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  • Over the last decade, milk has become a bit controversial.

    在近十年來「牛奶」變得有些爭議

  • Some people say it's a necessary and nutritious food, vital for healthy bones,

    有些人說,它是必要且營養的食物

  • but others say it can cause cancer and lead to an early death.

    對我們的骨骼至關重要

  • So, who's right?

    另一些人,它可能造成癌症,導致早年死亡

  • And why are we drinking it anyway?

    究竟誰是正確的?

  • [Intro music]

    而為什麼我們又要喝它呢?

  • Milk is the basis of every mammal's diet after birth,

    乳類是每個哺乳類生物出生後所必需的營養

  • when our digestive systems are immature and small.

    當我們的消化系統尚未發育而較小

  • Basically, it's power food to kick-start our bodies and help us grow.

    基本上來說,是個充滿能量使我們快速生長的食物

  • Milk is rich in fat, vitamins, minerals, and milk-sugar: lactose.

    並且幫助我們成長

  • On top of that, for a while after birth, it also contains antibodies and proteins

    母乳富含脂肪、維他命、礦物質

  • that protect us from infections and regulate our immune system.

    以及奶類中糖——乳糖

  • But it's a lot of effort for mothers to produce.

    更重要的事,對於剛出生的小孩

  • Eventually, humans stop drinking mother's milk

    它也含有抗體和蛋白質

  • and transition to the diet of their parents.

    以增強我們的抵抗力,並調節我們的免疫系統

  • This is how it's been for thousands of years.

    但生產母奶對母親的消耗極大

  • Until about eleven thousand years ago,

    最終,當人類不再飲料母奶

  • when our ancestors settled down in the first agricultural communities.

    變會漸漸開始轉變為其父母的飲食習慣

  • Soon, they domesticated the first dairy animals:

    數千年來一直是如此

  • goats, sheep, and cattle.

    直到大約1萬1千年前

  • They found that dairy animals are able to eat useless and abundant stuff

    我們的祖先進入了農業時代

  • and turn it into nutritious and tasty food.

    並且馴化了第一批產乳的動物

  • This made a huge difference in terms of survival,

    山羊、綿長和牛

  • especially in hard times.

    他們發現產乳動物會透過食用大量對人無用的東西

  • So groups that had milk available had an evolutionary advantage.

    藉此生產營養又好吃的食物

  • And through natural selection,

    這對生存產生極大的改變

  • it changed the genes of communities who consumed a lot of it.

    特別是在環境惡劣時

  • This adaptation has to do with a specialized enzyme: lactase.

    因此擁有奶類的團體得到了演化上的優勢

  • Babies have a lot of it in their system,

    透過天擇

  • so they can break down the milk-sugar lactose and digest milk easily.

    轉變了飲用大量奶類團體的基因

  • But the older we grow, the fewer lactase enzymes our body produces.

    這樣的適應過程與某個酵素息息相關——乳糖酶

  • Worldwide, about 65% of the population do not have the enzyme after infancy,

    嬰兒的消化系統擁有大量這些酵素

  • which means they are not able to digest more than about 150 milliliters each day.

    因此他們可以分解乳糖並輕易消化奶類

  • This lactose intolerance is not spread evenly around the world, though.

    但當我們長大,身體生產的乳糖酶也逐漸減少

  • In some East Asian communities, for example, it's up to 90%.

    世界上有大約百分之65的人

  • In Northern Europe and North America, the rates are the lowest overall.

    在嬰兒階段後就沒有對應的酵素

  • There are probably a few reasons for this uneven distribution.

    這代表他們無法消化

  • The trait was first introduced by random mutation,

    每日多於150毫升的奶類

  • which happened independently of each other in a few populations.

    乳糖不耐的狀態並沒有平均的出現在世界上

  • The fact that farming replaced hunting and gathering more and more

    舉例來說某些東亞國家

  • created natural-selection pressure.

    大約是百分之九十

  • People who were able to digest lactose had more foods at hand,

    在歐洲北方和北美比例則最低

  • which was an advantage.

    這樣分散的狀態可能有幾個原因

  • The migration of dairy farmers to the north then spread it further, which probably pushed back populations there that didn't have the trait.

    這樣的特徵是因為隨機的突變引起

  • Okay, but if milk has been a valuable part of our diet for thousands of years, why is it so controversial?

    發生幾個民族中的隨機個體

  • There are a number of claims regarding the negative and positive health effects of milk.

    當越來越農業取代採集和狩獵

  • The negative ones cover a wide variety,

    引發了天擇的壓力

  • from brittle bones to cancer, and cardiovascular diseases to intolerance and allergies.

    那些可以消化乳糖的人

  • So, how do they hold up?

    得以持有更多食物

  • Some older studies found a connection between milk and a high risk of breast, colon, and prostate cancer

    成為一種優勢

  • But meta analyses found no impact on your cancer risk.

    畜牧業者逐漸向北擴散的遷移

  • On the contrary, the calcium in milk might even have a protective effect against colon cancer.

    可能也擠壓了當地沒有此特徵的人口

  • Although this could be calcium in general, it's not clear milk plays a role in this effect.

    好,那如果乳類是我們數千年的飲食習慣

  • Only studies on prostate cancer showed an increased risk for people who consumed more than one and a quarter liters of milk a day.

    為何又會引起爭議?

  • But again, the association is inconsistent and other studies don't find any effects.

    有許多不同的說法

  • We discuss these studies in more detail in our sources document. All in all, the research seems to show that if you drink between

    在討論關於乳類的優缺點

  • 100 to 250 milliliters of milk per day, cancer is not a concern.

    負面的說法包含了大量不同的可能性

  • Similarly, meta-analyses could not find any impact from milk or dairy products on

    從骨質脆化到癌症

  • your risk of heart disease, stroke, or your total mortality.

    或從心血管疾病到過敏問題

  • Some studies even suggested that high blood pressure might be rarer in people who eat a lot of dairy,

    他們是如何被論證?

  • although the evidence is not strong enough to claim this with confidence.

    一些較早的研究發現

  • The case gets more complicated though when we look at bones.

    關於乳類對乳癌、大腸癌及攝護腺癌的連結

  • A number of studies found neither positive nor negative effects for adults.

    但許多整合分析並未發現任何影響癌症的可能性

  • What most people worry most about though are harmful amounts of pesticides, antibiotics, or hormones.

    反而,乳類的鈣

  • There are hormones in milk, but only in very low concentrations.

    可能還會保護身體發生大腸癌的可能性

  • For example to get the same amount of hormones as from the pill,

    當然也可能只是鈣元素的影響

  • you'd need to drink about 5000 litres of milk,

    和乳類本身的關係還不清楚

  • and even if you did, most hormones would be destroyed by your digestive system

    只有關於攝護腺癌的研究發現

  • before they could affect you,

    對於每日食用多於1.25公升乳類的人,罹癌機率增加

  • which is the reason why so much medication is coated to protect it from our digestion.

    不過,這些關聯性依舊不明確

  • For pesticides and antibiotics,

    而其他研究也沒有發現任何影響

  • there are regulations in most parts of the world that only allow completely harmless amounts.

    我們可以更深入的討論

  • Milk that surpasses these thresholds is not allowed to go on the shelf.

    在我們的資料來源的文件

  • So there's nothing in particular to worry about.

    總而言之,這些研究似乎指出

  • Besides allergies and those suffering from lactose intolerances,

    如果你每天喝大約100到250毫升的牛奶

  • the best known negative effects of milk are probably acne and general discomfort after drinking milk or eating dairy products,

    癌症並不需要擔憂

  • and here the effects are very real.

    同時,整合分析並未發現任何奶類或乳製品的影響

  • For example, skimmed milk has been found to statistically increase the rate of acne by 24%.

    對於心血管疾病、中風或或導致死亡

  • Allergies against milk products are especially prevalent among children, with one in 18 kids in Germany suffering from them.

    某些研究甚至指出

  • In general, these allergies tend to get better or disappear as they grow older though.

    高血壓發生在食用更多乳製品的人上的機率更低

  • Okay. Is milk healthy then?

    雖然證據仍未足夠明確證明這些說法

  • Milk, no matter if it comes from mothers, cows, sheep, goats, or camels is a nutrient-dense food.

    這些狀況將變得更複雜

  • It contains all necessary macronutrients and many micronutrients.

    當我們開始討論骨頭

  • Especially in regions where people struggle to get enough calories,

    許多研究並未發現對成人正面或負面的影響

  • milk can contribute to a healthy life and lower child mortality.

    許多人感到特別憂慮的地方是

  • For those living in the developed world, in general

    有害數量的農業、抗生素或賀爾蒙

  • milk is not harmful if you are not allergic or intolerant to it.

    奶類中的確有賀爾蒙

  • Especially for children, it's a good way to get large amounts of calcium

    但只存在非常小的密度

  • and for vegetarians, it's a good source of vitamin b12 and B vitamins in general.

    舉例來說,若要得到等同藥丸數量的賀爾蒙

  • This does not mean there are not other alternatives with the same effect. You do not need to drink milk to be healthy

    你需要引用5000公升左右的牛奶

  • Milk is also definitely not a substitute for water.

    就算你如此做到

  • Milk is power food, and the additional calories from drinking a lot of it on a regular basis can contribute to being overweight.

    大部分賀爾蒙會被你的消化系統摧毀

  • Especially flavored milk or chocolate milk is more comparable to beverages like lemonade than a healthy snack, and there's another thing to consider.

    在他們有可能影響你之前

  • Milk production has a significant impact on the global climate.

    這也是為什麼許多藥丸需要保護膜

  • About 33 percent of cropland is used to feed grazing animals including dairy cattle

    為了從我們的消化過程中保護它

  • Even though the carbon footprint of dairy products has declined since 1990,

    而農業和抗生素

  • Dairy production is still responsible for 3 percent of all greenhouse gas emissions,

    在世界大部分國家也會進行檢驗

  • even more than all airplanes combined.

    只允許無害的數量

  • Milk is a huge industry and sadly, most of its production in factory farms causes incredible suffering.

    超過閾值的牛奶

  • Cows are impregnated over and over, separated from their young shortly after birth,

    並不允許被上架

  • and slaughtered once their tortured bodies are not productive anymore.

    因此並沒有特別的地方需要擔心

  • We can't ignore that much of the milk we consume stems from an industry

    除了過敏體質和乳糖不耐症

  • that is basically torture and contributes to climate change.

    最為人所知的牛奶壞處

  • What about plant-based milk?

    大概是青春痘和不舒適

  • In terms of protein levels and nutritional value, only soy milk can compare to cow milk.

    在喝完牛奶或食用乳製品之後

  • The others need to be artificially enriched to reach similar levels of vitamins and calcium.

    而這在,影響則十分明顯

  • So they can be an alternative to milk.

    舉例來說,脫脂牛奶在數據上會提高發生青春痘的機率

  • And another option might be available soon.

    在大約百分之24

  • Several startups have created non-animal milk

    兒童的牛奶過敏反應也十分廣泛

  • that is nutritionally identical to dairy milk,

    在德國每十八個兒童就有一位對此過敏

  • for example, through fermentation by gene modified bacteria.

    大致上來說,這些過敏會逐漸轉好或消失

  • This lab-grown milk can even be turned into cheese,

    在他們長大之後

  • something that plant based alternatives struggle with because they lack casein and whey protein,

    好,那奶類真的健康嗎?

  • the key ingredients that give dairy its taste and structure.

    奶類,無論從母親、乳牛、羊或駱駝

  • The environmental impact is a different story though.

    是高營養價值的食品

  • Many milk alternatives use significantly less energy, land and less water to produce

    它包含所有人體必要維生素,

  • so they have a much lower environmental impact than animal milk.

    和其他維生素

  • If you want to have the lowest possible negative impact on the planet, the best choice is whatever milk alternative is regional.

    特別是在缺乏卡路里攝取的地方

  • As with almost any topic milk is complicated.

    奶類對健康身體是有幫助的

  • It's not harmful for the majority of the population and it's crucial for many people around the world.

    和較低的孩童死亡率

  • It's good, nutritious food, but also harmful to the planet and causes a lot of suffering.

    對於已開發國家,牛奶並不有害

  • We need to decide as a society how we want to deal with these facts.

    如果你並沒有過敏或乳糖不耐的症狀

  • If you feel like watching more documentary style videos now, check out CuriosityStream.

    特別是對孩童,是一種攝取鈣質的方式

  • A subscription streaming service with thousands of documentaries and non-fiction titles and sponsor of this video.

    而對於素食者

  • With a CuriosityStream subscription,

    這個好的維他命B12來源

  • you also get Nebula for free a streaming service owned and operated by

    以及其他維他命B

  • education content creators like CGP Grey, Lindsay Ellis or Knowing Better.

    但這不代表並沒有其他同樣效果的選擇

  • A place to experiment, where creators are safe from the fun things YouTube throws at us from time to time.

    你不需要喝奶類才能變得健康

  • And, there are also originals like TierZoo's Let's Play Outside,

    奶類同時也不是水的替代品

  • a fun video remix of a popular curiosity stream documentary!

    奶類是富有能量的食品

  • Nebula is included with CuriosityStream for our viewers when you sign up at:

    而平日因奶類而攝取的額外卡路里

  • So summarizing;

    可能導致體重過重

  • CuriosityStream gives you access to big-budget documentaries from people like David Attenborough and Stephen Hawking.

    特別是調味乳、巧克力奶對比其他飲料

  • Nebula is all about independent creators taking control and try new stuff. You get the best of both worlds

    如同檸檬汁對比較健康的零食

  • for $2.99 per month or only $19.99 for a full year, by visiting:

    也有其他方面需要注意

  • curiositystream.com/kurzgesagt

    乳製品對於全球氣候有明顯影響

  • [Outro music]

    大約33%的可種植土地被用於畜牧業

Over the last decade, milk has become a bit controversial.

在近十年來「牛奶」變得有些爭議

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 牛奶 消化 乳製品 營養 影響 賀爾蒙

牛奶。白毒還是健康飲品? (Milk. White Poison or Healthy Drink?)

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    祖祖 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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