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  • ...six months ago, and I emailed asking if I can please come.

    ...六個月前,我寫信問主辦單位,我能不能來參加。

  • I just wanted to sit in the audience

    我只是想坐在台下當觀眾,

  • and watch to learn more about Cambodia.

    增加對柬埔寨的了解。

  • And they said, "Sure, you can come.

    他們回覆:「當然,你可以來。

  • You will be doing your talk on the first morning."

    你的演講是安排在第一天早上。」

  • And I said, "Oh, talk. Okay."

    我說:「喔,演講呀。好。」

  • So, I'm going to talk to you for just three minutes

    那麼,我會用短短三分鐘的時間,

  • about the importance of why you need to try

    與各位談談,嘗試更多錯誤

  • to make more mistakes.

    的重要性。

  • Because everybody here,

    因為,

  • no matter what, everybody has something

    不論如何,在座的各位

  • that you would like to do,

    每個人都有想做

  • but that you're scared to do.

    卻不敢去做的事。

  • And the reason you're scared to do it is

    而不敢去做的原因,

  • because you think you will fail horribly

    是因為覺得自己會徹底失敗,

  • and everything will go wrong.

    然後一切都毀了。

  • So, I'm going to tell you that it is important

    所以,我來跟大家說,

  • to make those mistakes, and you have to try to

    這些錯誤是重要的,你也必須放手去試。

  • for very scientific reasons, like this:

    這是有科學根據的

  • Number one, learning.

    首先,是學習。

  • The way that you learn is by making mistakes,

    從錯誤中學習

  • in the same way that muscles are built.

    跟增強肌肉一樣。

  • What this means is that

    這個意思是指

  • when you are in a gym, for example,

    舉例來講,當你在健身房

  • and you are lifting some kind of weight

    要進行重量訓練,

  • that is too strong for you to lift

    但啞鈴太重,

  • and you get that kind of quivering,

    然後手臂開始顫抖

  • and you can't lift it,

    而無法將啞鈴舉起。

  • what is actually happening is little muscle fibers inside,

    這個時候,體內的肌纖維

  • some of them are tearing, literally tearing.

    有些正在撕裂。

  • And over the next two days,

    接下來的兩天時間,

  • the muscle fibers repair themselves.

    這些肌纖維會自我修復。

  • Every time they repair,

    每次自我修復,

  • they repair themselves a little stronger,

    這些肌纖維會變得更強一點,

  • and a little big bigger to adapt for future use.

    更大一點,以應付未來的需要。

  • So, like there is a saying,

    正如那句俗語:

  • "No pain, no gain."

    「不經一事,不長一智 」

  • And it's the same with the brain.

    增強腦力也是同樣的道理。

  • So, please take a second, and... take ten seconds,

    請看一下....十秒好了

  • and look at these two sets of words.

    來看看這兩組單字。

  • Okay.

    時間到。

  • In multiple tests,

    經多次實驗,

  • they found that people remember this second set of words

    結果得知,人們記住第二組的單字

  • three times as much as they remember the first set of words.

    比第一組的多三倍。

  • And neuroscientists have studied why,

    神經學家研究發現其原因是

  • it's when you are looking at

    當你在看這些單字,

  • these words and you find a little gap,

    然後發現有缺字,

  • your brain has to struggle for a second.

    你的腦袋必須奮戰一下

  • It actually is kind of failing.

    這算是一種挫敗

  • It doesn't know what it is at first

    一開始看不出來是什麼字,

  • and it takes a second to fill in the gap,

    再花1秒鐘填補那個空缺之後,

  • and then it figures it out.

    才弄清楚那是什麼字。

  • And that one second of struggle

    那一秒鐘的奮戰,

  • makes all the difference in the world.

    影響深遠。

  • That's why you retain the knowledge

    這就是為什麼你記得的資訊

  • on the right hand side more than the left.

    比較多是右邊的,而不是左邊的。

  • You remember things you learned with some failures

    跟一帆風順比起來,

  • and with some mistakes,

    從挫敗與失誤中學到的東西,

  • more than the things were easy.

    會記得比較清楚。

  • So, to learn more effectively,

    因此,想要更有效率的學習,

  • you need make more mistakes.

    你需要經歷更多的錯誤。

  • Doing what you know is fun,

    做已知的事情是愜意的,

  • but doesn't improve you.

    但不會讓你進步。

  • So reason number one why you need to make more mistakes

    所以,需要更多錯誤的第一個原因是

  • is learning.

    學習。

  • Number two is that quantity leads to quality.

    第二個原因,量造就質。

  • And this comes from a story about a pottery class.

    這個源自於一個陶藝課的故事。

  • There was a university class

    有一個大學課程

  • where they teach pottery making, I guess.

    我想是在教陶藝吧。

  • And the teacher tried an experiment one day,

    有一天...應該說,是有一個學期,

  • or one semester I should say.

    老師做了一項實驗。

  • At the beginning of class for the whole semester,

    學期初的第一堂課,

  • he said, "Ok, class, I'm going to do an experiment."

    他說:「好,各位同學,我們來進行一項實驗。」

  • I'll stand in the middle to do it right here.

    我先站到中間來,示範給大家看。

  • He said, "Everybody on the left-hand side of the class,

    他說:「在我左手邊的同學,

  • for the entire semester, you are going to work

    這個學期的作業

  • on just one pot, all semester.

    只要作一個陶壺就好。

  • And at the end of semester,

    學期結束的時候,

  • you will be graded on the perfection of that one pot.

    那一個陶壺的完美程度,將會是你的成績。」

  • He said, "Everybody on the right-hand side of the class,

    他接著說:「在我右手邊的同學,

  • you are going to be graded sheerly on quantity.

    你們的成績只會依據作品的數量來評分。

  • I don't care what you make,

    不管你們的作品是什麼,

  • I don't care what it looks like, I won't even look at it.

    也不管它長怎樣,我連看都不會看。

  • But in the last day of class,

    在最後一堂課的時候,

  • I'm going to bring in my bathroom scale,

    我會帶體重計來,

  • and we're going to weight it.

    然後進行秤量。

  • Anybody who has made over 15 pounds of pots, gets an A.

    陶壺總重超過15磅的同學,可以拿到 A

  • Anybody who made over 14 pounds of pots,

    超過14磅的同學,

  • gets a B. C, etc.

    可以拿到 B,再來是C,以此類推。」

  • So that's it. So the whole semester,

    就這樣。 接下來的整個學期

  • this half of room was working

    這半邊的學生

  • just on one pot all semester.

    只需要作一個陶壺;

  • This half of room will just throw in

    另一邊的學生

  • pieces of clay on anything and it didn't matter,

    拿陶土亂丟也無所謂,

  • they were just messing around.

    因為就是胡搞瞎玩。

  • On the final day of class,

    於是,到了學期末的最後一堂課。

  • the teacher brought in a few outside observers,

    老師帶了幾位校外人士來,

  • I guess they were pottery aficionados,

    我猜他們是陶藝玩家

  • that came to look at these pots.

    來欣賞這些陶壺。

  • And he didn't tell the judges

    但老師並沒有告知這些評審

  • which half of room the pots came from.

    哪些陶壺是哪邊的學生製作的。

  • And maybe you are not surprised,

    也許你們對於結果不感到驚訝

  • but all of the best pots in the final day

    但是當天所有評價最好的陶壺

  • came from this half of class.

    都來自這半邊的同學。

  • Because what they found is that all semester,

    他們發現,整個學期下來,

  • this half of class just kept trying stuff,

    這邊的學生一直不斷嘗試、

  • doing things, and making mistakes,

    動手做、犯錯、

  • and doing experiments,

    做實驗。

  • and getting so much experience making pots

    他們得到了很多的實作經驗,

  • that they got so much better.

    自然也就進步了。

  • Whereas this half had spent the whole semester

    而另外一邊的學生用一個學期的時間

  • coming up with grandiose theories,

    構思了雄偉的理論。

  • and at the end of semester

    到了學期末,

  • had nothing more to show for it

    交出來的,

  • than some fancy theories and a mediocre pot.

    只是華麗不實的理論,跟一個平庸無奇的陶壺。

  • So, anyway. Why you need to make more mistakes?

    總之,為什麼需要更多錯誤?

  • Number one, it enhances your learning.

    第一、它會強化學習。

  • Number two, it's that quantity, just doing things,

    第二、錯誤就是數量,

  • and making mistakes, and messing up,

    放手去作,不斷的犯錯、搞砸,

  • in the end leads to better quality anyway.

    終究還是會得到更好的品質。

  • And lastly, I went to a music school,

    最後,我念的是音樂學校,

  • I went to a jazz school in Boston,

    一間在波士頓的爵士樂學校,

  • called Brooklyn School of Music.

    校名是 布魯克林音樂學院。

  • And there is a common saying in jazz that

    爵士樂裡有一個名言:

  • if you're not making mistakes,

    如果你沒有犯錯,

  • you're not trying hard enough.

    表示你不夠努力。

  • In classical music, everybody aims for perfection.

    在古典樂領域中,大家都追求完美。

  • But in jazz, it's like if somebody gets up there and plays a perfect solo,

    但在爵士樂,如果是無懈可擊的完美獨奏,

  • you kinda go "um!".

    台下只會興致淡淡的回應「嗯」

  • But if somebody gets up there and they're reaching for new notes,

    如果是在嘗試新的音符,

  • they are hitting some occasional squeakers,

    偶而還會出現破音,

  • you go, "yeah, right on!"

    台下會很熱烈地歡呼「喔!讚啦!」

  • So, and lastly it's a lot of more fun.

    最後的最後,這樣比較有趣。

  • Thanks!

    謝謝!

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

...six months ago, and I emailed asking if I can please come.

...六個月前,我寫信問主辦單位,我能不能來參加。

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