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  • I would like to introduce you to my favorite parasite.

    我要向你介紹我最喜歡的寄生生物。

  • There are millions that I could choose from

    這世上有上百萬種寄生生物,

  • and this is it:

    而我要講的就是牠:

  • it's called the jewel wasp.

    牠叫做金小蜂。

  • You can find it in parts of Africa and Asia.

    你可以在某些非洲及亞洲地區找到牠。

  • It's a little under an inch long,

    牠身長比一英寸短一些,

  • and it is a beautiful looking parasite.

    是一種美麗的寄生生物。

  • Now, you may be saying to yourself,

    現在,你可能心裡會想:

  • "This is not a parasite.

    「這不是寄生生物吧?

  • It's not a tapeworm,

    牠不是絛蟲、

  • it's not a virus,

    也不是病毒,

  • how could a wasp be a parasite?"

    胡蜂怎麼會是寄生蟲呢?」

  • You are probably thinking about regular wasps,

    你可能想的是一般的胡蜂,

  • you know, the ones that build paper nests as their house.

    就是那些築巢為家的生物。

  • Well, the thing is that the jewel wasp

    重點在於,這金小蜂

  • makes its house inside a living cockroach.

    會把活體蟑螂的身體 當作牠的家。

  • Here's how it happens.

    過程是這樣的。

  • A jewel wasp is flying around, looking for a cockroach.

    一隻金小蜂在四處亂飛, 在找尋蟑螂。

  • When it sees one, it lands and bites on its wing.

    當牠找到的時候, 牠會降落在蟑螂身上然後咬牠的翅膀。

  • So, I'll be the cockroach.

    所以,當作我是蟑螂。

  • Be-wha! Bewha!

    噢!噢!

  • And the cockroach starts shaking it off,

    然後蟑螂會想要把牠搖下來,像是:

  • "Get away from me!"

    「不要碰我!」

  • The wasp very quickly starts stinging the cockroach.

    於是金小蜂很快地螫了蟑螂一針。

  • All of a sudden, the cockroach can't move,

    忽然之間

  • for about a minute.

    蟑螂大約有一分鐘都不能動。

  • And then it recovers

    接著牠復原了,

  • and stands up.

    然後站起來。

  • It could run away now,

    牠現在可以逃走,

  • but it doesn't.

    但是牠沒有這麼做。

  • It just doesn't want to.

    牠就是不想走。

  • It just stays there.

    牠只是停在那。

  • It's become a zombie slave.

    變成一個僵屍奴隸。

  • Again, I'm not making this up.

    強調一下,這不是我編造的。

  • The wasp goes off,

    這隻金小蜂會離開,

  • it walks away and finds a hole

    牠會先去找一個孔洞,

  • and digs it out, makes it into a burrow.

    把它挖深,變成一個洞穴。

  • It walks back.

    牠爬回來。

  • This can take up to half an hour.

    這可以花上半小時。

  • The cockroach is still there.

    但蟑螂還在那。

  • What do we do now?

    接著呢?

  • The wasps grabs onto one of the antenna,

    這金小蜂會抓著一根蟑螂的觸角,

  • bites down on it,

    咬緊它,

  • of the cockroach,

    咬緊它,

  • and pulls the cockroach.

    然後拉著蟑螂。

  • And the cockroach says, "Alright,"

    然後蟑螂會說「好啦」,

  • and walks like a dog on a leash.

    然後像鍊條上的狗 那樣往前走。

  • The wasp takes it all the way down into the burrow.

    金小蜂牽著牠一路走到洞穴裡去。

  • The cockroach says, "Nice place."

    然後蟑螂說:「這地方不錯。」

  • The wasp takes care of some business

    金小蜂處理一些事情以後,

  • and then goes and leaves the burrow

    就離開這個洞穴

  • and seals it shut,

    並把牠封起來,

  • leaving the cockroach entombed in darkness, still alive.

    把那隻還活著的蟑螂關在黑暗之中,

  • The cockroach says, "Alright, I'll stay here if you want."

    蟑螂會說:「好吧, 如果你希望這樣的話,我會待在這。」

  • Now, I mentioned that the cockroach took care,

    而,我剛提到蟑螂會處理一些……

  • ah, the wasp took care of a little business

    呃,金小蜂會處理一些小事,

  • before it left the burrow.

    在離開之前。

  • The business was laying an egg

    這件事就是產卵、

  • on the underside of the cockroach.

    在蟑螂腹部產卵。

  • The egg hatches.

    卵會孵化。

  • Out comes a wasp larva.

    跑出金小蜂幼蟲。

  • It looks kind of like a maggot with big, nasty jaws.

    牠看起來像是蛆, 長著又大又噁心的下顎。

  • It chews a hole into the cockroach

    牠在蟑螂身上啃出一個洞,

  • and starts to feed from the outside.

    然後從外面開始餵食。

  • It gets bigger, like you can see over here.

    牠會漸漸長大,就像這裡你看到的這樣。

  • And then when it gets big enough,

    接著當牠長到夠大的時候,

  • it decides to crawl into the hole,

    牠會爬進那個洞,

  • into the cockroach.

    爬進蟑螂內部。

  • So now it's inside the still-living cockroach

    所以牠會待在活體蟑螂的內部,

  • and the cockroach doesn't mind much.

    而蟑螂並不太在意。

  • This goes on for about a month.

    這會持續大約一個月。

  • The larva grows and grows and grows,

    幼蟲會不斷長大、不斷長大,

  • then makes a pupa, kind of like a cocoon.

    然後變成蛹、有點像是蠶繭那樣。

  • Inside there it grows eyes,

    在裡面它長出了眼睛、

  • it grows wings,

    長出了翅膀、

  • it grows legs,

    長出腳,

  • the cockroach is still alive, still waiting.

    而蟑螂則還活著、 還在原地等待。

  • Finally the wasp is ready to leave,

    最後金小蜂準備要離開了,

  • and that's when the cockroach finally dies

    這才是蟑螂最後死掉的時候,

  • because the fullly-formed adult wasp

    因為金小蜂的成蟲

  • crawls out of the cockroach's dying body.

    會爬出蟑螂的將死亡的軀體。

  • The wasp shakes itself off,

    金小蜂會把身體甩乾淨,

  • climbs out of the burrow,

    然後爬出洞穴,

  • goes and finds another wasp to mate with

    去找另一隻可以交配的對象,

  • to start this whole, crazy cycle again.

    然後重新開始這一整個瘋狂的循環。

  • So, this is not science fiction,

    這並不是科幻小說,

  • this happens every day, all over the world.

    在這整個世界上天天發生。

  • And scientists are totally fascinated by this.

    科學家對此非常迷戀。

  • They're just starting to figure out how all this happens.

    他們正開始要了解這一切是怎麼發生的。

  • And, when you really start to look at the science of it,

    而,當你真的開始去探索其科學意涵,

  • you start to kind of respect this very creepy wasp.

    你會有點開始尊敬這隻 毛骨悚然的胡蜂。

  • You see, the thing is that when it attacks the cockroach,

    你可以看到,關鍵在於 當牠攻擊蟑螂的時候,

  • it's not just stinging wildly,

    牠並不是隨便找地方螫,

  • it delivers two precise stings.

    而是用了兩次精準的毒針。

  • It knows this cockroach's nervous system

    這是蟑螂的神經系統,

  • like you know the back of your hand.

    我們對它瞭若指掌。

  • The first sting goes to that spot there,

    第一根針會螫在那裡,

  • called the "walking rhythm generators,"

    這地方叫作「行走節律產生器」 (walking rhythm generators),

  • and, as you can guess,

    而你可以猜到,

  • those are the neurons that send signals

    這些就是傳送訊號

  • to the legs to move.

    讓腳走動的神經元。

  • It blocks the channels that the neurons use

    它會堵住這些

  • to send these signals.

    神經元用來傳送訊息的神經通道。

  • So the cockroach wants to go, it wants to run away,

    所以蟑螂想要跑,牠想要逃跑,

  • but it can't because it can't move its legs.

    但就是做不到, 因為牠的腳沒辦法移動。

  • And that lasted for about a minute.

    這會持續大約一分鐘。

  • This is really sophisticated pharmacology.

    這真的是很先進的藥學。

  • We actually use the same method,

    事實上,我們也有用同樣的方法,

  • a drug called Ivermectin,

    用一種叫做伊維菌素(lvermectin)的藥,

  • to cure river blindness,

    來治療河盲症 (river blindness),

  • which is called by a parasitic worm

    這是由一種叫蟠尾絲蟲的生物

  • that gets into your eye.

    跑到眼睛裡所造成的。

  • If you take Ivermectin, you paralyze the worm

    如果使用伊維菌素治療,

  • using the same strategy.

    你就可以用同樣的方法 癱瘓這隻蠕蟲。

  • Now, we discovered this in the 1970s,

    我們在 1970 年代發現這藥物,

  • the wasp has been doing this for millions of years.

    而金小蜂已經用它幾百萬年了。

  • Then comes the second sting.

    接下來就是第二針。

  • Now the second sting actually hits two places along the way.

    這第二針實際上攻擊了兩個地方。

  • And to try to imagine how this can happen,

    試著想看看一下這怎麼發生的,

  • I want you to picture yourself with a friend

    我想要你想像一下 你身旁有一個朋友,

  • who's got a very long, very, very scary looking needle.

    他拿著看起來非常、非常可怕的針。

  • And your friend,

    而你的朋友,

  • or at least you thought he was your friend,

    嗯……至少你覺得他是你的朋友,

  • sticks it in your neck,

    把針從你的頸部

  • goes into your skull,

    一路插進你的頭顱內,

  • stops off at one part of your brain

    在你大腦的一個地方停下來 (注射聲)

  • and injects some drugs,

    然後注射一些藥劑,

  • then keeps going in your brain

    接著繼續插進你腦部 (注射聲)

  • and injects some more.

    再注射另一些。

  • These are two particular spots,

    這就是那兩個特別的地方,

  • marked here, "SEG",

    標記在這裡:「SEG」、

  • and you can see the tip of it in the brain, marked "Br".

    還有你可以看到在大腦裡針的末稍, 標記為「Br」。

  • Now, we can do this, but it's really hard for us.

    這個我們也做得到,但是非常難。

  • It's called stereotactic drug delivery.

    這叫做立體定位藥物傳輸 (stereotactic drug delivery)。

  • You have to put a patient in a big metal frame

    你必須把病人放在 一個大的金屬框架上

  • to hold them still,

    來固定他,

  • you need CAT Scans to know where you're going,

    你還須要斷層掃描 來了解現在的位置,

  • so you look at the picture and say,

    所以你會看著影像 然後說:

  • "Are we going the right way?"

    「我們的方向對嗎?」

  • The jewel wasp has sensors on its stinger

    在金小蜂的針上有一個感應器,

  • and scientists think that it can actually feel its way

    科學家們認為它可以感應它在

  • through the cockroach's brain until it gets

    蟑螂大腦裡的位置,

  • to the exact, right place,

    直到它找到那精準的位置,

  • and then penetrates an individual neuron

    然後刺穿某一個神經元

  • and then delivers the goods.

    最後注射毒素。

  • So, this is quite amazing stuff,

    這是一件很神奇的事情,

  • and what seems to happen then

    它的過程似乎是

  • is that the wasp is taking away the control

    金小蜂奪走了

  • that the cockroach has over its own body.

    蟑螂對自己的身體控制權。

  • It's taking away the cockroach's free will.

    奪走了蟑螂的自由意志。

  • We didn't really appreciate that cockroaches

    若不是金小蜂這麼做,

  • have free will until this wasp showed us.

    我們實在不會相信蟑螂會有自由意志。

  • And, we have no idea how it's doing this,

    而我們對這過程還是沒什麼想法,

  • we don't know yet what the venom has in it

    我們還不知道那毒液裡有什麼、

  • and we don't know which circuits

    也不知道它攻擊的是 蟑螂大腦裡的哪個神經迴路,

  • it's hitting in the cockroach's brain,

    也不知道它攻擊的是 蟑螂大腦裡的哪個神經迴路,

  • and I think that's why this is,

    而我想,這就是為什麼

  • most of all, my favorite parasite

    這是全部裡面 我最喜歡的寄生生物了,

  • because we have so much left to learn from it.

    因為在這之中 我們還有許多可以學習。

  • Thank you very much.

    謝謝各位。

I would like to introduce you to my favorite parasite.

我要向你介紹我最喜歡的寄生生物。

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 蟑螂 生物 大腦 神經元 注射

【TED-Ed】寄生蟲的故事:寶石蜂的殭屍奴隸--卡爾-齊默。 (【TED-Ed】Parasite tales: The jewel wasp's zombie slave - Carl Zimmer)

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    wikiHuang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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