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  • I would like to introduce our next speaker of the night:

    我想介紹今晚的下一位講者

  • Vik Nithy.

    Vik Nithy

  • He is a young man who has already founded

    這個年輕人在20歲時

  • three companies at the age of twenty.

    就已經創立了3所公司

  • Sorry, I was about to say twenty companies at the age of three.

    抱歉,我剛剛原本要說成”3歲就創立了20所公司”

  • And this is after being diagnosed

    這種錯誤在很多情況下被診斷為

  • post-HAC with a number of conditions.

    ”錯誤因果”(post-HOC)

  • So he's a truly inspiring young enterpreneur

    這位講者是一位很能激勵人心的企業家

  • and he is going to tell you why we procrastinate.

    他將告訴大家,為什麼我們做事情會拖拖拉拉

  • Thank you.

    謝謝

  • (Applause)

    (鼓掌)

  • I finished high school about two years ago.

    大約兩年前我從高中畢業

  • And although I did fairly well,

    雖然我高中的表現很好

  • I didn't do nearly as well as I could have done

    但如果不是因為戒不掉做事拖拖拉拉的習慣

  • if I didn't suffer from a chronic

    我的表現應該遠遠超越當時

  • debilitating addiction to procrastination.

  • I would put off studying until the night before

    我總是盡可能拖延念書的時間

  • every assignment and every exam wherever possible.

    直到繳交作業和考試的前一天晚上

  • Is anyone else guilty of cramming?

    有人對這種死記硬背的念書方式覺得有罪惡感嗎?

  • Yeah. So you probably know how it feels

    沒錯,那你們大概知道這是什麼樣的感覺

  • to maybe take a five-minute Facebook break

    可能在開始做事前

  • before you start working and then

    在臉書上休息五分鐘

  • realize that three hours have gone past,

    然後才意識到三個小時已經過去了

  • or promise yourself that you'll start working tomorrow

    又或者下定決心明天要開始

  • every day for a week. Tomorrow, tomorrow.

    但一個禮拜過去了,每一天都仍在承諾下一個明天

  • It's not just studying that we procrastinate on,

    我們不只在讀書這件事上拖延

  • we procrastinate on things like doing chores,

    我們拖延做家事

  • we procrastinate on thinking about our future,

    我們拖延去思考我們的未來

  • and we procrastinate on saving money and getting fit.

    對於儲蓄和健身也同樣的拖延

  • I think procrastination is a really serious problem,

    我認為做事拖拖拉拉是一個很嚴重的問題

  • because it's about not being able to bring ourselves

    因為拖拖拉拉

  • to do the things that we know we want to do.

    我們無法促使自己去做想做的事情

  • So tonight I'm going to talk to you about

    所以今晚我將和你們討論

  • the reasons why we procrastinate

    我們之所以做事拖拖拉拉的原因

  • and then hopefully give you some tips on how to overcome it

    並且希望能給予你們一些訣竅來克服

  • if you can get around to doing that.

    如果你們能找到時間來克服的話

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Okay.

    好的

  • So, procrastination is not a disease.

    所以,拖拖拉拉不是一種病

  • It's more about the decisions that you make,

    而是你所做的決定

  • the decision not to do what you need to do now

    決定待會再做該做的事情

  • but to do it later instead.

    而不是現在去做

  • It's really like you're having an argument in your head, isn't it?

    這真的就像是在你腦中辯論,不是嗎?

  • One part of you wants to work

    一部分的你想要工作

  • another part of your brain wants to play Angry Birds.

    另一部分的你想要玩憤怒鳥

  • And for some reason you always manage to convince yourself,

    但基於某種原因,你總能設法說服自己:

  • "Oh it's okay, I can do whatever I need to do tomorrow,

    “沒關係的。不管是什麼事,我可以明天再做,

  • I don't need to do it now."

    不必現在馬上做。”

  • So as a psychology student

    身為一個心理系的學生

  • I have the opportunity to find out what exactly is going on

    我有機會發現當我們在拖拖拉拉時

  • inside our brains when we procrastinate.

    腦袋裡到底發生了什麼事

  • And I found that there actually is an argument in our heads

    我發現在大腦中

  • between the limbic system and the prefrontal cortex.

    我們的邊緣系統和前額葉皮質間的確存在衝突

  • So, this is the prefrontal cortex.

    這就是前額葉皮質

  • This is the part of our brain that tells us:

    它會在我們腦中告訴我們:

  • "You should be working Vik, you have a 40% assignment due tomorrow."

    “Vik,該做事了,你的作業只完成了4成,而且明天就要繳交了”

  • This is a higher level part of your brain;

    它是在我們大腦中較高階層的部分

  • the other part of your brain involved in procrastination

    大腦中的另一個,和我們拖拖拉拉有關的部分

  • is the limbic system.

    就是邊緣系統

  • So this is a more primitive part of your brain

    所以這是大腦中比較基層的部分

  • that wants to watch another episode of Gossip Girl

    會讓你在開始念書前還想要再看一集花邊教主

  • before you start studying.

  • So why is that the limbic system

    那麼為什麼邊緣系統

  • always seems to win the argument?

    似乎總是能贏得兩者間的相爭呢?

  • The answer lies in this deceptively cute part of the brain

    答案就在我們大腦裡這個看似小巧又可愛的部分

  • called the amygdala.

    它叫做杏仁核

  • The amygdala is a part of your brain

    杏仁核在我們腦中

  • that controls fear and anxiety

    控制恐懼、焦慮

  • and the fight or flight response to threatening stimulus.

    還有在我們面臨威脅的刺激時,做出是否要作戰或是逃跑的反應

  • So for example, if you are in a jungle

    舉例來說,如果你在一個叢林裡

  • and you see a wild lion in the distance,

    你看到一隻野生的獅子在遠處

  • what do you do?

    你會怎麼做?

  • I have no idea, I've never seen a wild lion

    我從來沒看過野生的獅子,所以我也不知道

  • but I have seen a teacher approach me

    但我看過當我沒有做作業的時後

  • when I haven't done my homework.

    老師逼近我的樣子

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And I think the response in the amygdala is quite similar:

    我想在杏仁核中的反應也是十分類似的:

  • The first thing you do is freeze;

    一開始是發抖

  • your palms get sweaty, your heart starts beating fast

    手掌冒汗,心跳加快

  • and your prefrontal cortex, the decision maker shuts down.

    然後負責決策的前額葉皮質便停止運作

  • Because if you see a wild lion in the jungle,

    這是因為如果你在野外叢林看到獅子時

  • you don't want a voice in your head to remind you

    你並不會想要你的腦海中有個聲音提醒你

  • that you have an essay to write,

    你還有一篇文章要寫

  • you have to focus on what's going on in the world around you

    你想要的是將專注力放在你周遭的世界所發生的事情

  • and responding to physiological needs.

    並且對你的生理需求產生反應

  • So, when we procrastinate,

    所以,當我們拖拖拉拉時

  • we experience a mild anxiety response

  • to a threatening stimulus which just happens to be

    我們對於有威脅性的刺激

  • an assignment that you may have to complete.

    像是我們必須完成的作業,會有輕微的焦慮反應

  • So, what is it that we're afraid of?

    我們在害怕什麼?

  • What is it that we are afraid of? Well, meet your monkey mind!

    我們在害怕什麼呢? 來見見你的猴子腦袋吧!

  • This is the part of your brain,

    這是你的大腦

  • the voice in your head that reacts to the threatening stimulus of an essay.

    腦中的聲音會對作文的威脅性刺激產生反應

  • You may be afraid of an overwhelming --

    你可能會對很害怕一個壓倒性的 ---

  • You might find that the task is overwhelming

    你可能會發現這項任務是具壓倒性的

  • and you don't know where to start.

    你不知道該如何著手

  • You might -- if it's an unpleasant task,

    也許 --- 如果是個不盡人意的工作

  • you might dread the displeasure of doing the task,

    你可能會懼怕做這個工作時的不快

  • and if it's a more complex task with a --

    如果是個較複雜的工作

  • when your performance is being measured

    而且有人在旁評量你的表現

  • then you may have a fear of actual failure.

    那麼你可能會害怕自己會真的失敗

  • So perfectionists use procrastination

    因此完美主義者把拖延這件事

  • as a self-handicapping tool to avoid

    當成自我妨礙的工具以來避免

  • personal failure.

    個人的失敗

  • So for example, if you have an assignment due on Friday,

    例如,如果你有個作業的期限是星期五

  • and it's Monday today, you can finish the assignment tomorrow.

    而今天是星期一,你本可以隔天就完成作業了

  • But if you don't do well,

    但如果你最後作業的表現卻不好

  • then what does it say about your capacity to do well in the exams.

    那麼你在考試中的能力又是如何呢?

  • Whereas if you start on Thursday night and cram

    反之,如果你星期四晚上才開始死記硬背

  • then if you fail, it's just because you're lazy and you crammed.

    那麼你的失敗就只是因為你懶惰並且臨陣磨槍的結果

  • You're not stupid, you're perfectly normal.

    並不代表你笨,你完全的正常且健全

  • Now, your prefrontal cortex,

    此時,你的前額葉皮質

  • it knows that this is a stupid decision.

    它知道這是一個愚蠢的決定

  • You know that failure is a positive learning experience

    你也知道失敗是正向的學習經驗

  • and that it's better to be safe than sorry.

    你應該寧願保險一點也不要事後遺憾後悔

  • But remember that your amygdala is about subconscious reactions.

    但記得,你的杏仁核和潛意識的反應有關

  • So how can we overcome procrastination

    那當我們的腦中的猴子替我們做決定時

  • if we have a monkey in our brains making decisions on our behalf?

    我們該如何克服拖拖拉拉的行為呢

  • The answer is something called "metacognition":

    這個答案就叫做”後設認知”:

  • Thinking about thinking.

    思索我們自己如何思考

  • So we have to acknowledge that

    我們必須承認

  • we aren't gonna be the ones making the decision

    我們無法決定是否明天要念書

  • to study tomorrow.

  • We're gonna have this spontaneous lazy monkey

    因為我們太害怕親自去做這些事,我們會讓這隻無意識的懶猴子

  • making decisions on our behalf

    為我們做決定

  • because we're too scared to do it ourselves.

  • And there is a few things that we have to plan

    並且為了克服這樣的事發生我們必須計畫一些事情:

  • in order to overcome this:

    我們必須計畫一些事情:

  • We have to plan goals.

    我們必須規劃目標。

  • So plan exactly what you need to do,

    規劃需辦事項後,

  • split it up into parts, and we find that

    將之劃分成許多部分,然後我們會發現

  • the task is a lot less overwhelming for all in a monkey.

    儘管是對於我們的猴腦袋來說,這個工作其實並不是那麼嚇人

  • Plan time. So figure out exactly

    做時間規劃。弄清楚

  • what you're gonna get done in what time frame

    你將在多少時間限制下完成什麼事

  • and remember guys,

    並且記得

  • this is not something you need to do everytime you need to study,

    並不是你每一次念書時都得這樣做

  • this is just something that you need to get into the habit of doing automatically

    而是在你知道自己得完成某些事情時

  • when you realize that you need to get something done.

    你必須讓規劃成為你自動開啟的習慣

  • Plan resources.

    規劃資源。

  • So if you spend ten minutes before you start working

    若是在你開始工作前花個十分鐘

  • to get everything you need in the table in front of you,

    把所需要的東西準備好在面前的桌上

  • you can't go ahead and later convince yourself that

    你不能在開始之後又說服自己

  • you need to use Google

    得用Google

  • or you need to go on Facebook to get something

    或是臉書

  • because everything you need is in front of you.

    因為你需要的所有東西就在你面前

  • Plan the process. So research has shown that

    過程規劃。 研究顯示,

  • if you visualize the process of doing something,

    如果你先設想做這件事的過程

  • the task becomes easier to do.

    那麼真正要完成它時就會變得更簡單

  • If you close your eyes and think about what you need to do,

    如果你閉上雙眼,想著你該做的事

  • then, you brain is tricked into thinking that you've done it before

    那麼你的腦子便會誤以為你之前已經做過這件事了

  • and it becomes so much easier to get things done.

    然後完成這些事情就會變得簡單多了

  • Plan for distractions: so you know that you monkey mind

    為讓你分心的事物規劃: 那麼你知道你的猴腦袋

  • is gonna wanna check Facebook every five minutes.

    會每五分鐘就想要上臉書一次

  • You have to make a commitment to stay focused

    你必須許下承諾,會專注

  • and not get distracted.

    不讓自己分神

  • And lastly plan for failure.

    最後,為失敗做規劃。

  • So, say you're doing a maths problem

    比如說你正在解決一個數學問題

  • and you come to a question that you can't do:

    然後遇到了一個不會的問題

  • this is usually the time

    通常就是此時

  • when people decide to take a five-minute break!

    人們會決定來休息個五分鐘!

  • I know that the saying "Don't give up!" is cliché

    我知道”永不言棄”這句話是陳腔濫調了

  • but I think that when it comes to roadblocks

    但我認為,提到有關

  • when we are trying to do something

    我們嘗試做事時遇到的障礙

  • it's especially relevant,

    這句話十分的切題

  • and it's not just while we are studying, it's in every part of life.

    不只是念書,它在我們生命中的每一部分都適用

  • If we procrastinate when we come to a roadblock,

    若是我們在遇到障礙的時後遲疑、拖拖拉拉,

  • then I don't think we're ever gonna get around to

    那麼我不覺得我們能有機會再

  • solving the problem.

    解決這些問題

  • You have to learn to grind your teeth and get through it.

    你得學會咬緊牙關撐過去

  • Oh dear!

    我的天!

  • So, this quote said:

    這條引文寫著:

  • "Don't wait. The time will never be just right."

    “不要再等待,現在就是行動的最佳時刻”

  • and it's by Napoleon Hill.

    來自於拿破崙∙希爾所說過的話

  • So I think, as students, the number one reason why we tend to procrastinate

    我認為,身為學生,我們之所以會拖拖拉拉的最主要原因

  • is because we don't think the conditions are perfect for proactivity.

    是因為我們覺得在如此情況下不適合正面的行動

  • We wait until the weekend to write an essay,

    我們等到周末才開始寫作文

  • we wait until we're in the "zone" to be creative,

    我們等到我們在“某種場合”下才具創造力

  • we wait until we have money to give to charity...

    我們等待,直到有錢能夠捐獻給慈善機構

  • I think that if we get into the habit of planning,

    我認為,若是我們能養成規畫的習慣

  • thinking about thinking and getting things done quickly

    思索自己是如何思考的,並且快速的完成事情

  • then the world becomes our oyster

    那麼這個世界就由我們自己做主

  • and our future will become a lot more prosperous.

    這個世界也會變得更加繁榮

  • Thank you.

    謝謝

  • (Applause)

    (鼓掌)

I would like to introduce our next speaker of the night:

我想介紹今晚的下一位講者

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【TEDx】為什麼我們做事會拖拖拉拉? (Why we procrastinate by Vik Nithy @ TEDxYouth@TheScotsCollege)

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    阿多賓 發佈於 2014 年 02 月 12 日
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