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  • What does "going viral" on the internet really mean,

    網路的「病毒效應」是什麼?

  • and why does it happen so quickly?

    為什麼發生的速度這麼快?

  • Why is a financial institution too big to fail?

    為什麼金融機構會大到不能倒?

  • How does a virus in Africa end up

    非洲的病毒如何能

  • in the United States in a matter of hours?

    在幾小時內抵達美國?

  • Why are Facebook and Google such powerful companies

    為什麼 Facebook 和 Google 如此強大

  • at creating global connections?

    能夠連結全世界?

  • Well, in a word:

    答案只有兩個字:

  • networks.

    「網絡」

  • But what are networks?

    網絡到底是什麼?

  • Everyone knows about their social network,

    大家都知道社群網絡

  • but there are all different kinds of networks

    但事實上還有各式各樣的網絡

  • you probably haven't thought about.

    你大概想都沒想過

  • Networks are collections of links

    網絡是連結的集合

  • which combine by specific rules and behaviors if they are alive.

    以特定規則和行為相連 好像活的一樣

  • We say that networks are alive

    我們說網絡是活的

  • because they are in constant change.

    因為隨時都在變化

  • Over time, the connections within a network

    網絡中的連結會隨時間

  • migrate and concentrate in new places,

    遷移並集中到不同地方

  • forming evolving structures.

    形成不斷演化的結構

  • How the evolution and concentration

    關於研究連結

  • of constantly changing connections occurs

    如何隨時間演化和集中於

  • is the subject of a whole discipline called

    不同位置,這種學問就是

  • network theory.

    「網絡理論」

  • We can think of networks as neighborhoods.

    我們可以把網絡想成社區

  • Neighborhoods are defined by maps.

    社區的連結受地圖規範

  • A Google map demonstrates the relationship

    跟 Google 地圖如何顯示

  • between locations in exactly the same fashion

    地點間的關係一樣

  • a network connects hubs and nodes,

    網絡連接樞紐和節點

  • using streets as links to connect neighborhoods.

    好像街道連接各社區

  • The reason a network can expand and evolve so quickly

    網絡之所以能高速成長與演化

  • is based upon a mathematical concept called

    是因為一個數學概念

  • power functions.

    叫做「冪函數」 (ㄇㄧˋ)

  • A power function is a mathematical amplification mechanism,

    冪函數是一種數學放大機制

  • which over specific and very small ranges,

    在特定的極小範圍內

  • accelerates changes logarithmically.

    將變化以對數加速放大

  • That is, a very small change in one parameter

    意思是,某個參數只要改變一點點

  • produces a huge change in another

    另一個參數就會改變很多

  • over a very specific range of values.

    但限於特定範圍內的值

  • An example of how network structure emerges

    網絡結構如何出現的一個例子

  • is the algorithm used by Google.

    就是 Google 使用的演算法

  • As the number of links around a search term, say "friends", increases,

    隨著某個搜尋詞 如「朋友」相關連結的增加

  • connections begin to form among millions

    幾百萬次「朋友」的搜尋之間

  • of different searches using the term "friend".

    就會開始形成關連

  • What Google has cleverly accomplished

    Google 發明了很聰明的

  • is a real-time mathematical model

    即時演算數學模型

  • for how to predict the emergence of growing connections

    能預測幾十億個搜尋詞之間

  • among billions of search terms.

    逐漸成長的連結

  • The algorithm Google derived collects

    Google 的演算法會蒐集

  • the number of references to any search object.

    任何搜尋對象被引用的次數

  • As references to a search object increase,

    隨著引用次數增加

  • the number of links also increases, creating a node.

    連結的數目也會增加,形成節點

  • As the node increases in size,

    隨著節點變大

  • it eventually becomes a hub,

    最後會形成樞紐

  • which links to many nodes.

    連結到許多節點

  • Networks will continue to emerge

    網絡會持續成長

  • as new ways of connecting and creating neighborhoods are defined.

    因為連接和建立社區的方式增加了

  • Perhaps you can begin to see why networks are so powerful.

    也許你已開始發現網絡強大的原因

  • As Google continues to collect the billions of daily searches,

    隨著 Google 持續收集 每天幾十億次的搜尋紀錄

  • new clusters of links will rapidly emerge,

    新的連結群組會迅速浮現

  • forming additional and growing networks.

    讓網絡更新與成長

  • Despite the logarithmic expansion of your network,

    雖然網絡以對數速度成長

  • the laws of six degrees of separation still apply.

    六度分隔理論依然適用

  • Therefore, if you explore a close friend or acquaintances

    如果探索朋友或熟人

  • in you Facebook network,

    使用你的 Facebook 網絡

  • everyone on average will be separated

    任何兩個人平均只會

  • by six individuals or less

    相隔六個人以內

  • and a map of your social network will create neighborhoods

    而你的社交網絡將會形成

  • linked by common connections among friends.

    由朋友相連的各個社區

What does "going viral" on the internet really mean,

網路的「病毒效應」是什麼?

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 網絡 節點 社區 形成 成長

TED-教育】網絡理論--馬克-薩米特。 (【TED-Ed】Network theory - Marc Samet)

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    wikiHuang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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