbidity and mortality.

    是不斷上升的罹病率與死亡率的原因

  • Consider a couple of the conditions we know about premature death.

    試想一些我們認知的可能導致早死的情況

  • Living with air pollution increases your odds of an early death by 5%,

    生活在空氣汙染中使你早死的機率提升 5 %

  • Living with obesity, we know, a national health problem,

    而肥胖,眾所皆知,一個全國性的健康問題

  • increases your odds of an early death by 20%.

    提升你的早死機率 20 %

  • Excessive alcohol consumption: 30%.

    過度酗酒:30 %

  • A recent med analysis of around a hundred thousand participants

    近來一個大約有 10 萬人參與的醫學分析

  • shows that living with loneliness increases your odds

    顯示生活在孤獨之中

  • of an