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  • ["No one has ever become poor by giving,"Anne Frank.]

    Anne Frank:「沒有人會因為給予而變貧窮。」

  • In 1881, doctor William Halsted rushed to help his sister Minnie, who was hemorrhaging after childbirth.

    1881年,William Halsted 醫生趕去幫他姊姊 Minnie 的忙,她因為生產而大出血。

  • He quickly inserted a needle into his arm, withdrew his own blood, and transferred it to her.

    他快速地在自己手臂插上針、抽出血,然後把血輸給 Minnie。

  • After a few uncertain minutes, she began to recover.

    過了不知道幾分鐘,她慢慢好多了。

  • Halsted didn't know how lucky they'd gotten.

    Halsted 不知道他們有多幸運。

  • His transfusion only worked because he and his sister happened to have the same blood typesomething that isn't guaranteed, even among close relatives.

    他的輸血會成功,完全是因為他和姊姊剛好同血型,即使是親近的親戚也不一定會是同個血型。

  • Blood types hadn't been discovered by Halsted's time, though people had been experimenting with transfusions for centuriesmostly unsuccessfully.

    雖然人們已經做輸血實驗好幾個世紀了 (大多都不成功),但在 Halsted 的時代,血型還沒被發現。

  • In 1667, a French physician named Jean-Baptiste Denis became the first to try the technique on a human.

    1677年,法國醫生 Jean-Baptiste Denis 成為首位在人身上輸血的人。

  • Denis transfused sheep's blood into Antoine Mauroy, a man likely suffering from psychosis, in the hopes that it would reduce his symptoms.

    Denis 把綿羊的血輸給 Antoine Mauroy,Antoine 因為精神疾病而遭受巨大痛苦,Denis 希望輸血會減少症狀。

  • Afterward, Mauroy was in good spirits.

    輸血後,Mauroy 精神極好。

  • But after a second transfusion, he developed a fever, severe pain in his lower back, intense burning in his arm, and he urinated a thick, black liquid.

    不過在第二次輸血後,Mauroy 發燒、背部低處產生劇痛、手臂有灼燒感,而他之後小便時,排出了厚重的黑色液體。

  • Though nobody knew it at the time, these were the signs of a dangerous immune response unfolding inside his body.

    雖然當時沒人知道,但這些是他身體產生危險的免疫反應的徵狀。

  • This immune response starts with the production of proteins called antibodies, which distinguish the body's own cells from intruders.

    免疫反應開始於蛋白質的製造,製造出抗體,而抗體可以分辨自身的細胞和侵入的細胞。

  • They do so by recognizing the foreign proteins, or antigens, embedded in an intruder's cell membrane.

    他們會辨認外來的蛋白質,或是附著在入侵細胞薄膜上的抗原。

  • Antibodies latch onto the antigens, signaling other immune cells to attack and destroy the foreign cells.

    抗體會附在抗原身上,指示其他免疫細胞攻擊、摧毀外來細胞。

  • The destroyed cells are flushed from the body in urine.

    被摧毀的細胞,會隨著尿液被排出體外。

  • In extreme cases, the massive breakdown of cells causes clots in the bloodstream that disrupt the flow of blood to vital organs, overload the kidneys, and cause organ failure.

    在極端案例裡,細胞的大量毀壞,可能造成血塊凝聚,進而堵住流向重要器官的血管,讓腎臟過度工作,最後造成器官衰竭。

  • Fortunately, Denis's patient survived the transfusion.

    幸運的是,Denis 的病患安然度過這次輸血。

  • But, after other cross-species transfusions proved fatal, the procedure was outlawed across Europe, falling out of favor for several centuries.

    然而,其他跨物種的輸血被證明是致命的,於是輸血在歐洲被宣告非法,在接下來的好幾個世紀都不受歡迎。

  • It wasn't until 1901 that Austrian physician Karl Landsteiner discovered the blood types, the crucial step in the success of human to human blood transfusions.

    直到1901年,奧地利的醫生 Karl Landsteiner 發現了血型,在人對人輸血的歷程上跨出重大的一步。

  • He noticed that when different types were mixed together, they formed clots.

    他注意到如果把不同血型的血混在一起,會形成血塊。

  • This happens when antibodies latch on to cells with foreign antigens, causing blood cells to clump together.

    這是因為當抗體和外來抗原要附在細胞上時,血球會凝聚在一塊。

  • But if the donor cells are the same blood type as the recipient's cells, the donor cells won't be flagged for destruction, and won't form clumps.

    但如果供體細胞和接受者的細胞是同種血型,供體細胞不會出現需被摧毀的標誌,也就不會造成血塊。

  • By 1907, doctors were mixing together small amounts of blood before transfusing it.

    到 1907 年時,在輸血前,醫生會先把少量的血混在一起。

  • If there were no clumps, the types were a match.

    如果沒有血塊,血型就是一對。

  • This enabled them to save thousands of lives, laying the foundation for modern transfusions.

    這讓醫生們拯救了上千條生命,為現代輸血建立基礎。

  • Up to this point, all transfusions had occurred in real time, directly between two individuals.

    到現在,所有輸血都是同時於兩個個體間直接進行。

  • That's because blood begins to clot almost immediately after coming into contact with air—a defense mechanism to prevent excessive blood loss after injury.

    因為只要接觸空氣,血液幾乎是立即結塊——這是個防衛機制,防止受傷後血液大量流失。

  • In 1914, researchers discovered that the chemical sodium citrate stopped blood coagulating by removing the calcium necessary for clot formation.

    1914年,學者發現檸檬酸鈉可以阻止血液凝固,因為它會移除凝固過程所需的鈣。

  • Citrated blood could be stored for later usethe first step in making large scale blood transfusions possible.

    含檸檬酸鈉的血可以被儲存、之後再用,這是讓大量輸血成為可能的第一步。

  • In 1916, a pair of American scientists found an even more effective anticoagulant called heparin, which works by deactivating enzymes that enable clotting.

    在1916年,一對美國科學家發現更有效的抗凝血劑——肝磷脂,可以讓凝血的酵素失能。

  • We still use heparin today.

    我們至今仍在使用肝磷脂。

  • At the same time, American and British researchers developed portable machines that could transport donor blood onto the battlefields of World War I.

    與此同時,美國和英國的學者發展出攜帶式機器,在一戰時將血液供體運到戰場上。

  • Combined with the newly-discovered heparin, medics safely stored and preserved liters of blood, wheeling it directly onto the battlefield to transfuse wounded soldiers.

    與新發現的肝磷脂結合,醫療人員安全地儲存、保留了好幾升的血,把血直接運到戰場上,輸血給受傷的士兵。

  • After the war, this crude portable box would become the inspiration for the modern-day blood bank, a fixture of hospitals around the world.

    戰爭過後,這個簡陋的攜帶式箱子,成為現代血庫的發明靈感,全世界醫院都有的配備。

  • Did you know that horseshoe crab blood plays an essential role in the medical industry?

    你知道鱟血在醫療界扮演重要角色嗎?

  • Find out why we're so dependent on this ancient creature with this video, or continue understanding your circulatory system by learning more about blood types.

    想知道我們為何如此依賴這隻古老生物的話,按這支影片,或是透過認識血型,繼續了解循環系統。

["No one has ever become poor by giving,"Anne Frank.]

Anne Frank:「沒有人會因為給予而變貧窮。」

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C1 高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 血型 細胞 抗體 抗原 醫生

【Ted-Ed】輸血的歷史:輸血到底是怎麼運作的? (How do blood transfusions work? - Bill Schutt)

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    Mackenzie 發佈於 2020 年 05 月 15 日
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