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  • Can Plants Think?

    植物會思考嗎?

  • With over 300,000 plants species on Earth, there's no doubt that they have highly developed senses to stay alive and thrive.

    在地球上有超過三十萬種的植物,毫無疑問地,他們清楚知道該如何生存和茁壯。

  • But while some of their features may be compared to taste, sight, touch and smell in humans, have you ever wondered: Can plants think?

    但是當一些他們的特徵被拿來跟人類的味覺、視覺、觸覺以及嗅覺比較,你有沒有想過:植物會不會思考呢?

  • On land, the cumulative mass of plants is 1000 times higher than that of animals.

    在陸地上,植物的總數量是動物的一千倍以上。

  • But these plants are immobile and can't move around in their environment; which is, seemingly, a pretty big evolutionary disadvantage.

    但是這些植物是靜止的,也不能在他們生長的環境中移動,也就是說,似乎是一個相當大的演化劣勢。

  • This has forced plants to adapt in amazing ways that often go unnoticed by the naked eye.

    這迫使植物必須用奇特的方法適應,但這些方法通常不會被注意到。

  • Smell something funny? Plants do too - and they react to these chemicals in the air.

    聞起來很好笑?植物也會這麼做,而且他們會對空氣中的化學物質作出反應。

  • For example, when fruits start to ripen, they release a chemical called ethylene.

    例如,當果實開始成熟,他們會釋放一種叫做乙烯的化學物質。

  • And when neighbouring fruits sense this pheromone, they ripen faster, so that all fruits mature at the same time.

    當鄰近的果實感測到這種費洛蒙,他們會成熟得更快,以至於所有的果實都同時成熟。

  • Plants also give off scents which attract insects to spread their pollen.

    植物也會釋放氣味去吸引昆蟲以散播花粉。

  • In particular, the amazing carrion flowers grow tiny hairs, feel warm and smell like rotting flesh in an attempt to mimic a dead corpse.

    特別是神奇的大王花長了微小的毛、摸起來很溫暖而且聞起來像是腐肉的味道,這是為了模仿屍體。

  • This is to attract flies and beetles as pollinators.

    這麼做是為了吸引蒼蠅和甲蟲作為授粉者。

  • On the other hand, when a plant is attacked by an insect, animal or pathogen, it knows.

    另一方面,當植物被昆蟲、動物或是病菌攻擊時會感應到。

  • When acacia trees are grazed by animals, they quickly react by producing chemicals called tannins, which make their leaves unappetizing and tough to digest. Some even produce enough toxin to kill the animal.

    當相思樹被動物啃食,他們會很快地反應並且產生一種叫做單寧的化學物質,這可以讓他們的葉子變得令人提不起食慾以及難以消化。有些甚至會產生足夠的毒素去殺死動物。

  • Perhaps more impressive are some corn and cotton plants, which when eaten by caterpillars, release chemicals in the air that attract parasitic was wasps, who fly in and ultimately kill the insects.

    或許更令人印象深刻的是一些玉米和棉花植物,當他們被毛蟲吃的時候,會釋放吸引寄生蜂的化學物質到空氣中,他們就可以飛過來並且殺死這些毛蟲。就某層面來說,他們在與這些蜂類溝通。

  • On some level, they communicate with the wasps.

    就某層面來說,他們在與這些蜂類溝通。

  • Crazy as it seems, even sound recordings of caterpillars chewing leaves trigger this response.

    這看起來很瘋狂,甚至連毛蟲咀嚼葉片的聲音也可以引起這個反應。

  • Without any form of touch, the plants react, as if they can hear.

    在沒有任何形式接觸的情況下,植物卻可以有所反應,就好像他們可以聽到一樣。

  • On a large scale, plants also work together. A web of underground fungi can connect tree roots in forests, allowing them to exchange nutrients and information.

    從更大的尺度而言,植物也會團體合作。地下的真菌網絡可以連結森林中的樹根,讓他們可以交換營養物質和資訊。

  • Using radioactive isotopes, scientists discovered that trees share water and nutrients with others in need.

    利用放射性的同位素,科學家發現樹木可以共享水份和營養物質給其他有需求的樹。

  • Large trees nourish smaller shaded ones until they are tall enough to reach sunlight, and trees that stay green all year round share nutrients with trees that lose their leaves in the winter.

    大棵的樹會供給較小棵的樹養分,直到他們夠高大到可以自行吸取陽光,而且終年常綠的樹種會分享養分給在冬天會落葉的樹種。

  • Helping them through the season, which is then repaid in the summer months, like a transactional exchange.

    幫助他們度過寒冬。到了夏季就會回饋給他們,這就好像利益交換一樣。

  • Some scientist refer to this as the 'wood-wide web'.

    一些科學家指出這就是「樹維網」。

  • Perhaps the most shocking fact, is that some plants seem to have memory.

    或許最令人震驚的事實就是,一些植物似乎擁有記憶。

  • Mimosa pudica plants, are those leafy plants that close up when touched.

    含羞草是一種當他們的葉子被觸碰到之後會閉合起來的植物。

  • This reflex is meant to scare away insects that land on them.

    這樣子的反射動作是用來阻嚇想要接近他們的昆蟲。

  • In an experiment on these reflexes, scientists notice that when dropped from 15cm they would close when they hit the groud.

    在反射動作的實驗中,科學家發現當用十五公分的高度落下時,撞到地面的時候,他們會閉合葉片。

  • Not so surprising.

    這並不令人驚訝。

  • But after repeating the drop 4 or 5 times, some of the plants stopped closing, as though they had realized the stimulus wasn't harmful. If they were shaken instead, they would close.

    但是在重複四、五次之後,一些植物停止閉合葉片,就好像他們已經感受到這樣的刺激並不會有傷害性。如果搖動他們的話,他們就會閉合。

  • But any time they were dropped from this same height, they stayed open.

    但是一旦他們以相同高度落下,他們就會保持張開葉片。

  • This effect lasted for weeks - the plants had memories.

    這個效應持續了好幾個星期—說明了植物擁有記憶。

  • Of course, plants don't have brains or other cells and organs that we deem necessary for intelligence.

    當然,植物並沒有大腦或是其他的細胞和器官這些我們認為智能所需的條件。

  • Brains and neurons are irreplaceable, but plants are immobile and often attacked, so they must be able to survive after part of them is eaten, or destroyed.

    大腦和神經是不可被取代的,但是植物是不能移動的並且經常遭受攻擊,所以他們必須在部分植物體被攝食或是破壞後存活下來。

  • A brain just wouldn't work.

    一個大腦並沒有辦法完成這些工作。

  • But if you measure intelligence or thought as the ability to solve problems, interact with an environment,

    但是如果你評量智慧或是解決問題的想法和環境的交互作用。

  • And even work in groups, then plants are incredibly smart.

    甚至於是團體合作,植物是難以置信的聰明。

  • It's something to think about next time you're munching down on a piece of broccoli!

    下一次當你在咀嚼一塊花椰菜的時候應該好好的想一想這些問題!

  • And if you need any more convincing that plants are indeed, amazing. Check out our new second channel ASAP THOUGHT, where we share some of our other favorite plant facts.

    如果你需要更多的證據有關植物是否真的有如此驚奇的行為的話,可以看看我們新的第二個頻道 ASAP THOUGHT,我們分享了一些其他我們喜愛的植物科學事實。

  • Link in the description!

    點擊以下的連結!

  • Thanks to audible.com for giving you a free audio book of your choice at audible.com/asap.

    感謝 audible.com 提供免費的有聲書。

  • Audible is the leading provider of audiobooks with over 150,000 downloadable titles across all types of literature.

    audible 是有聲書的領導者,有超過 150,000 個可下載的項目,包含所有形式的文學作品。

  • Check out "The Monkey's Voyage" which proposes some new theories on how plant and animal species wound up as they are today.

    點選「the monkey's voyage」,它提供一些新的關於植物和動物物種如何演化到今日的理論。

  • You can download this audio book or another of your choice for free at audible.com/asap.

    你可以在 audible.com/asap 下載這本有聲書或是其他你感興趣的書。

  • Then use audible's free app to listen on your apple, windows or android device.

    然後可以在你的蘋果、微軟或是安卓系統的裝置上使用免費的有聲書應用程式。

  • Special thanks to audible for making these videos possible and for offering you a free audio book of your choice at audible.com/asap.

    特別感謝 audible 網站製作這些影片,並且在 audible.com/asap 提供你有興趣的免費有聲書。

  • And subscribe for more weekly science videos.

    訂閱更多的每週科學影片吧!

Can Plants Think?

植物會思考嗎?

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你有沒有想過...植物會思考嗎? (Can Plants Think?)

  • 28399 1937
    李元凱 發佈於 2016 年 11 月 08 日
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