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  • These are Chinese medical workers arriving at Wuhan Red Cross Hospital with a patient suspected of infection with a new coronavirus.

    這些是抵達中國紅十字醫院的醫護人員,與一位疑似感染新冠肺炎的患者。

  • The workers are wearing personal protective equipment, or PPE, designed to prevent exposure to infectious materials.

    這些醫護人員穿著個人防護設備,簡稱為 PPE,是為了避免人員暴露於感染源而設計的。

  • Infections and deaths from the novel coronavirus have continued to rise throughout China and around the world.

    因新冠病毒而起的感染與死亡在中國持續擴散並延燒至全球。

  • According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, how the new virus spreads isn't completely understood.

    根據美國疾病管制與預防中心,新冠病毒具體的擴散原因還尚未被全面了解。

  • Here's the protective equipment that healthcare workers have worn during major outbreaks such as SARS and Ebola, and why it's crucial in the battle against the novel coronavirus epidemic.

    這裡跟大家介紹醫護人員在面對大型傳染疾病如 SARS 還有伊波拉疫情時所穿的防護裝備,還有為什麼在這場與新冠肺炎的搏鬥中這樣的防護設備是如此重要。

  • PPE is used for a variety of hazards.

    PPE 是用在許多不同危害物的個人防護設備。

  • In the healthcare world, one of the biggest hazards is microbial and that could be viruses, bacteria, fungi, et cetera.

    在醫護領域,一大災害的元兇是微生物,而這包括了病毒、細菌、真菌類諸如此類。

  • Some are fine-air particles that enter your lungs.

    有些是會進入肺部,非常細小的空氣粒子。

  • Some are contact materials.

    有些是接觸型物質。

  • Others can enter through various orifices, your nose or eyes.

    其他可以透過身上的孔洞侵入體內,例如鼻子或眼睛。

  • So when we are choosing PPE, it is very important to understand the transmission.

    所以當我們在選擇 PPE 的時候,對於感染方式的了解就非常重要。

  • Coronavirus is likely spread through a cough, sneeze or other contact with saliva.

    冠狀病毒非常有可能透過咳嗽、打噴嚏或其他與唾液的接觸而造成感染。

  • But because much is unknown about the virus, healthcare workers are following precautions to prevent different types of exposure.

    但因為對病毒的了解並不多,衛生保健人員遵循預防措施來避免各種不同與病原的接觸。

  • So today when you look at personal protective equipment for microbial risk, such as coronavirus, you're looking at four items.

    所以今天你觀察應對微生物致病原的個人防護設備,例如針對冠狀病毒,你會看到有四樣物品。

  • And they would be a face shield, followed by a respirator of some sort, followed by a disposable coverall and finally gloves.

    這是面罩,然後是某種呼吸道防護措施,然後是拋棄式的防護衣,最後是手套。

  • Coveralls, face shields, goggles and gloves protect against hazards like Ebola, that can spread by direct contact with bodily fluids.

    防護衣、面罩、面鏡還有手套對抗伊波拉疫情的危害,它可以透過直接接觸體液傳染。

  • The respirator prevents inhaling droplets in the air from sneezes and coughs.

    口罩可以避免吸入咳嗽與噴嚏的飛沫。

  • Healthcare workers wore respirators while treating patients during the SARS and MERS outbreaks.

    醫護人員在 SARS 與 MERS 疫情時都有配戴口罩。

  • The most sort of effective way of these pathogens entering your body is through the respiratory system.

    對於這些致病原而言,侵入人體最有效率的途徑是透過呼吸道系統。

  • So that's why most PPE in healthcare settings tends to focus around respiratory protection, protecting what comes into your lungs.

    所以這就是為什麼醫護人員的個人防護設備多著重在保護呼吸道,避免外物進入肺部。

  • The highly-infectious nature of Ebola led to the death of healthcare workers in Africa and exposed a potential fatal flaw in the use of PPE.

    感染率極強的伊波拉病毒導致一位在非洲的醫護人員死亡,顯示出了個人防護設備致命的潛在瑕疵。

  • We learned very quickly that the sequence of taking off the clothing was very critical.

    我們很快得知脫去這些防護設備的順序非常重要。

  • We had people making the mistake of taking off their gloves and then taking off their respirator or their eyeglasses or their face shield.

    我們見過人們錯誤地脫除防護設備,他們先拿掉了手套之後才拿掉口罩、目鏡或面罩。

  • And that simple mistake of taking one off before the other contaminated them and, of course, they ended up with the disease.

    這樣簡單的順序錯誤導致他們都遭到污染,而當然最後他們都染上了疾病。

  • The Ebola epidemic prompted an update of PPE guidelines by the WHO.

    伊波拉的疫情促使世界衛生組織更新了個人防護設施指南。

  • A global shortage of masks has emerged as everyday people try to protect themselves from the virus.

    全球口罩缺貨的現象已經出現,因為人們都希望保護自己免於病毒侵襲。

  • As you travel the streets of any city, especially in these days, you'll see a variety of respiratory protection.

    當你旅遊到任何一個城市,你會看到街道上人們戴著各種不同的口罩。

  • You'll see people wearing bandanas.

    你會看到人們圍著大手帕。

  • You'll see people wearing surgical masks.

    你會看到人們戴著手術用口罩。

  • You'll see people wearing a very colorful masks that they buy downtown.

    你會看到人們戴著在市區買的五彩繽紛的口罩。

  • While both respirators and surgical masks are effective at filtering out large droplets, surgical masks are less effective at filtering out smaller droplets, which can be inhaled through the sides of the mask.

    雖然面罩型口罩或手術用口罩都可以有效的過濾較大的口沫水滴,手術用口罩對於過濾小水滴的能力較弱,且從口罩兩側可能可以吸入這些口沫粒子。

  • So what we have here is an N95 respirator.

    現在我手上拿的是 N95 口罩。

  • It's 95 percent efficient, at particles down to 0.3 microns in diameter, very, very small.

    它有高達百分之 95 的過濾效能,且能過濾掉直徑 0.3 微米的粒子,非常非常小。

  • As reference, your hair is 50 microns so this is 0.3, it's a fraction of your hair.

    提供參考,頭髮的直經約 50 微米,所以 0.3 微米而言基本上是頭髮的一小部分而已。

  • As healthcare officials look to contain the spread of the coronavirus, they will rely on the availability and proper use of PPE in impacted areas.

    隨著醫護人員試著遏止冠狀病毒的擴散,他們將會依賴在受疫情影響的地區,個人防護設備的可行性以及正確的使用這些設備。

  • The key to stopping this epidemic is a combination of isolating those that are infected and making sure no one gets reinfected.

    抑止這個傳染疾病的關鍵在於結合隔離感染病患還有確保沒有人被再度感染。

  • And the key for that infection would be personal protective equipment.

    而針對感染,關鍵就落在於這些個人防護設備。

  • So it's not just about you wearing the equipment to protect your health, it's also about stopping the disease.

    所以穿戴個人防護設備不僅僅在於保護個人健康,這也關乎了遏止疫情。

  • And in this case, personal protective equipment is really the vital answer to stopping this epidemic from spreading.

    在這個情況下,個人防護設備是停止這個傳染疾病最關鍵的解答。

These are Chinese medical workers arriving at Wuhan Red Cross Hospital with a patient suspected of infection with a new coronavirus.

這些是抵達中國紅十字醫院的醫護人員,與一位疑似感染新冠肺炎的患者。

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【新冠肺炎】看看新冠肺炎白衣天使如何保護自己 (How Doctors Stay Safe Battling Coronavirus | WSJ)

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    Seraya   發佈於 2020 年 03 月 11 日
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