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  • So how many of you have a robot at home?

    在座多少人家裡有機器人?

  • OK, I see about 20, 30 hands.

    讓我看一下,大約二、三十人

  • That's actually pretty good.

    這樣蠻好的

  • How many of you would want

    那有多少人希望

  • your own personal robot at home?

    家裡有臺專屬於自己的機器人?

  • I know I would!

    我知道我想要!

  • OK, so why doesn't this exist?

    那為什麼這東西不存在?

  • Why can't I go to the convenience store

    為什麼我不能到便利商店

  • or the department store and, you know,

    或百貨公司

  • go up to the cashier and say,

    跟櫃檯說:

  • "Yeah, I want my personal robot"?

    「我想買一臺個人機器人」呢?

  • Well, I'm going to talk to you about how to make that happen,

    我想談談怎樣實現這個想法

  • the things that we need to do is to make robots smarter.

    我們該做的 就是讓機器人變聰明

  • Now, no one will argue that we don't have robots.

    現在,沒人認為世界上沒有機器人

  • Um, we have rovers that are going to Mars

    我們在火星上有自動探測車

  • and are getting science data

    蒐集科學資訊

  • and expanding our understanding of the world.

    並拓展我們對火星的認知

  • We have manufacturing robots

    我們有工業機器人

  • that are helping to build our cars that we drive today.

    幫忙組裝我們每天開的車子

  • We even have robots that are helping our military,

    我們甚至有軍用機器人

  • that are out disposing of bombs

    可以拆解炸彈

  • so our soldiers can come home safely.

    讓我們的士兵安全回家

  • So we have all this,

    我們有各式各樣的機器人

  • so why don't we have the personal robot?

    那為什麼沒有個人機器人呢?

  • Why don't I have my robot chef

    為什麼沒有我的機器人廚師?

  • because I can't cook?

    因為我不懂烹飪

  • So, here's one of my robots,

    這臺是我的機器人之一

  • this is a simple walking robot,

    是簡單、會走動的機器人

  • but, it is by no means smart.

    但一點都不聰明

  • And so, what we need to do is

    因此我們該做的

  • we need to change the definition of what a robot is.

    是改變對機器人的定義

  • How do we do that?

    我們該怎麼做?

  • Well, the first step,

    嗯,第一步

  • before we even start designing and getting our hands dirty,

    在我們著手設計並把手弄髒之前

  • we have to come up with rules,

    我們要先處理規則

  • kind of the laws,

    某種法則、

  • rules of conduct,

    行為規範

  • and why is this?

    為什麼要這麼做?

  • Because if robots are smart,

    因為如果機器人變聰明了

  • ehhh, they might be capable of more than we want.

    能力可能會超出我們的預期

  • And so we have to come up with rules.

    因此必須先提出這些規則

  • Thou, robot, shall not harm a human.

    你,機器人,不能傷害人類

  • Thou shall obey me, and only me.

    你要服從我,並且只服從我

  • Thou shall always protect me at all possible times.

    你在任何時候,都要保護我

  • So we have to lay the boundaries,

    我們必須先訂下界線、

  • the rules of engagement,

    互動的規範

  • before we actually start designing.

    才能著手設計

  • And then we have to come up with tools.

    接著我們要有方法

  • So I believe that the way to make robots smarter

    我認為要讓機器人變聰明的方法

  • is to mimic people.

    就是模仿人類

  • Now are brains are complex,

    但大腦很複雜

  • there's a lot going on in there,

    裡面有許多東西

  • and so, it'd be hard to try to open up the brain

    不太可能把大腦打開

  • and actually figure out how to mimic humans.

    然後思考怎麼模仿

  • The best way is to observe,

    最好的方法是觀察

  • is to actually watch people do things,

    觀察人的行為

  • and figure out what are they doing,

    然後思考他們在做什麼、

  • what are their thoughts,

    他們在想什麼、

  • what are their actions,

    他們採取什麼行動、

  • what are their emotions?

    他們的情緒如何?

  • And so, part of making robots smarter

    因此要讓機器人變聰明

  • is actually trying to mimic humans,

    部分要靠模仿人類

  • mimic how we do things,

    模仿我們的行為

  • so maybe they can do it a little bit better.

    這樣或許機器人可以變聰明一點

  • And so, some of the tools are varied.

    有些方法不太一樣

  • And so, I'm classically trained as an electrical engineer,

    我本科是電子工程系

  • I never thought I'd have to understand

    我從沒想過必須要了解

  • things like child psychology?

    兒童心理學

  • Infant development?

    與幼兒發展

  • So, understanding that the way infants develop to children,

    藉由了解幼兒如何發展成兒童

  • develop to adults,

    再發展成大人

  • and how they learn and interact

    以及兒童如何學習和互動

  • is actually important for robotics.

    對開發機器人是很重要的

  • I didn't understand that I'd actually have to watch

    我之前並不知道,我必須去看

  • tapes of monkeys interacting and communicating

    猴子互動和溝通的錄影帶

  • because they have a whole social kind of mechanism

    因為猴子有一整套社交機制

  • where they learn from each other,

    讓牠們可以相互學習

  • and so that's really good to make robots smarter.

    這可以幫機器人變聰明

  • And, of course, neuroscience,

    當然還有神經科學

  • I've always been fascinated with neuroscience,

    我一直都對神經科學很著迷

  • but I never understood that I had to figure out

    但我從沒想過我必須要了解

  • why do the neurons fire,

    神經元為什麼要發出脈衝

  • what about the environ helps us to learn,

    環境如何幫助我們學習

  • and all of those really contribute

    以及那些

  • to making robots a little bit smarter.

    真的會讓機器人變聰明的事物

  • And so, some of the things that I do,

    因此,我做了一些事

  • and this is just a little snapshot,

    這只是一些小影片

  • one of the things is mirroring.

    其中一件事就是照鏡子

  • So they say our ability to look in a mirror and wave

    有人說我們能看著鏡子揮手

  • and actually recognize

    並認出鏡子裡的那個人

  • that the person on the other side is us,

    其實就是自己,這項能力…

  • that self-awareness,

    也就是自我意識

  • is a sign of intelligence,

    是智力的一項指標

  • and that allows us to then look at someone pitch a ball

    這讓我們能看著某人丟球的樣子

  • and figure out, "OK, I know how to pitch a ball,

    想說:「我知道怎麼丟球了,

  • I'm going to mirror their improvement."

    我要模仿他們的優點。」

  • And so I actually have a robot

    我真的有個機器人

  • where we are trying to design a robot health coach.

    我們想設計成健康教練

  • And so, I have an exercise physiologist showing the robot

    找了運動生理學家來教導機器人

  • how to do some exercises.

    如何做運動

  • You know, we want to get strong.

    因為我們想變強壯

  • And then, the other thing is learning.

    另一件事就是學習

  • So, learning is important.

    學習很重要

  • We do this as children,

    小孩會學習

  • we do this even as adults,

    成人會學習

  • we do this as elder.

    老人也會學習

  • And, yet, one form of learning is muscle memory.

    學習的一種形式是肌肉記憶

  • So how many of you play an instrument?

    你們有多少人有玩樂器?

  • OK, so when you start off,

    當你開始學的時候

  • for example, if you think about the violin,

    比如說,你想學小提琴

  • you start off and your instructor might actually come

    你開始練習,而你的老師可能會

  • and move your hand a little bit

    調整一下你的手

  • or maybe move your bow a little bit up.

    或是把你的琴弓調高一點

  • So, they actually touch you

    老師會真的碰觸你

  • in order to give you muscle memory.

    好給你一些肌肉的記憶

  • And that helps you understand

    這會幫助你了解

  • how to do things a little better.

    怎樣把事情做得更好

  • And so we actually have a learning methodology

    所以實際上我們有一套學習方法

  • where, of course we're not going to take the motors

    當然我們不是要去調整馬達

  • and move the legs,

    以及移動它的腳

  • and so we have to nunchuck

    我們要做的是輕拍它

  • to give our robot muscle memory

    給它肌肉記憶

  • in terms of how to do dance moves.

    來學習舞步

  • And then, lastly, is creativity.

    最後一樣,就是創造力

  • So, you might ask,

    你可能會問:

  • "Robots? Creativity? I don't get this.

    「機器人?創造力?我不懂。

  • Why does the robot have to be creative?

    為什麼機器人要有創造力?

  • What about creativity makes them smarter?"

    創造力怎樣讓機器人變聰明?」

  • Well, creativity and imagination,

    嗯,創造力和想像力,

  • those are the things that allow us to create problems

    能讓我們先創造出難題

  • when we don't know how to attack it,

    再想出解決的方法

  • they allow us to make something out of nothing.

    讓我們從無到有

  • I mean, if you look at the apps that at out there

    這麼說吧,你看一下 App、

  • and the tablets,

    平板電腦、

  • and the iPads,

    還有 iPad、

  • and the iPhones,

    iPhone、

  • and the Androids,

    以及 Android

  • 20 years ago they didn't exist.

    20 年前都不存在

  • So, how is it that we got from something

    那我們是如何

  • where there was nothing and expanded?

    從無到有,並加以擴展?

  • It was our imagination.

    就是靠想像力、

  • It was our creativity.

    就是靠創造力

  • And these are the things

    這兩者就是

  • that allow us to figure out new things.

    讓我們發現新事物的要素

  • And so, I have a robot that is creative,

    我有臺會創作的機器人

  • it plays piano, is a composer,

    會彈鋼琴,還會作曲

  • and if you listen, it plays "Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star."

    注意聽,它正在彈「小星星」

  • So, all of this together,

    全部總結起來

  • the last thing is interaction.

    最後的事就是互動

  • So, you have a robot,

    你有個機器人

  • you want it to be your playmate,

    你希望它成為你的玩伴、

  • your teacher,

    你的老師、

  • your instructor,

    你的教練,

  • you want it to interact.

    你希望它能互動

  • And isn't it so cute?!

    它很可愛對吧!

  • So, interaction is key,

    所以,互動就是關鍵,

  • it is key to understanding

    是理解如何在這世界

  • how to work in our world with us,

    跟我們互動的關鍵

  • and so the interaction piece is very important.

    所以互動這點非常重要

  • It deals with communication,

    互動涉及溝通能力、

  • it deals with understanding,

    涉及理解能力、

  • it deals with gaze,

    涉及目光辨識、

  • it deals with attention.

    也涉及注意力

  • All of these things together allow that interaction

    所有這些合起來,就有了互動能力

  • and our robots to be smart.

    能讓我們的機器人變聰明

  • And so these are just some of the tools that we use

    以上只是我們用來讓機器人

  • in order to make robots smarter.

    變聰明的一些方法

  • So, I want to leave you with one thought.

    我要留給你們一些問題想想

  • So, I'm all for robots and smart robots.

    我當然支持機器人和智慧型機器人

  • I mean, that's what I do,

    我的意思是,這是我的工作

  • I'd be out of a job if I didn't believe in that.

    我不相信就會丟了飯碗

  • But yet, where does it end?

    然而,終點在哪裡?

  • How far do we push it?

    我們可進展到什麼地步?

  • How far and how smart

    我們該把智慧型機器人

  • should we make our smart robots?

    做到什麼程度?做得多聰明?

  • Thank you.

    謝謝你們

So how many of you have a robot at home?

在座多少人家裡有機器人?

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 機器人 聰明 學習 創造力 模仿

【TED-Ed】讓機器人更聰明--Ayanna Howard (【TED-Ed】Make robots smarter - Ayanna Howard)

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    wikiHuang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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