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  • It was New Years Eve, 2019 when health officials in China admitted they had a problem.

    就在 2019 跨年夜,中國衛生官員承認中國出現了問題。

  • Health authorities have activated their most serious response level.

    衛生官員啟動了最高應變措施。

  • After an outbreak of a new type of viral pneumonia in central China.

    在病毒引起的肺炎在中國中部爆發後。

  • A rapidly growing number of people were developing a dry cough and fever, before getting pneumonia.

    有許多人在得到肺炎前出現了乾咳與發燒的症狀。

  • And for some, it turned fatal.

    而其中有些人,症狀變得致命。

  • Doctors have named the disease COVID-19 or "coronavirus disease, 2019" indicating that a type of virus is causing the illness.

    醫界將此疾病定名為 COVID-19 或「2019 新型冠狀病毒」,表明某種病毒造成了這個疾病。

  • When they'd tried to trace its origin, they found a likely source.

    當他們試著尋找病毒來源時,他們找到了一個可能的源頭。

  • This food market in Wuhan.

    在中國武漢的這個市場。

  • Out of the first 41 patients, 27 had been here.

    最初的 41 名確診患者裡,有 27 位到過這裡。

  • It wasn't conclusive evidence, but Chinese officials quickly shut down the market.

    這並沒有確切的證據,但中國官員很快地便關閉了該市場。

  • They had seen this happen before at a place just like this.

    他們已經見過類似的事,在類似的地方。

  • Health officials are trying to get a grip on an alarming outbreak of SARS.

    衛生官員正嘗試摸清楚這 SARS 病毒的爆發。

  • The virus originated in mainland China.

    該病毒源自中國大陸。

  • Then spread across the country.

    很快地散播至全中國。

  • The disease had been festering for months in southern China.

    疫情在中國南部不斷加速。

  • In 2002, a coronavirus had emerged at a very similar market in southern China.

    2002 年時,一種冠狀病毒出現在中國南部,一個類似的市場。

  • It eventually reached 29 countries and killed nearly 800 people.

    該病毒最後傳遞到了 29 國,並殺死近乎 800 人。

  • Now, 18 years later, this coronavirus is in at least 71 countries and has already killed over 3100 people.

    在 18 年後的現在,這種冠狀病毒傳播到了至少 71 國,並且已經使超過 3,100 人喪生。

  • So, what do these markets have to do with the coronavirus outbreak and why is it happening in China?

    究竟這些市場與冠狀病毒的爆發有何關係,且為何病毒總會出現在中國?

  • Vox atlas.

    Vox 大解密。

  • A lot of the viruses that make us sick, actually originate in animals.

    許多讓人類生病的病毒,其實都源自於動物。

  • Some of the viruses that cause the flu come from birds and pigs.

    某些造成流感的病毒,來自鳥類與豬。

  • HIV/AIDS comes from chimpanzees.

    愛滋病毒則來自黑猩猩。

  • The deadly Ebola virus likely originates in bats.

    致命的伊波拉病毒則很可能源自蝙蝠。

  • And in the case of the 2019 coronavirus, there is some evidence it went from a bat to a pangolin before infecting a human.

    而在這次的 2019 新冠病毒,有證據顯示,該病毒是從蝙蝠傳至穿山甲,再傳到人類身上。

  • While viruses are very good at jumping between species, it's rare for a deadly one to make this journey all the way to humans.

    雖然病毒很容易在物種間傳遞,但如此致命的病毒要一路傳遞到人類身上,是很少見的。

  • Thats because it would need all these hosts to encounter each other at some point.

    因為這些宿主都需要在某個時刻同時接觸到彼此,才會發生病毒傳遞。

  • That's where the Wuhan market comes in.

    這就是武漢市場扮演的角色。

  • It's a wet market.

    它是個菜市場。

  • A kind of place where live animals are slaughtered and sold for consumption.

    一種活體動物會在此處被宰殺,並販賣給消費者的地方。

  • It was not a surprise at all.

    這一點都不令人感到驚訝。

  • And I think that it was not a surprise to many scientists.

    我想許多科學家一定也這麼認為。

  • Peter Li is a professor and expert on China's animal trade.

    Peter Li 是名教授,也是名中國動物販賣的專家。

  • The cages are stacked one over another.

    裝著動物的籠子都被堆疊在一起。

  • Animals at the bottom are often soaked with all kinds of liquid.

    在下層的動物經常被泡在各種液體內。

  • Animal excrement, pus, blood.

    動物排泄物、膿汁,甚至血。

  • Whatever the liquid they are receiving from the animals above.

    任何可能從上層動物留下的液體。

  • That's exactly how a virus can jump from one animal to another.

    這就是病毒如何在動物間傳播的。

  • If that animal then comes in contact with or is consumed by a human, the virus could potentially infect them.

    如果該動物後來被人類碰觸或食用,病毒就有可能傳染給他們。

  • And if the virus then spreads to other humans, it causes an outbreak.

    若病毒再進一步傳染給其他人,就會造成疫情爆發。

  • Wet markets are scattered all over the world, but the ones in China are particularly well known because they offer a wide variety of animals, including wildlife.

    全世界都有菜市場,但中國的特別有名,因為他們供應各種動物,包含各種野味。

  • This is a sample menu, reportedly from the market in Wuhan.

    這是張目錄,據稱是武漢市場的。

  • These animals are from all over the world and each one has the potential to carry its own viruses to the market.

    這些動物來自世界各地,且每種動物都有可能攜帶自己的病毒到市場內。

  • The reason all these animals are in the same market is because of a decision China's government made decades ago.

    這些動物都集中於同一個市場的原因是,中國政府於數十年前所下的一個決定。

  • Back in the 1970s, China was falling apart.

    回到 1970 年代,當時中國分崩離析。

  • Famine had killed more than 36 million people.

    超過 3,600 萬人因飢荒而死。

  • And the communist regime, which controlled all food production, was failing to feed its more than 900 million people.

    而共產政權控制了所有的食物的生產,導致有超過 9,000 萬人無法被餵飽。

  • In 1978, on the verge of collapse, the regime gave up this control and allowed private farming.

    1978 年時,在崩塌的邊際,該政權放棄這項控制,並允許私人畜養家畜。

  • While large companies increasingly dominated the production of popular foods like pork and poultry, some smaller farmers turned to catching and raising wild animals as a way to sustain themselves.

    大公司支配了大眾食物的生產,如豬肉與家禽,一些小農夫只好轉向捕捉、畜養野生動物來養活自己。

  • At the very beginning, it was mostly peasant household, backyard operations of turtles, for example.

    在最初,通常都是農夫家庭,在自家後院飼養烏龜等野生生物。

  • That's how wildlife farming started to get off the ground.

    這就是野生動物飼養的開始。

  • And since it started to feed and sustain people, the Chinese government backed it.

    而因為這項生意開始提供了一些人的生計,中國政府便支持了它。

  • So it was imperative for the government to encourage people, you know, to make a living through whatever productive activities they can find themselves in.

    在當時,中國政府非常需要人民自己找到能過活的方式,什麼生產方式都可。

  • If you can lift yourself out of poverty, no matter what you are doing, that's okay.

    如果你能脫離貧窮,不管什麼方法,都沒問題。

  • But then in 1988, the government made a decision that changed the shape of wildlife trade in China.

    但到了 1988 年,中國政府做了一個改變野生動物貿易的決定。

  • They enacted the Wildlife Protection Law which designated the animals as "resources owned by the state" and protected people engaged in the "utilization of wildlife resources."

    中國頒布了野生動物保護法,將動物們視為「國家資源」,並保護那些從事「野生動物利用」生意的人。

  • That's one of the most devastating problems of the law.

    這是這條法律最糟糕的地方。

  • Because if you designate the wildlife as "natural resources," that means it's something you can use for human benefit.

    因為如果你將野生動物視為「自然資源」,這就代表那是可用於提升人類益處的東西。

  • The law also "encouraged the domestication and breeding of wildlife."

    該法律也「鼓勵馴養與繁殖野生動物」。

  • And with that, an industry was born.

    有了這條法律,一個新產業誕生了。

  • Small local farms turned into industrial-sized operations.

    地方小農變成了工業規模的產業。

  • For example, this bear farm started with just three, and eventually grew to more than 1,000 bears.

    舉例來說,這個熊農場一開始只有三隻熊,最終繁殖到了超過一千隻熊。

  • Bigger populations meant greater chances that a sick animal could spread disease.

    人口越多代表有病毒的動物越容易傳播病毒。

  • Farmers were also raising a wide variety of animals.

    農夫們也常會養各種種類的動物。

  • Which meant more viruses on the farms.

    這代表了更多病毒。

  • Nonetheless, these animals were funneled into the wet markets for profit.

    儘管如此,這些動物仍然被運送至菜市場販售。

  • While this legal wildlife farming industry started booming, it simultaneously provided cover for an illegal wildlife industry.

    在這個合法野生動物畜養業開始蓬勃發展時,同時也為非法野生動物產業提供了掩護。

  • Endangered animals like tigers, rhinoceroses, and pangolins, were trafficked into China.

    像是老虎、犀牛、穿山甲等的瀕危動物,被非法交易至中國。

  • By the early 2000s, these markets were teeming with wild animals when the inevitable happened.

    到了 2000 年早期,這些市場充斥著各種野生動物,無可避免的事便發生了。

  • The latest on the deadly SARS virus, the worldwide death toll up again today.

    SARS 的最新疫情,全球死亡人數於今日又上升了。

  • China has reported more than 1,400 cases of infection nationwide.

    中國全境已有超過 1,400 例確診。

  • It is what health officials have feared all along.

    這就是健康官員所擔心的。

  • In 2003, the SARS outbreak was traced to a wet market here, in southern China.

    2003 年時,SARS 的來源可以回朔至中國南部的一個市場。

  • Scientists found traces of the virus in farmed civet cats.

    科學家在養殖的麝貓中發現病毒的蹤跡。

  • Chinese officials quickly shut down the markets and banned wildlife farming.

    中國官員很快地關閉了市場,並禁止養殖野生動物。

  • But just a few months after the outbreak, the Chinese government declared 54 species of wildlife animals, including civet cats, legal to farm again.

    但在疫情爆發後僅僅幾個月,中國政府宣布 54 種野生動物 (包含麝貓) 的禁令解禁。

  • By 2004, the wildlife-farming industry was worth an estimated 100 billion yuan.

    到了 2004 年,整個野生動物養殖產業估計價值 1,000 億人民幣。

  • And it exerted significant influence over the Chinese government.

    且此產業對中國政府已產生影響力。

  • The wildlife farming industry was tiny in China's gigantic GDP.

    野生動物養殖產業在整個中國的巨大 GDP 裡僅佔了極小部分。

  • But the industry has enormous lobbying capability.

    但此產業有巨大的遊說空間。

  • It's because of this influence that the Chinese government has allowed these markets to grow over the years.

    這是因為這股影響,讓中國政府允許這個產業在這幾年間不斷成長。

  • In 2016, for example, the government sanctioned the farming of some endangered species like tigers, and pangolins.

    如在 2016 年,中國政府允許了某些瀕危動物的養殖,像是老虎與穿山甲。

  • By 2018, the wildlife industry had grown to 148 billion yuan and had developed clever marketing tactics to keep the markets around.

    到了 2018 年,野生動物產業的產值成長到了 1,480 億元,也發展出一些更聰明的市場策略。

  • The industry has been promoting these wildlife animals as tonic products, as bodybuilding, as sex enhancing, and, of course, as disease fighting.

    這產業不斷宣稱野生動物是滋補產品,可以增強體力、增進性事,還有當然,對抗疾病。

  • None of the claims can hold water.

    以上宣稱的療效,沒有一個站得住腳。

  • Yet, these products became popular with an influential portion of China's population.

    然而,這些產品在中國握有影響力的一群中變得熱門。

  • The majority of the people in China do not eat wildlife animals.

    大部分的中國人並不吃野味。

  • Those people who consume these wildlife animals are the rich and the powerful.

    會吃野味的人,是那些有錢有勢的人。

  • A small minority

    一個小族群而已。

  • It's this minority that the Chinese government chose to favor over the safety of the rest of its population.

    就是這個小族群,讓中國政府決定忽視剩下人民的安危。

  • This parochial commercial interest of a small number of wildlife eaters are hijacking China's national interest.

    這狹窄的商業利益,傷害了中國的整體國家利益。

  • Soon after the coronavirus outbreak, the Chinese government shut down thousands of wet markets and temporarily banned wildlife trade again.

    很快地,在新冠肺炎爆發後,中國政府關閉了數以千計的市場,並再度暫時禁止野生動物貿易。

  • Organizations around the world have been urging China to make the ban permanent.

    全球各個組織力勸中國永久性禁止野生動物交易。

  • Chinese social media, in particular, has been flooded with petitions to ban it for good this time.

    中國社群軟體上也是,湧入無數希望中國政府永久取消野生動物交易的請願。

  • In response, China is reportedly amending the Wildlife Protection Law that encouraged wildlife farming decades ago.

    作為回應,中國據稱正在修訂那鼓勵該產業的野生動物保護法。

  • But unless these actions lead to a permanent ban on wildlife farming, outbreaks like this one are bound to happen again.

    直到野生動物交易被永遠禁止前,像新冠肺炎般的疫情爆發,是一定會再發生的。

  • For a bunch more information about China's wet-markets, viruses, and wildlife, we have an episode on our Netflix show calledThe Next Pandemic, explained."

    若想要得到更多中國菜市場、病毒與野生動物的資訊,我們在 Netflix 的節目有一集叫「下一次大流行,大解釋」。

  • It talks about why a coronavirus could spark the next pandemic and what the world's experts are doing to stop it.

    節目裡將談論一個冠狀病毒是如何造成全球大流行,與全球專家們正試著要如何解決它。

  • That's on our Netflix show Explained, check it out.

    這都在我們 Netflix 的節目《Explained》中,去看看吧!

It was New Years Eve, 2019 when health officials in China admitted they had a problem.

就在 2019 跨年夜,中國衛生官員承認中國出現了問題。

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    Mackenzie 發佈於 2020 年 03 月 20 日
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