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  • At the age of 21, Simone de Beauvoir became the youngest person

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • to take the philosophy exams at France’s most esteemed university.

    二十一歲時,西蒙娜.德.波娃成為

  • She passed with flying colors.

    法國最受敬重的大學中 參加哲學考試最年輕的人。

  • But as soon as she mastered the rules of philosophy,

    她高分通過考試。

  • she wanted to break them.

    但,她才剛精通了哲學規則,

  • She’d been schooled on Plato’s Theory of Forms,

    馬上就想要打破它們。

  • which dismissed the physical world as a flawed reflection

    她受到的教育, 是柏拉圖的理型論,

  • of higher truths and unchanging ideals.

    理型論貶低物質世界,認為它是

  • But for de Beauvoir, earthly life was enthralling, sensual,

    用有瑕疵的方式反映出 更高的真理和不變之理想。

  • and anything but static.

    但,對德.波娃而言, 世間的生活很迷人、充滿感受,

  • Her desire to explore the physical world to its fullest would shape her life,

    絕對不是靜止不變的。

  • and eventually, inspire a radical new philosophy.

    她想要完整地探索物質世界, 這個慾望形塑了她的人生,

  • Endlessly debating with her romantic and intellectual partner Jean Paul Sartre,

    最終賦予她靈感,讓她 提出了很極端的新哲學。

  • de Beauvoir explored free will, desire, rights and responsibilities,

    德.波娃總是不斷和她聰明的 另一半尚.保羅.沙特辯論,

  • and the value of personal experience.

    探討自由意志、慾望、權利、責任,

  • In the years following WWII,

    以及個人經歷體驗的價值。

  • these ideas would converge into the school of thought

    在二次世界大戰後,

  • most closely associated with their work: existentialism.

    這些想法聚合成為和他們的作品

  • Where Judeo-Christian traditions taught that

    關係最密切的思想學派:存在主義。

  • humans are born with preordained purpose,

    猶太基督教的傳統教導中認為

  • de Beauvoir and Sartre proposed a revolutionary alternative.

    人類出生時就已經有天註定的目的,

  • They argued that humans are born free,

    就這一點,德.波娃和沙特提出了 一個革命性的替代想法。

  • and thrown into existence without a divine plan.

    他們主張,人類生而自由,

  • As de Beauvoir acknowledged, this freedom is both a blessing and a burden.

    人類並不是為了 實現神聖計畫才存在。

  • In "The Ethics of Ambiguity" she argued that our greatest ethical imperative

    德.波娃認為,這種自由 既是福賜也是負擔。

  • is to create our own life’s meaning,

    在《模糊的倫理學》中, 她主張,我們最偉大的倫理責任

  • while protecting the freedom of others to do the same.

    是為我們自己的生命創造意義。

  • As de Beauvoir wrote,

    同時也要保護他人這麼做的自由。

  • “A freedom which is interested only in denying freedom must be denied.”

    如德.波娃所寫的:

  • This philosophy challenged its students to navigate the ambiguities and conflicts

    「以否認為目的的自由, 才應該要被否認。」

  • our desires produce, both internally and externally.

    該哲學挑戰其學生在我們的慾望

  • And as de Beauvoir sought to find her own purpose,

    所產生的模糊 和衝突之中找到方向,

  • she began to question:

    內在與外在皆是如此。

  • if everyone deserves to freely pursue meaning,

    當德.波娃在試圖找到 她自己的人生目的時,

  • why was she restricted by society’s ideals of womanhood?

    她開始質疑:

  • Despite her prolific writing, teaching and activism,

    如果人人都有權 自由追求人生的意義,

  • de Beauvoir struggled to be taken seriously by her male peers.

    為什麼她受到社會女性理想的限制?

  • She’d rejected her Catholic upbringing and marital expectations

    儘管德.波娃在寫作、教書, 和行動主義上都很活躍,

  • to study at university, and write memoirs, fiction and philosophy.

    她仍很難被男性同儕認真看待。

  • But the risks she was taking by embracing this lifestyle

    她背離了她的天主教教養 及別人對她結婚的期望,

  • were lost on many of her male counterparts,

    去上大學,

  • who took these freedoms for granted.

    還撰寫回憶錄、小說,和哲學。

  • They had no intellectual interest in de Beauvoir’s work,

    但,和她狀況類似的許多男性

  • which explored women’s inner lives,

    對她擁抱這種生活方式 要承擔的風險完全無感,

  • as well the author’s open relationship and bisexuality.

    他們只把自由視為理所當然。

  • To convey the importance of her perspective,

    他們對於德.波娃的著作 完全沒有知識方面的興趣,

  • de Beauvoir embarked on her most challenging book yet.

    那些著作在探究女性的內在生活,

  • Just as she’d created the foundations of existentialism,

    及作者自己的開放關係及雙性向。

  • she’d now redefine the limits of gender.

    為了傳達自己觀點的重要性,

  • Published in 1949, "The Second Sex" argues that, like our life’s meaning,

    德.波娃開始著手撰寫 她最有挑戰性的書籍。

  • gender is not predestined.

    正如同先前她為 存在主義奠定了基礎,

  • As de Beauvoir famously wrote,

    她接著重新定義性別的限制。

  • one is not born, but rather becomes, woman.”

    1949 年出版的《第二性》主張,

  • And tobecome” a woman, she argued, was to become the Other.

    和人生的意義一樣, 性別也不是天註定的。

  • De Beauvoir defined Othering as the process of labeling women

    正如德.波娃的名句:

  • as less than the men who’d historically defined, and been defined as,

    「人並非生出來就是女人, 而是變成女人。」

  • the ideal human subjects.

    她認為,「變成」女人, 就等於是變成「他人」。

  • As the Other, she argued that women were considered second to men,

    德.波娃將「他人化」定義為 一個將女性貼上標籤的過程,

  • and therefore systematically restricted from pursuing freedom.

    將女性標籤為不如男性,

  • "The Second Sex" became an essential feminist treatise,

    而在歷史上一直都是由男性自己 來把男性定義為理想的人類。

  • offering a detailed history of women’s oppression

    身為「他人」,她認為 女性被視為次於男性,

  • and a wealth of anecdotal testimony.

    因此在追求自由時 便會受到體制上的限制。

  • "The Second Sex"’s combination of personal experience

    《第二性》變成了 很重要的女權主義論述,

  • and philosophical intervention

    提供關於女性受壓迫的詳細歷史,

  • provided a new language to discuss feminist theory.

    以及大量的軼事證據。

  • Today, those conversations are still informed by de Beauvoir’s insistence

    《第二性》結合了個人經歷

  • that in the pursuit of equality,

    和哲學的干預,

  • there is no divorce between philosophy and life.”

    提供了一種新語言, 來討論女權主義理論。

  • Of course, like any foundational work,

    現今,關於女權的談話討論都仍 離不開德.波娃竭力主張的想法:

  • the ideas in "The Second Sex" have been expanded upon since its publication.

    在追求平等時,

  • Many modern thinkers have explored additional ways people are Othered

    「哲學和人生是分不開的。」

  • that de Beauvoir doesn’t acknowledge.

    當然,和任何重要的作品一樣,

  • These include racial and economic identities,

    《第二性》出版之後, 其想法就被開始被拓展開來。

  • as well as the broader spectrum of gender and sexual identities we understand today.

    許多現代思想家都探究了

  • De Beauvoir’s legacy is further complicated

    德.波娃沒有談到的 其他「他人化」方式。

  • by accusations of sexual misconduct by two of her university students.

    這些方式包括種族和經濟身分,

  • In the face of these accusations,

    以及現今我們所知更廣泛的 性別和性向身分光譜。

  • she had her teaching license revoked for abusing her position.

    德.波娃的兩名大學學生 控訴她性騷擾,

  • In this aspect and others, de Beauvoir’s life remains controversial

    讓她留給後人的影響變得更複雜。

  • and her work represents a contentious moment in the emergence of early feminism.

    發生這些控訴時,

  • She participated in those conversations for the rest of her life;

    她的教學執照被撤消, 理由是濫用職權。

  • writing fiction, philosophy, and memoirs until her death in 1986.

    在這方面及其他方面, 德.波娃的人生仍頗具爭議性——

  • Today, her work offers a philosophical language

    她的作品代表著早期 女權主義出現的爭議時刻。

  • to be reimagined, revisited and rebelled against

    她餘生都持續參與那些對談討論;

  • a response this revolutionary thinker might have welcomed.

    寫小說、哲學,以及回憶錄, 直到 1986 年離開人世。

At the age of 21, Simone de Beauvoir became the youngest person

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

字幕與單字

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 波娃 哲學 自由 女權 男性 女性

生活的意义 (The meaning of life according to Simone de Beauvoir - Iseult Gillespie)

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    812653216   發佈於 2020 年 03 月 14 日
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