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Many elements of traditional Japanese culture,
such as cuisine
and martial arts,
are well-known throughout the world.
Kabuki, a form of classical theater performance,
may not be as well understood in the West
but has evolved over 400 years
to still maintain influence and popularity to this day.
The word Kabuki is derived
from the Japanese verb kabuku,
meaning out of the ordinary or bizarre.
Its history began in early 17th century Kyoto,
where a shrine maiden named Izumo no Okuni
would use the city's dry Kamo Riverbed as a stage
to perform unusual dances for passerby,
who found her daring parodies of Buddhist prayers
both entertaining and mesmerizing.
Soon other troops began performing
in the same style,
and Kabuki made history
as Japan's first dramatic performance form
catering to the common people.
By relying on makeup, or keshou,
and facial expressions instead of masks
and focusing on historical events
and everyday life rather than folk tales,
Kabuki set itself apart
from the upper-class dance theater form
known as Noh,
and provided a unique commentary on society
during the Edo period.
At first, the dance was practiced only by females
and commonly referred to as Onna-Kabuki.
It soon evolved to an ensemble performance
and became a regular attraction at tea houses,
drawing audiences from all social classes.
At this point, Onna-Kabuki was often risqué
as geishas performed not only to show off
their singing and dancing abilities
but also to advertise their bodies to potential clients.
A ban by the conservative Tokugawa shogunate
in 1629
led to the emergence of Wakashu-Kabuki
with young boys as actors.
But when this was also banned for similar reasons,
there was a transition to Yaro-Kabuki,
performed by men,
necessitating elaborate costumes and makeup
for those playing female roles,
or onnagata.
Attempts by the government to control Kabuki
didn't end with bans on the gender
or age of performers.
The Tokugawa military group,
or Bakufu,
was fueled by Confucian ideals
and often enacted sanctions
on costume fabrics,
stage weaponry,
and the subject matter of the plot.
At the same time,
Kabuki became closely associated with
and influenced by Bunraku,
an elaborate form of puppet theater.
Due to these influences,
the once spontaneous, one-act dance
evolved into a structured, five-act play
often based on the tenets of Confucian philosophy.
Before 1868, when the Tokugawa shogunate fell
and Emperor Meiji was restored to power,
Japan had practiced isolation from other countries,
or Sakoku.
And thus, the development of Kabuki
had mostly been shaped by domestic influences.
But even before this period,
European artists, such as Claude Monet,
had become interested in
and inspired by Japanese art,
such as woodblock prints,
as well as live performance.
After 1868, others such as Vincent van Gogh
and composer Claude Debussy
began to incorporate Kabuki influences in their work,
while Kabuki itself underwent
much change and experimentation
to adapt to the new modern era.
Like other traditional art forms,
Kabuki suffered in popularity
in the wake of World War II.
But innovation by artists
such as director Tetsuji Takechi
led to a resurgence shortly after.
Indeed, Kabuki was even considered
a popular form of entertainment
amongst American troops stationed in Japan
despite initial U.S. censorship
of Japanese traditions.
Today, Kabuki still lives on
as an integral part of Japan's rich cultural heritage,
extending its influence beyond the stage
to television,
film,
and anime.
The art form pioneered by Okuni
continues to delight audiences
with the actors' elaborate makeup,
extravagant and delicately embroidered costumes,
and the unmistakable melodrama
of the stories told on stage.
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【TED-Ed】歌舞伎:用動畫帶你認識日本的傳統戲劇文化 (Kabuki: The people's dramatic art - Amanda Mattes)

29488 分類 收藏
阿多賓 發佈於 2018 年 4 月 17 日   Jenny 翻譯   Evangeline 審核

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你們知道歌舞伎是日本獨有的劇場藝術,同時也是日本的傳統文化之一嗎?想了解更多歌舞伎的歷史嗎?一起來看看影片吧!

1risqué1:32
risqué 這個字其實是法文,意思是「近乎淫猥的;有傷風化的」,當形容詞使用。
Social media nowadays is full of risqué pictures and comments.
現在的社群網站充斥著粗俗的照片和留言。


2enact2:!3
其字首 en 有「加諸;使;造成;提供」等意思,而加上動詞 act 「行動」,即衍伸出 enact 的意思為「實施;表演;制定 (法律)」。
The play he wrote was enacted by his son using music and dance.
他寫的劇本由他兒子以音樂和舞蹈的形式演出。


*同場加映:
【TED-Ed】什麼?打哈欠也會傳染?! (Why is yawning contagious? - Claudia Aguirre)


3sanction2:13
sanction 在影片當中為名詞,意思是「制裁」,但 enact 也有其他常用的意思,像是「(爲維護法律或規定而採取的) 強硬措施;(正式獲法律的) 認可」
The government announced economic sanctions on invading countries.
政府對於侵略的國家採取經濟制裁。


*同場加映:
政府可以限制你的性生活嗎? (Can The Government Regulate Your Sex Life?)


4elaborate2:24
在影片中當形容詞,有「精心計劃的;精巧的」的意思,elaborate 另一個常用的意思是當動詞,有「詳盡說明;闡述」,to elaborate on something 即是「對於某事詳細解釋」。
To guarantee the quality of the movie, the crew made elaborate costumes for the actors.
為了確保電影的品質,工作人員製作了精巧的戲服。

I have no idea how retirement pensions work. Could you elaborate on that?
對於退休金機制我一點概念都沒有,可以請你詳細解釋嗎?


*同場加映:
【TED-Ed】威尼斯貢多拉小船的歷史演變 (Corruption, wealth and beauty: The history of the Venetian gondola - Laura Morelli)


5spontaneous2:28
spontaneous 當形容詞,有「主動的;非籌劃安排的;不由自主的」的意思。
He made a spontaneous offer to help his teacher.
他自願幫老師的忙。


*同場加映:
【TED-Ed】為何你會愛上「他/她」? (The science of attraction - Dawn Maslar)


看完影片是不是覺得很想去日本看看歌舞伎呢?還能順便吃個日本美食呢!

文/ HsiangLanLee

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