Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • There's a chart I saw recently that I can't get out of my head.

    最近有一份圖表令我難忘

  • A Harvard business professor and economist asked more than five thousand Americans:

    一位哈佛教授兼經濟學者訪問了 5000 多位美國人

  • how they thought wealth was distributed in the United States.

    關於他們所認為的美國財富分布是如何

  • this is what they said they thought it was: dividing the country into five rough

    這是他們的認知:假設把人口依照富有程度

  • groups of the top bottom and middle three twenty percent groups,

    從頂層到底層和中間,分成五個群組

  • they asked people how they thought the wealth in this country was divided?

    他們認為財富分布的現況是什麼?

  • then he ask them, what they thought was the ideal distribution?

    他又問:理想的分布應該是什麼樣子的?

  • And ninety two percent, that's at least nine out of ten of them, said it should be more like this.

    92% 的人,也就是 10 人中至少 9 人,說理想狀況應該是這樣

  • In other words, more equitable than they think it is.

    也就是,理想狀況應該比實際狀況更均勻

  • Now that fact is telling, admittedly, the notion that most Americans know that the system is already skewed unfairly.

    這個結果是很有趣的,顯示多數人知道現狀是不公平的

  • But what's most interesting to me is the reality compared to our perception.

    但我覺得最耐人尋味的是,實際的分布和大家想像中分布的差異

  • The ideal is as far removed from our perception of reality as the actual distribution is from what we think exists in this country.

    理想與認知的差異有多大,認知與實際的差異就有多大

  • So, ignore the ideal for a moment.

    我們先忽略理想狀況

  • Here's what we think it is again.

    再看一次我們認知的分布

  • And here is the actual distribution.

    這才是實際的分布

  • Shockingly skewed.

    貧富差距極為懸殊

  • Not only do the bottom twenty percent and the next twenty percent,

    最窮的 20% 和次窮的 20%

  • the bottom forty percent of Americans barely have any of the wealth.

    也就是美國最底層的 40% 不僅幾乎沒有分配到任何財富

  • I mean it's hard to even see them on the chart.

    連在圖上幾乎都快看不見了

  • But the top one percent has more of the country's wealth than nine out of ten Americans believe the entire top twenty percent should have.

    但是最富有的 1% 所擁有的財富,比九成人認為最富的 20% 共有的還要多

  • Mind-blowing.

    非常驚人

  • But let's look at it another way because I find this chart kind of difficult to wrap my head around.

    但讓我們換個方式來看,因為光看這張圖還是有點難理解

  • Instead, let's reduce the three hundred and eleven million Americans to just a representative one hundred people

    我們將3億多的美國人口替換成只有 100 位代表

  • Make it simple.

    讓它簡單點

  • Here they are.

    在這裡的他們可能是

  • Teachers, coaches,

    老師、教練、

  • firefighters, construction workers, engineers, doctors, lawyers,

    消防員、建築工人、工程師、醫生、律師、

  • some investment bankers, a C.E.O., maybe a celebrity or two.

    幾位投資銀行家、一位 CEO,可能還有一兩位明星

  • Now let's line 'em up according to their wealth.

    現在依照財富多寡重新排序

  • Poorest people on the left, wealthiest on the right.

    最窮的人站左邊,有錢的站右邊

  • Just a steady row of folks based on their net worth.

    依資產淨值漸進排到右邊

  • We'll color code them like we did before based on which twenty percent quintile they fall into.

    再依之前的五分法標示顏色

  • Now let's reduce the total wealth of the United States,

    現在我們再把美國全部的財富

  • which was roughly fifty four trillion dollars in two thousand and nine,

    假設是 2009 年的 54 兆元

  • to this symbolic pile of cash, and let's distribute it among our one hundred Americans.

    變成這這疊象徵性的鈔票,分給這 100 位美國人

  • Well, here's socialism, all of the wealth of the country distributed equally.

    這是社會主義的理想:財富均分

  • We all know that won't work.

    我們都知道行不通

  • We need to encourage people to work and work hard

    我們得鼓勵大家認真工作

  • to achieve that good ole American dream and, keep our country moving forward.

    才能實現美國夢,推動國家進步

  • So, here's that ideal we asked everyone about,

    那麼,這是大家心目中的理想

  • something like this curve.

    長的像這條曲線

  • This isn't too bad! we've got some incentive as the wealthiest folks are now about ten to twenty times better off than the poorest Americans.

    還不賴嘛!右邊是大家羨慕的有錢人,資產也只是窮人的 10 到 20 倍而已

  • But hey, even the poor folks aren't actually poor since the poverty line has stayed almost entirely off the chart.

    也沒有很窮,因為貧窮門檻幾乎不在表上

  • We have a super healthy middle-class with a smooth transition into wealth,

    中產階級也很好過日子,窮到富的曲線非常平緩

  • and yes, Republicans and Democrats alike chose this curve.

    沒錯,共和黨和民主黨的回答都一致

  • Nine out of ten people, ninety-two percent said this was a nice, ideal distribution of America's wealth.

    10 人中有 9 人,92% 美國人都同意,這是美國財富分布的理想曲線

  • But let's move on.

    但請讓我們繼續看

  • This is what people think America's wealth distribution actually looks like.

    這是大家覺得美國財富的實際分布

  • Not as inequitable, clearly.

    分布顯然比理想狀況不均

  • But for me,

    但在我看來

  • even this still looks pretty great!

    這看起來還算很好的!

  • Yes, the poorest twenty to thirty percent are starting to suffer quite a lot,

    是的,最窮的 20~30% 資產少了很多

  • compared to the ideal,

    跟理想差距不小

  • and the middle class is certainly struggling more than they were,

    中產階級的日子也更難過了點

  • while the rich and wealthy are making roughly a hundred times that of the poorest Americans

    富人的收入大概是窮人的 100 倍

  • and at about ten times that of the still healthy middle class.

    也是小康的中產階級的 10 倍左右

  • Sadly, this isn't even close to the reality.

    遺憾的是,想像與現實還是天差地遠

  • Here is the actual distribution of wealth in America.

    這才是美國真實的財富分布

  • The poorest Americans don't even register.

    窮人的錢少到圖表無法顯示

  • They're down to pocket change.

    他們只剩口袋裡的零錢

  • and the middle class is barely distinguishable from the poor.

    中產階級跟窮人幾乎沒兩樣

  • In fact, even the rich between the top ten and twenty percentile are worse off.

    事實上,連最富的 10 至 20% 都更窮了

  • Only the top ten percent are better off, and how much better off?

    只有最富的 10% 好得多,有多好呢?

  • So much better off that the top two to five percent are actually off the chart at this scale.

    好到最富的 2 至 5% 都已經爆表了

  • And the top one percent,

    至於最頂端的 1%

  • this guy,

    這位仁兄

  • well, his stack of money stretches ten times higher than we can show.

    他的鈔票堆可以爆表十次

  • Here's his stack of cash restacked all by itself.

    這堆全部都是他的鈔票

  • This is the top one percent we've been hearing so much about.

    他就是我們天天在談論的那 1%

  • So much green in his pockets that i have to give him a whole new column of his own because he won't fit on my chart

    他的鈔票多到我得分他一整欄來擺,因為他硬是塞不下這張表

  • One percent of America has forty percent of all the nation's wealth.

    1% 的美國人坐擁全國 40% 的財富

  • The bottom eighty percent,

    最底的 80%

  • eight out of every ten people or eighty out of these hundred,

    也就是十人有八人,或 100 人中只有 80 人

  • only has seven percent between them.

    只分到 7% 的財富

  • And this has only gotten worse in the last twenty to thirty years.

    這 20 至 30 年來貧富差距只有更加懸殊

  • While the richest one percent take home almost a quarter of the national income today.

    這 1% 的收入幾乎是全國 1/4 的收入

  • In nineteen seventy-six they took home only nine percent,

    在 1976 年,他們的收入只佔全國 9%

  • meaning their share of income has nearly tripled in the last thirty years.

    意味著這 30 年來他們的收入增為三倍

  • The top one percent own half the country's stocks, bonds and mutual funds.

    這 1% 擁有美國一半的股票、債券和共同基金

  • The bottom fifty percent of Americans own only half a percent of these investments.

    底層的 50% 美國人僅持有 0.5%

  • Which means

    也就是

  • they aren't investing -

    他們沒有投資

  • they're just scraping by. I'm sure many of these wealthy people have worked

    他們只能勉強餬口,我相信富人賺錢

  • very hard for their money, but do you really believe that the C.E.O. is working

    也是靠努力的,但你真的認為一個CEO努力的程度

  • three hundred and eighty times harder than his average employee, not his lowest

    是他手下員工的 380 倍嗎?

  • paid employee, not the janitor,

    我不是說底薪人員,也不是清潔員

  • but the average earner in his company, the average worker needs to work more than a month

    而是他手下的正職人員,一般的職員需要工作一個月以上

  • to earn what the C.E.O. makes in one hour.

    才能賺到CEO一小時賺到的錢

  • We certainly don't have to go all the way to socialism

    我們不必太極端,實行社會主義

  • to find something that is fair for hardworking Americans.

    也有辦法讓人民拿到合理的薪資

  • We don't even have to achieve what most of us consider might be ideal.

    我們甚至不用達到多數人的理想

  • All we need to do is wake up

    我們只需要醒醒,看看現實並警覺

  • and realize that the reality in this country

    這個國家的現實

  • is not at all what we think it is.

    根本不是我們想像中的那樣子

There's a chart I saw recently that I can't get out of my head.

最近有一份圖表令我難忘

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 財富 理想 美國 中產階級 窮人 收入

美國的貧富差距 (Wealth Inequality in America)

  • 26092 2204
    VoiceTube 發佈於 2016 年 05 月 15 日
影片單字