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  • (Speaking Chines) Go home and wash your hands.

    (中文) 趕緊回家!回家洗手!

  • This woman is being scolded for being outside without a face mask and was chased back into her home.

    這位女士因為出門沒有戴口罩而被責罵,還被趕回家。

  • (Speaking Chinese) Those playing cards down there, please disperse now.

    (中文) 下面打牌的注意啦!趕緊散開!

  • These people are being admonished for hanging out in a group.

    這一群人因為群聚而被告誡。

  • They were all caught by Chinese authorities who have been deploying drones equipped with high-resolution cameras and loudspeakers.

    他們都是被中國有關當局配置的高解析度鏡頭和喇叭的無人機所抓到。

  • (Speaking Chinese) Don't go out and party.

    (中文) 勿出門!不聚會!

  • It's one part of China's massive surveillance strategy to tackle the spread of the coronavirus, which has reached just about every region in the country.

    這是中國其中一個應對新冠肺炎傳播的策略,中國各個城市亦已廣泛採用。

  • The virus has infected more than 80,000 in China, resulting in the deaths of more than 2,000 people in the country, far surpassing the death toll from SARS.

    中國國內有超過 80,000 宗確診並導致超過 2,000 人死亡,死亡人數遠超當年的 SARS。

  • The difference between 2003 and 2020, you know, is really enormous in terms of the government's reliance on and development of surveillance technology.

    2003 年和 2020 年有巨大的差別,這是在於政府對監控科技的依賴和發展。

  • Almost none of these tools were on offer at that time.

    當時根本沒有這些器材可以使用。

  • Sophie Richardson is the China Director at Human Rights Watch.

    Sophie Richardson 是人權觀察的中國部主任。

  • She says during this public health crisis, China is embarking on an unprecedented use of surveillance by using big data and its citizens.

    她表示在這段公共衛生危機,中國開始通過使用大數據和國民作前所未有的監視。

  • So what exactly is China's surveillance strategy and can it work to battle the epidemic?

    到底中國的監控對策是什麼?是否能有效對抗疫情?

  • (Speaking Chinese) This auntie possibly isn't wearing a mask.

    (中文) 這個阿姨可能沒戴口罩。

  • There are an estimated more than 300 million surveillance cameras in China and authorities are using them to monitor Chinese citizens.

    估計中國內裝有超過 3 億支監視器,政府透過這些鏡頭監控中國人民。

  • Many of the surveillance cameras in use in China now are equipped with facial recognition capabilities which simply gives the authorities the ability to track who specifically has gone to which precise location.

    現在中國使用的監視器配有人臉辨識巧能,這有助政府追蹤國民的行蹤。

  • Combine that with data scraped from hospital records, police files, and public transportation history.

    然後再把醫院記錄、警方檔案和搭乘大眾交通工具歷史的數據結合。

  • All that is stored and linked to national ID cards, which gives the Chinese government granular information about all its citizens.

    所有數據皆儲存並聯接於身份證,可以為中國提供任何細微的資訊。

  • In January, a man who tested positive for the coronavirus used public buses and subways to crisscross China's eastern city of Nanjing.

    有一名於一月被確診感染新冠肺炎的男子搭乘公車和捷運於中國東部城市南京穿越。

  • The police posted his journey with specific dates and times on social media with a warning that anyone who was in that area get tested for the virus.

    警方於社交媒體上公佈該名男子出現的具體日期和時間,並提醒曾出現於該區的人士要去做測試。

  • China's public health authorities have been candid about the use of big data during this public health crisis.

    中國公共衛生部門曾坦承在這段危機時期使用了大數據。

  • (Speaking Chinese) Big data can tell you if someone around you may come from the epicenter or if someone is infected.

    (中文) 大數據它會告訴你周圍的人可能是來自疫區或已受感染。

  • They even developed a mobile phone app called the Close Contact Detector.

    他們還開發了一款名為「近距離接觸偵測 app」的手機 app。

  • The app has a database of people who have tested positive or have symptoms, so as soon as you type in your name and national ID and log in, the app will tell you if you've ever come into close contact with someone who tested positive or if you're in the clear.

    這個應用程式的數據庫儲存了呈陽性結果或有病徵人士的數據。你只要輸入你的姓名和身份證號碼並登入,app 會告訴是否曾與確診人士近距離接觸。

  • So far, more than 200 million people have used the app.

    至目前為止,超過 2 億人民使用這個 app。

  • These new and different uses of technology around the coronavirus may help resolve some of the public health concerns, but it's also another way for the government to gather large amounts of information about people, really, effectively without their consent and, in some cases, without even their knowledge.

    這些針對新冠肺炎的技術新穎和有別於以前的用途可以有助解決公共衛生的不安。不過這亦是另一種渠道讓政府搜集人民大量的資訊,並且是沒有經過同意,甚至是在不知情的情況下有效取得。

  • Chinese health officials say all this data is in the pursuit of controlling the epidemic.

    中國衛生部官員稱所有數據都是用來控制疫情蔓延。

  • (Speaking Chinese) We can get a clearer picture of the spread of the epidemic, and then we can also offer suggestions and guidance to the related departments especially those at community levels.

    第一呢,我們可以更進一步摸清底數;第二呢,我們可以給相關部門,尤其是我們基層部門的同志們提供指導。

  • In China, many people probably have not developed that kind of awareness in terms of protecting their privacy, protecting their civil liberties.

    在中國,有許多人對保障個人隱私和公民權利的意識仍然很低。

  • Yanzhong Huang studies global health at the Council on Foreign Relations in the U.S.

    Yanzhong Huang 在美國外交關係協會研究全球公共衛生。

  • He says many in China want this type of monitoring because it's about life or death.

    他表示有許多在中國的人民希望政府實施這種監控,因為這關係到他們的生死。

  • And when they were given the choices of protecting their health and protecting their civil liberties, you know, [they] probably would choose the former even to the detriment of the latter.

    如果給他們選擇保障健康或是公民權利,大概就算會危害後者,他們也會選擇健康。

  • Huang says increasing population control during a health crisis can be a slippery slope.

    他表示在防疫危機期間,人口控制變得嚴密會導致後面的監控問題日益加劇。

  • This widespread use of surveillance technologies may also encourage the use of the same technologies, surveillance techniques even after they operate, you know, for purposes [that] may not be really justifiable.

    現在廣泛使用監控科技等於鼓厲使用相同科技,即使在不合情理的情況下亦可使用該監控技術。

  • People are also a big part of its surveillance apparatus.

    人民亦是監控系統中重要的一環。

  • After all, President Xi Jinping said the fight against the virus was a people's war.

    國家主席習近平表示這場抗疫之戰是人民的戰爭。

  • Authorities send out text messages telling people to go directly to authorities if they come from Hubei Province where the coronavirus first emerged, and announcements are posted all around town encouraging everyone to monitor each other.

    有關當局寄出短訊通知大眾若是來自肺炎第一爆發地區的湖北省要要直接通報政府,並在市內貼出標語以作互相監督。

  • (Speaking Chinese) I will give you a mask.

    (中文) 我給你一個口罩。

  • Police patrol streets telling people without face masks to go home.

    警察會在路上巡邏要求沒有戴上口罩的人回家。

  • Some managers of apartment complexes go door to door to check on residents' health conditions.

    有些公寓管委會會挨家挨戶檢測住戶的健康狀況。

  • This may sort of suggest that this is a revival of the Cultural Revolution era, when you saw there's people monitoring their neighbors, you know, or even their relatives.

    也許可以說是文化大革命時代的事情再次上演,你會看到有人監視他們的鄰居,儘管他們是親戚。

  • Some provinces have started giving an incentive to monitor family members' travel histories and health.

    有些省政府開始鼓勵他們監視家庭成員的旅遊和健康史。

  • (Speaking Chinese) Report if you know anything.

    (中文) 知情人員來舉報!

  • (Speaking Chinese) This can help others get informed earlier.

    (中文) 親朋好友早知道!

  • (Speaking Chinese) It is for your own good to cut loose from your relatives.

    (中文) 六親不認對你好!

  • (Speaking Chinese) Reward!

    (中文) 獎!

  • In Sichuan Province in western China, snitching can snag you as much as 5,000 yuan.

    位於中國西邊的四川,告密可獲得近 5,000 元人民幣。

  • That's roughly equivalent to a monthly salary that's more than minimum wage.

    這差不多等於一個月的薪水,比最低薪資要高。

  • One government in Guangdong Province is offering 30 face masks in exchange for snitch reports.

    廣東省有一政府以 30 個口罩作告密情報交換。

  • During this public health crisis, China hasn't been the only country to use technology to track patients.

    在這段公共衛生危機時期,中國不是唯一一個國家使用科技追蹤病患。

  • In South Korea, health authorities are legally allowed to sift through credit card records, CCTV footage, and mobile phone locations to pin down the travel histories of those infected or at risk.

    南韓的政府機關合法透過信用卡刷卡記錄、監視器影像和手機定位篩查以確認受感染或懷疑個案人士的旅遊史。

  • That information is then shared with the public.

    資訊隨後亦會公開。

  • In China's surveillance state, not only do authorities have access to more data than other governments, but citizens have no way to opt out of that data collection.

    在中國的監控下,有關當局獲取的資訊不僅比其他國家政府多,但是公眾無法選擇不被搜集數據。

  • Beijing says all this is in the best interest of the public.

    北京當局表示這是對公眾最好的方法。

  • We'll have to be able to see how the virus ultimately played out, who was affected, who wasn't... whether the surveillance technology helped.

    我們終究會釐清病毒爆發的途徑、受影響人數,以及沒有受影響人數是否和監控科技有關。

(Speaking Chines) Go home and wash your hands.

(中文) 趕緊回家!回家洗手!

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    Fibby 發佈於 2020 年 03 月 29 日
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