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  • Good afternoon.

    午安。

  • When I first got to MIT in 1978 Michael Dertouzos,

    當我 1978 年第一次到麻省理工學院時,我參加了

  • who's the head of the laboratory for computer science held a meeting.

    電腦科學實驗室負責人德托羅斯(Michael Dertouzos) 所舉行的一場研討會,

  • There was a several day retreat in Endicott House Conference center.

    那研討會在 Endicott House 會議中心開了幾天,

  • In which he assembled the greatest minds

    在那研討會,他邀集了當時

  • in computer science really at the time

    電腦科學界最聰明的人們來,

  • to figure out the question of what people

    一起弄清楚到底

  • might want to do with what was then called

    人們會想要怎麼使用

  • home computers.

    那個叫做家用電腦的東西。

  • The word personal computers really hadn't

    當時個人電腦這個字

  • come into the lexicon yet.

    事實上,還不算是個辭彙。

  • Now these were the first computers that

    這些是第一批

  • you didn't have to build.

    你無需組裝的電腦,

  • These were the first computers that you

    這些是第一批

  • could actually buy.

    你可以買下來的電腦。

  • And these great computer scientists got together

    這些優秀的電腦科學家聚在那裡,

  • and I was invited to the meeting

    而我被邀請參加那會議的原因是

  • because I had begun my studies of computers and people.

    當時我已開始我關於電腦和人的研究,

  • They got together and they kind of gave it their best shot.

    他們聚在一起,試著丟出最好的想法,

  • Somebody suggested the children might wanna learn to program,

    有人建議,孩子們可能想學習程式設計,

  • listen to respectfully, maybe.

    在座的人洗耳恭聽,「也許」。

  • Somebody suggested that we would want to put our

    有人建議我們也許會想把

  • address books on computers and people laughed,

    我們的地址簿放到電腦裡,然後在座的人笑了,

  • and said well actually paper and pencil, little books paper was perfect for that

    他們說,嗯,紙、鉛筆、小本子才是最棒的,

  • because most people didn't have a data base,

    因為當時大多數人並沒有資料庫,

  • they had a couple of names and addresses so that didn't make a lot of sense.

    他們只有幾個姓名和地址,所以這派不上用場。

  • Some people suggested well a calendar and actually people said well no,

    有些人建議放日曆進去,呃,大家都說不大好,

  • I don't like using the computer for my calendar.

    我不喜歡把電腦作為日曆,

  • I really find the little Filofax is much better.

    我真的覺得小小的 Filofax 萬用手冊要好用多了,

  • You can flip through it's much more practical.

    你可以翻閱它,非常方便。

  • I tell this story because I think it's very important to know,

    我講這個故事,因為我認為有一件重要的事是,

  • to remember that really not that long ago,

    要記住,這真的不是很久以前的事。

  • we were trying to figure out how we would keep computers busy.

    我們當時試著發掘到底該如何使電腦保持忙碌。

  • And you know, now we know that once we networked with each other.

    你知道,現在我們知道了,一旦我們互相連結,

  • Once computers were our portal to being with each other,

    一旦電腦成為讓我們互相連結的入口,

  • we really don't have to worry about keeping computers busy.

    我們真的不用擔心如何使電腦忙碌;

  • They keep us busy.

    它們使我們忙碌,

  • It's kind of as though we are their killer app.

    這有點像......我們是它們的殺手級應用軟體。

  • So how does that work?

    所以它怎麼做?

  • We're on our email, our games, our virtual worlds.

    我們處理我們的電子郵件、我們的遊戲、我們的虛擬世界,

  • We text each other at family dinners, while we jog, while we drive,

    我們在家庭晚餐時傳短訊、在我們慢跑時、在我們開車時,

  • we take our lives into our hands to do that

    我們冒著生命危險做著這些事,

  • even with our kids in the back seat of the car.

    甚至當我們的孩子坐在車後座的時候;

  • We text each other at funerals,

    我們在葬禮中互傳短訊,

  • we go to the park and we push swings with one hand

    我們去公園時只用一隻手推著鞦韆,

  • and we scroll through our messages with each other.

    然後流覽彼此之間的訊息。

  • Lot of my research is observing families and you know, this is what I see.

    我許多的研究是觀察家庭,你知道,這是我所看到的。

  • The children who I interview say that their parents read them Harry Potter again.

    我採訪的孩子們跟我說, 他們的爸媽會不斷重念哈利波特,

  • With their right hand reading the book and the left hand scrolling through

    因為他們右手拿著這本書讀,而左手

  • the messages on the Blackberry.

    刷著黑莓機上的郵件。

  • Children describe that moment at school pickup.

    孩子們描述家長在學校接送他們的那些時刻,

  • They'll never tell you that they care but they describe that moment

    他們永遠不會告訴你,他們在乎這,但他們會描述那一刻

  • where they come out of school you know looking for that moment of eye contact

    在他們走出學校,你知道的,逡巡目光接觸的那一刻,

  • and instead of that moment of eye contact with the parent

    但那一刻,他們沒有獲得父母的目光,

  • who after all had shown up at school pickup

    他們的爸媽呢,嗯,畢竟來到學校接孩子了,

  • that parent is looking at the iPhone looking at the smartphone and is reading mail.

    但他們卻盯著自己的 iPhone,看著智慧手機,閱讀著郵件,

  • So from the moment this generation of children met technology,

    所以,從這一代兒童面對科技的那一刻起,

  • it was a competition and now they've grown up and today's teenagers,

    就處於一種競爭狀態。現在他們長大了,今天已成了青少年,

  • this generation of children who've grown up with technology being the competition,

    這一代與科技爭寵的孩子大了,

  • they now have their turn to live in a culture of distraction.

    現在,輪到他們活在一個分心的文化裡。

  • And what do they tell me?

    而他們告訴我什麼呢?

  • They tell me they sleep with their cell phones.

    他們告訴我,他們和自己的手機睡在一起。

  • They begin by saying, well I use it as an alarm clock,

    他們一開始會說,我拿它作鬧鐘,

  • and then they come clean and they say well actually

    然後他們招供,說,嗯,事實上

  • it's not just because I use it as an alarm clock.

    我不只因為把它當拿來做鬧鐘而已,

  • They want to sleep with it just in case they get a message or they want to communicate

    他們想和它睡在一起,因為他們如果得到一條訊息, 他們或許想要回應,

  • and then they say even when their phones are put away --

    然後他們說,甚至當他們的電話不在手邊時,

  • let's say relegated to their school locker --

    比如在學校更衣櫃裡,

  • they know when they have a message or a call,

    當他們知道有一條消息或一通電話

  • they feel that, they can tell at long distance that they have a message or a call

    他們覺得,他們在遠處 就可以感覺到有一條短訊或者一通未接電話。

  • they say they can just sense it.

    他們說,他們就是可以感覺到。

  • Indeed adults as well as teens report that they feel their phones vibrating.

    的確,成人和青少年們說,他們會察覺到他們電話的震動,

  • Even when they are not.

    甚至連手機沒震動時也是。

  • This is a well known phenomenon, it's called the phantom ring.

    這是一種眾所周知的現象,它被稱作幻鈴聲,

  • It's been reported all over.

    到處都有這樣的報告。

  • When you take our phones away from us,

    當你把我們的電話拿走時,

  • we become anxious, we become impossible, really.

    我們變得焦慮不安,我們變得什麽事情都不能做,真的。

  • Modern technology has become like a phantom limb, it is so much a part of us.

    現代科技已宛若幻肢,它是如此地成為了我們的一部分。

  • So what is the arc of the story that I want to tell?

    所以這個故事延伸出的意義是什麼?

  • Only fifteen years ago looking at the early internet,

    僅僅十五年前,看看早期的網路,

  • I felt an incredible sense of optimism.

    我感到一種令人難以置信的樂觀。

  • I saw a place for identity experimentation

    我看到一個身份實驗的地方,

  • I called it an identity workshop,

    我把它稱為一種試驗各種自我的身份工作坊,

  • for trying out aspects of self that were hard to experiment with in the physical real

    這是一種在真實世界中難以試驗的場域,

  • and all of this happens and all of this is still wondrous.

    所有這一切都發生了,而且依舊奇妙無窮。

  • But what I didn't see coming, and I like to tell my students

    但我當時沒預知到的是,我想告訴我的學生,

  • call me not prescient.

    我並沒有先見之明,

  • What I didn't see coming and what we have now is that

    我當時沒預知到我們現在所擁有的是

  • mobile connectivity, that world of devices always on and always on us,

    行動連結—那通訊設備的世界永遠處於我們周遭。

  • would mean that we would be able basically to bail out of the physical real at anytime,

    這意味著,我們基本上在任何時候,都能夠從真實世界抽身,

  • to go to all of the other places and spaces that we have available to us

    去任何我們可以、並且想要

  • and that we would want to.

    抵達的任何其他場所及空間。

  • One man I interviewed, who plays with his kids in the park

    有一個我所採訪的對象,他和他的孩子在公園玩,

  • while he talks to his virtual mistress on iPhone, calls it the life mix.

    同時呢,他和他虛擬的情婦在 iPhone 上通話,他說這是多元化生活。

  • So I guess you could say that what I'm talking about

    所以,我猜你們可能會說,我在說著有關

  • are the perils of going from multitasking

    從多工處理

  • to multi-lifing, the perils of the life mix.

    向多元生活轉換過程中的危險性。

  • Technology proposes itself as the architect of our intimacies.

    科技將它自己呈現為我們親密關係的創造者,

  • And these days there is no coyness about its aspiration

    而這些年來,它熱切地、並且不再羞於

  • to substitute life on the screen for the other kind.

    將我們的生活替換為另一種在螢幕上的生活。

  • Technology is seductive when its affordences meet our human vulnerabilities.

    當科技的用途能夠滿足我們人類弱點的時候,它是誘人的。

  • And it turns out we are very vulnerable indeed.

    而結果顯示,我們都很脆弱。

  • We are lonely but fearful of intimacy.

    我們很孤獨,但畏懼親密關係。

  • Connectivity offers for many of us,

    對多數人而言,網絡連結提供了

  • the illusion of companionship without the demands of friendship.

    一種陪伴卻不尋求友誼的錯覺。

  • We can't get enough of each other -- if we can have each other at a distance

    我們彼此是如此地需要對方—— 然而前提是,我們可以保持距離,

  • in amounts that we can control.

    保持一種我們可以控制的距離。

  • Think of Goldilocks, not too close, not too far, just right.

    想想《金髮女孩與三隻熊》的故事吧, 不太近,不太遠,就只是剛剛好。

  • Connection made to measure, that's the new promise.

    可以衡量的連結,這是新的承諾。

  • The ability to hide from each other even as we are continually connected to each other.

    即使在我們不斷地連接到彼此時,我們依然可以隱藏自己。

  • To put it too simply, we would rather text than talk.

    簡單地說,我們寧願傳簡訊而不是交談。

  • Online connections bring so many bounties.

    網路連結帶來許多收穫,

  • But our lives of continual connection also leave us vulnerable.

    但我們持續連結的生活使我們脆弱。

  • Often we are too busy communicating to think.

    我們常常太忙於交換訊息,以至於停止思考,

  • Too busy communicating to create,

    太忙於交換訊息,以至於無法創造新事物,

  • too busy communicating to really connect

    太忙於交換訊息,以至於無法真正地

  • with the people we're with in the ways that would really count.

    與人們真實地連結彼此。

  • In continual contact, we're alone together.

    在不間斷地的聯繫中,我們一起孤獨。

  • To paraphrase Thoreau, where do we live and what do we live for

    套用梭羅的話,在這種新型緊密連結的生活中

  • in our new tethered lives

    我們身處何處,又為何而活?

  • or in other words, what do we have, now that we have what we say we want,

    換句話說,我們現在得到了什麼是我們說我們想要的?

  • now that we have what technology makes easy?

    科技又因為什麽而讓我們可以感覺自如呢?

  • In corporations, among circles of teenage and adult friends,

    在公司裡、在青少年和成年的朋友圈之間、

  • within academic departments, people readily admit that they would rather text

    在學院系所裡,人們毫不猶豫地承認,他們會寧願發短訊

  • or send an email than talk face to face.

    或寄電子郵件,而不是面對面交談。

  • Some who say I live my life on my blackberry,

    那些宣稱「我活在我的黑莓手機裡」的人

  • are forthright about avoiding real-time commitment of a phone call.

    他們直截了當地避免一通電話的即時承諾。

  • When you text, one young man says, you have more time to think about what you're writing

    一個年輕人說,傳短訊時,你有更多的時間去斟酌要寫什麼。

  • on the telephone too much might show.

    而講電話可能會透露太多。

  • Here we use technology to dial down human contact and there's that Goldilocks thing.

    在這裡,我們使用科技來減少與人的接觸, 而這存在著《金髮女孩與三隻熊》所傳達的,

  • To titrate it's nature and extent.

    要把與人接觸的本質和程度控制到剛剛好。

  • People are comforted by being in touch with a lot of people, whom they also keep at bay.

    人們樂於和許朋友往來,同時,他們彼此也保持距離。

  • And we confront a paradox.

    於是,我們面臨一個矛盾狀態,

  • We insist that our world is increasingly complex

    我們堅定地認為,我們的世界變得越來越複雜

  • yet we've created a communication's culture

    然而,我們創造了一個溝通文化

  • that has decreased the time available for us to sit and think,

    這樣的溝通文化已減少了供我們坐下和思考的時間,

  • uninterrupted we've ramp up the volume and velocity of communication

    它不間斷地加大我們溝通的音量和速度,

  • but we start to expect fast answers.

    但我們開始期望快速的答案了。

  • And in order to get them we ask each other simpler questions,

    爲了得到這些答案,我們彼此詢問較為簡單的問題,

  • we start to dumb down our communication,

    我們開始簡化我們的溝通,

  • even on the most important matters.

    即便在討論最重要的事項的時候也是如此。

  • Shakespeare might have said,

    莎士比亞也許會說,

  • we are consumed with that which we are nourished by.

    我們與那滋養過我們的一切,一同消殘。

  • This flood of connection affects the development of the self in many ways,

    這宛如洪水般的網絡連結, 在許多方面,影響了自我的發展。

  • here I am just going to mention one of them.

    在這裡,我只略述其中之一,

  • Let's call it, I share therefore I am.

    讓我們這麼描述吧:我分享,所以我存在。

  • For so many I have studied, things go from I have a feeling, I want to make a call,

    在我許多的研究案例中,這些分享的事, 從我的感覺、我想打通電話,

  • to I want to have a feeling, I need to send a text.

    到我想擁有一份感覺,我必須傳送簡訊。

  • In other words the validation of a feeling becomes part of establishing it.

    換句話說,驗證感知成為建立感知的一部份。

  • More than this, what is not being cultivated is the ability to be alone.

    尤有甚者,那尚未培育的,是獨處的能力。

  • To gather oneself, there is a great psychological truth.

    要控制自我,我們必須擁有很好的心理真相。

  • If we don't teach our children to be alone, they will only know how to be lonely.

    如果我們不教我們的孩子如何獨處, 他們只會知道如何感到孤單。

  • For adult and child having gotten into the habit of constant connection,

    對於那些已養成不停上網連結的習慣的成人和孩子們,

  • we risk losing our capacity for the kind of solitude that energizes and that restores.

    他們有一種失去獨處能力的風險, 那樣的獨處能力得以使我們充滿、恢復能量。

  • So let me share some final thoughts.

    所以,讓我分享一些最後的想法。

  • First about the metaphor of addiction, which we're too apt to use.

    首先是關於成癮的比喻,這是我們太容易使用的隱喻,

  • And second, about the moment we're at and the promise it offers.

    其次是關於我們目前所在的時刻、以及它所提供的承諾。

  • First, addiction.

    首先,成癮。

  • People are compelled by that little red light on the blackberry

    人們被迫依賴於黑莓機上的這小小紅光

  • that tells them a message is waiting.

    來告訴他們那些正在等待中的訊息。

  • I ask them why,

    我問他們為什麼,

  • and they talk about their mobile device as the place for hope in their life.

    他們說手機如同他們生活中的希望,

  • The place where something new will come to them.

    這是一個會給他們新東西的地方,

  • The place where loneliness can be defeated.

    一個可以驅散寂寞的地方。

  • They say things like, the phone is where the sweetness is.

    比如,他們說,手機是尋求甜美的所在。

  • We're vulnerable to the constant feelings of connection that technology offers.

    我們受制於科技所給予持續的連結感覺。

  • We should focus on this vulnerability

    我們應該專注於這個弱點,

  • because we can work on getting less vulnerable.

    因為我們可以努力讓自己不那麼脆弱。

  • However apt, we can ill afford the metaphor of addiction.

    儘管聽起來容易,我們卻不能承受那成癮的隱喻,

  • Because if you're addicted you have only one solution,

    因為如果你上癮了,只有一個解決辦法,

  • you have to get rid of that substance.

    那就是戒斷癮頭。

  • And we know that we are not going to get rid of the internet,

    我們知道我們無法擺脫網路,

  • we are not going to get rid of social networking.

    我們無法擺脫社群網路。

  • We will not go cold turkey or forbid cellphones to our children.

    我們不能立即根除這習慣,也不能禁止我們的孩子使用手機,

  • These technologies are our current partners in the human adventure.

    這些科技是我們當下人類冒險活動中的夥伴。

  • The notion of addiction with this one solution that we know we won't take,

    對於這樣一個成癮的概念,我們知道,我們無法杜絕它,

  • makes us feel hopeless and passive.

    這讓我們感到絕望而被動。

  • We sense something amiss and we're at a moment of opportunity.

    我們發覺了科技所帶來的缺陷, 然而,我們也處於某種機遇之中,

  • Every technology provides an opportunity to ask,

    每一種科技提供一個機遇,讓我們詢問:

  • does it serve our human purposes?

    它對我們人類的目的有用處嗎?

  • A question that causes us to reconsider what these purposes are.

    這個問題讓我重新思考這些目的為何。

  • Just because we grew up with the internet,

    就因為我們伴隨著網路成長,

  • we assume that the internet is all grown up.

    所以我們假定網路也長大了,

  • We tend to see what we have now as the technology in its maturity.

    我們往往認為,既然現有的科技已成熟到某種程度,

  • That the way we live now with the internet

    那麼,我們現在與網路生活在一起的方式

  • is how we're going to live with it in the future.

    就等同於我們未來與它共處樣子。

  • And that's not true.

    其實並不是這樣。

  • With the internet, it is very early days.

    網路仍然處於一個非常早期的階段。

  • It is time to make the corrections and one hopeful place

    現在是修正它的時候了,而一個可以期待的解決方式是

  • is to restart some conversations we allowed to get derailed.

    重新開始一些讓我們能脫軌一下的對話。

  • To take as only one example,

    讓我就談談一個例子。

  • we close down conversations and much to our detriment.

    我們迴避交談,因這對我們不利,

  • By getting into performance mode on the network

    卻透過社群網絡,

  • in both our personal and our professional lives.

    使我們的個人和專業生活表現完善。

  • Personally there's been a tendency to use social networking to perform an ideal self.

    許多人往往使用社群網絡來展示一個理想的自我。

  • Many people tell me they don't like to show flaws and vulnerabilities

    很多人告訴我,他們不想顯示自己的缺陷、弱點、

  • or share bad news online with friends.

    或在線上和朋友分享壞消息。

  • They say things like, it just doesn't seem like the place to talk about problems.

    他們告訴我,網路不像是一個可以談論問題的地方。

  • Not even, as one woman put it, the death of my dog.

    甚至,有個女受訪者說,她小狗死了, 她也不認為這是值得在網上談的事。

  • So certainly not about more serious problems.

    可想而知,更嚴重的問題也不會存在於線上的。

  • So the more time we spend online,

    於是,我們越是花時間在線上,

  • the more we keep a lot of things to ourselves.

    我們越不願透露許多事,

  • Even as we think we're updating our status and updating our status,

    即便我們以為,我們在線上更新了狀態、

  • and sharing ourselves with the world.

    並和世界分享了自己。

  • But very often we're sharing what makes us look good.

    但大多時候,我們所分享的 多半是那些讓我們看起來不錯的事。

  • We're sharing what's easy to share.

    我們分享那些容易分享的事。

  • Professionally, we also perform in our emails and memos at work.

    在專業領域中,我們也在電子郵件和備忘錄中試圖達到完美的表現。

  • Business people, lawyers, consultants tell me.

    商務人士、 律師、 顧問們告訴我,

  • That in their work environments, they don't want to leave an electronic trace,

    在他們的工作環境中,他們不願在電子資料往返中

  • of asking for help or admitting failures and frustrations.

    留下自己那些尋求協助或承認失敗、挫折的事。

  • So we make it harder to fix problems,

    所以我們讓問題更難解決了。

  • we make it harder to be mentored.

    我們使自己更難被指導了。

  • So we cut off conversations in our friendships,

    所以我們切斷了與朋友的對話,

  • and we cut off conversations in our professional life

    我們也切斷了我們在專業生活中,

  • that would improve our performance on the job.

    可以提高我們工作表現的對話。

  • The path ahead is challenging but clear for both institutions and individuals,

    未來存在明確的挑戰,

  • for both love and money,

    對機構和個人、對愛情和金錢,都是如此。

  • the next task for all of us is to restart those necessary conversations.

    我們所有人的下一個任務是,重新開始這些必要的對話。

  • Instead of casual Fridays, we should all be asking for conversational Thursdays.

    我們都應該要求在週四能夠來一場正式對談, 而不是要求在週五能夠隨意打扮。 〈譯註:美國企業界在週五無須正裝穿著。〉

  • And that won't be a bad thing at all.

    這不會是一件壞事。

  • Reclaiming conversation, that's the next frontier.

    重新尋求對話,這就是下一個領域。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

Good afternoon.

午安。

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