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  • in this video we're talking about the most intimidating things that pilots face

  • talking to air traffic control radio communications and how to master them

  • coming up

  • Hey everyone Carl with the Aviation Guys here and if you like training tips going

  • on flights and aviation gadget reviews and this is the channel for you if you

  • if like what you see please consider subscribing now let's get going let's

  • Lets start out by saying who this video is for. This video is primarily for student pilots

  • who are ready to take control of the radios, but it's also for certified

  • pilots who don't usually fly into control airports. But the whole idea is

  • to help you learn how to get around, fly into, and out of your local airport.

  • But here's the bottom line the FAA requires certain communications

  • to happen on the radio and that puts a lot of pressure on air traffic control

  • and so they have to put pressure on the pilots to make sure they're in

  • compliance as well so let's make radio communication as simple as possible

  • there's three basic parts the request instructions and confirmation

  • so you make a request to air traffic control they give you instructions and then you

  • repeat those instructions back to confirm that you heard them correctly

  • then unless they've asked you to contact them or you have a new request you only

  • receive instructions and confirm it as air traffic control gives you updated information

  • that's it that's all radio communication is but because what you

  • say and how you say it matters we're going to dig a little deeper.

  • so we're going to walk through this as if we're going on a flight and at an airport with air

  • traffic control there's multiple controllers if you're on the ground

  • you'll start by contacting ground control to get you to the runway and

  • after you have the runway you'll contact the tower to clear you for takeoff so

  • since we're on the ground we're gonna start with our initial

  • contact with ground control. this initial contact is basically asking permission

  • to enter the movement area which is anywhere where there's taxiways and

  • runways in order to enter those areas you have to give them all the

  • information that they need to be able to graduate entrance into the movement

  • area watch here as I make my initial contact with ground.

  • We on ground?

  • Looks good.

  • Is it really that today?

  • Is it really that what?

  • quiet

  • Yea, I know right?

  • dear valley ground Cessna seven five six zero zero

  • at romeo eight requesting taxi for Northwest departure with information

  • Zulu.

  • Again your communication with air traffic control on your initial contact

  • has to have a lot of information. To keep things simple we're going to use the

  • W's use of ATC communication. When you make your initial contact

  • with air traffic control, whether you're in the air or on

  • the ground it has to include these five things.

  • who you're talking to

  • who you are

  • where you are

  • what is your request and intentions

  • and with what airport information

  • This is everything air traffic control needs to know to give

  • you clearance and instruction. Now the W's aren't the end-all in radio

  • communication. It's just a good technique to help you get going.

  • In fact the order of what you are, where you are, and what your requests are

  • doesn't even matter. But by using the W's in your communication it helps things

  • flow better and feel more natural. Now, the first communication was the hardest

  • one from here you just have to listen to what air traffic control says and repeat

  • it back to them so they know you heard them correctly. Let's watch the rest of

  • this transmission

  • Cessna Seven five six zero zero, taxi to northwest run-up via Alpha

  • advise run-up complete.

  • Taxing to northwest run-up area via alpha will advise when complete six zero zero

  • Now that we're cleared to taxi we'll follow the

  • instructions air traffic control gave us to the run-up area.

  • Just a side note,

  • not all airports have a designated run-up area like mine. Sometimes you complete

  • your run-up at the end of the runway or the runway access point, but what's

  • important here is that I just entered a non-movement area,

  • as indicated by these lines which means that once my run-up is complete I

  • have to contact ground again for clearance into the movement area.

  • But, because I already gave them all the information they needed about me and my

  • initial contact, I only have to advise them on the things that they requested.

  • Which, in this case, is that my run-up is complete.

  • Deer Valley Ground, Cessna seven five six zero zero

  • run-up is complete

  • by now you should have noticed

  • two things that I'm doing with every communication. The first is that I'm

  • addressing who I'm talking to and saying Who I am.

  • These are the first two W's use instead of our steps. Anytime you're

  • making contact with air traffic control, Unicom, or even air-to-air frequency you

  • should always start with who you're talking to and who you are.

  • Second I close my transmission by using my tail number or rather, in this case the last

  • three of my tail number to help speed things up. It's technically not required

  • to do so you could just end your transmission by lifting the push-to-talk

  • button but using this technique is common and helps others in the area know

  • that you're done communicating. Also speaking of using the last three of your

  • tail number to help speed things up, air traffic control might do the same thing

  • so make sure you're actively listening for the last

  • three of your tail number whenever you're inside of a traffic area.

  • Now back to my taxi and just like before I'm going to listen to the instructions I'm

  • given and confirm them.

  • Cessna six zero zero runway seven left, taxi via

  • alpha, alpha four.

  • Taxing via alpha to alpha four for seven left six zero zero

  • alright now we followed the instructions given to us by ground control,

  • completed our run-up, made it to the runway, and are holding short.

  • But ground control can't give us clearance to take off

  • only tower can. So we have to change our radio

  • frequency to tower to make our next transmission.

  • dear valley power Cessna seven five six zero zero is holding short of seven left

  • ready for departure.

  • now because we switch over to a different controller we

  • not only had to tell them who we are again but we had to use our full tail number

  • But also tell them where we were and what our request is and in this case

  • it was a request to depart. The rest of our intentions like where we were going

  • and what airport information we had, was already handed over to tower from ground control

  • So we didn't need to tell him that again.

  • Cessna seven five six zero zero, Deer Valley Tower, hold short runway seven left.

  • Holding short, seven left, six zero zero.

  • no matter what instructions you're given you just need to confirm and comply to

  • them in my case I was told to hold short but, they could give you any number of

  • instructions from here. Here are just a few of them.

  • hold short of runway.

  • You'll hear this if there's an aircraft about to land or the runway isn't clea

  • Fly straight out or fly runway heading.

  • you'll hear this if you're departing the

  • airport and they want you to fly until you reach the required altitude

  • I'll call your crosswind

  • You'll hear this when the tower is trying to keep

  • separation between traffic. They'll let you know when you can turn.

  • left or rightclose traffic approved

  • You'll hear this when you're approved to stay in the

  • traffic pattern for touch and go's.

  • turn at your discretion

  • You'll hear this when you're leaving the airport and you can turn for departure whenever you'd like

  • line up and wait

  • Here you've been cleared onto the runway to get ready for

  • takeoff but not actually do so until you get clearance

  • cleared for take off

  • this one's kind of self-explanatory

  • Cessna six zero zero fly straight out to advise

  • runway seven left cleared for takeoff

  • clear for takeoff on seven left for six zero zero flying straight out

  • Great, you're up in the air. You fly away from the airport

  • for some maneuvers.

  • You do some stalls

  • maybe a couple spins

  • your instructor simulates an emergency

  • Alright buddy, simulated engine failure.

  • soon enough it's time

  • to head back to the airport.

  • Once you're ready, you'll have to make contact with

  • air traffic control letting them know that you're ready to come back for a landing

  • just like when you're on the ground you have to contact them to be allowed into

  • their airspace and your transmission would sound something like this

  • Deer Valley tower cessna seven five six zero zero is over the shooting range

  • inbound requesting touch and goes with information Zulu.

  • so if you're paying close attention you realize I use the five W's again. The process for

  • contacting aircraft traffic control is the same whether you're on the ground or in

  • the air, the information just changes a little bit because you're not calling

  • out airport intersection you're calling out a local landmark that air traffic

  • control is used to, or you could be using a reporting point found on a sectional

  • from here air traffic control will give me instructions that I just have to repeat to confirm.

  • Cessna seven five six zero zero deer vally tower, Roger.

  • Left base for seven left, report over canal and freeway.

  • Reporting over canal freeway for seven five six zero zero

  • from out here air traffic control can give you all kinds of instructions in my

  • case they asked me to report back to them when I got a little bit closer to

  • the airport. Now typically I would have called air traffic control at the

  • reporting point that they asked me but anything can happen when you're inbound

  • to an airport and in my case they gave me updated instructions before I got to

  • the reporting point

  • Cessna six zero zero for traffic make a left turn and fly

  • eastbound I'll let you know when you can make a right turn back to downwind

  • make a right turn to east bound, I'll listen for your call.

  • Err... yes... EAST bound, LEFT TURN! for six zero zero.

  • HAHAHAHHAHA

  • In situations like these it's important to just confirm and comply because air

  • traffic control really could ask you to do any number of things. Here's a short

  • list of things that they could ask you to do.

  • extend your downwind I'll call your base

  • Air traffic control is trying to space the landings just keep flying

  • until they tell you to turn

  • enter a left or right base for runway

  • This information is to tell you how air traffic control would like you to approach the runway.

  • Enter right or left traffic for runway

  • This is the same thing as entering a left or right base. Air traffic control wants you to enter

  • the traffic pattern and is telling you how to approach the runway.

  • continue straight in

  • You're already flying runway heading so you can fly

  • straight in and skip the pattern

  • Cross over midfield and make right or left traffic

  • You're on the wrong side of the airport in this situation so air traffic

  • control is directing you to fly over the field and how have you join the patter.

  • Remain outside class Delta

  • This means stay out of their airspace.

  • They may have too much traffic or something else is going on and they

  • just don't want you in there yet.

  • Follow traffic at your 12 o'clock.

  • I used 12 o'clock as an example here but you'll typically hear this when air traffic control want you

  • to follow someone else in the pattern and they're telling you where to look.

  • If you see the traffic you would respond with

  • traffic in sight

  • otherwise you would respond with looking for traffic

  • cleared for the option

  • Typically you would have to request the option to be

  • cleared for it but if your traffic control says that you've been cleared

  • for the option you can do whatever type of landing you want. Full stop, touch and

  • go, and even a stop and go.

  • clear to land on runway

  • this one should be obvious but

  • make sure you don't land unless you hear it the same rule applies for any type of

  • landing just make sure air traffic control says what type of landing you're

  • looking to attempt

  • now going back to my landing, air traffic control told me why

  • there was a delay for my entry into their area. But usually they don't have

  • to tell you. But just like I was asked I flew East until I was told to come

  • inbound to the airport.

  • Cessna six zero zero, affirmative. Left turn to the east. My plan is, I've got a...

  • the downwind is pretty stretched out so I'm gonna put you behind everybody

  • Roger six zero zero.

  • Here are the rest of the updates as I came in for my landing.

  • Cessna six zero zero traffic approaching your three o'clock higher on

  • downwind Seminole

  • traffic is a sight.

  • Cessna six zero zero you can turn inbound

  • and follow the Seminole that's at midfield.

  • turning right following traffic. Six zero zero.

  • Cessna seven five six zero zero, follow the Seminole just crossing the freeway on final

  • Runway seven left, cleared to land.

  • Cleared to land, looking for traffic six zero zero.

  • okay now we've landed but our last contact with air traffic control tower

  • is going to be telling us to pull off the runway and contact ground for our

  • taxi instructions

  • Cessna six zero zero contact ground point 8

  • Contacting ground, six zero zero.

  • After clearing the runway we change our radios over to ground control to make our last call

  • and you guessed it, use the five W's all except for the last one because that

  • information isn't required to taxi to the hangars.

  • Deer Valley Ground, Cessna seven five six zero zero

  • at alpha nine requesting taxi to north hangars

  • Cessna seven five six zero zero, deer valley ground.

  • Taxi via alpha to north hangers.

  • taxing via alpha to north hangar six zero zero.

  • So that's a really brief overview of air traffic control communications to help you get in and

  • out of an airport. Now this was specifically for Class D airspace and it

  • also works for Class C and B airspace with slight variations. But we're going

  • save that for another video. So I know what you're thinking, now how do I get

  • good at all this? well practice.

  • practicing your transmissions is the best way to perfect them. starting with your initial

  • transmission go ahead and use the five W's. most of us fly out of the same