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  • Self control.

    自制力。

  • So, you must be thinking

    嗯,你們一定在想

  • "What do you have to do with problems of self control?"

    「自制力的問題和你們有什麽關係?」

  • Let's take a little survey:

    讓我們做個小調查:

  • How many people here in the last week

    在這裡,有多少人在上星期

  • have procrastinated more than you wish you would?

    耽擱了你原本所預計的工作?

  • How many people have exercised in the last week less than you wish you would?

    上星期,多少人沒達到你原本想要達到的運動量?

  • Have eaten more than you wish you would?

    多少人吃太多了?

  • Have had more unprotected sex than you wish you would?

    多少人做了 比你預計更多的 不安全性行為?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So, I want to talk a little bit about self-control

    所以,我想講一點關於自制力的問題,

  • and self control is basically the problems that

    自制力的問題,基本上是根源於

  • we have all this desire from ourselves for the long-term,

    我們自己所有訂定的長期欲望,

  • but then in the short-term we do very different things.

    但然後在短期內,我們做了不同的事。

  • And to get us thinking about this, I want to tell you about

    讓我們思考這個問題,我想告訴你們

  • one of my biggest challenge with self-control.

    關於我自己自制力的最大挑戰之一。

  • So, I was in a hospital for a long time

    我曾在醫院待了很長一段時間,

  • and one of those things I got in hospital was

    我待在醫院的原因之一

  • a particular version of hepatitis.

    是因為患了一種特定的肝炎,

  • I got a bad blood transfusion and I

    我輸入了不良的血液,

  • got a liver disease as a consequence.

    因此得了肝病。

  • And from time to time the liver disease would flur up

    肝病時常惡化,

  • and I would get even sicker than I was anyway

    我時常變得更虛弱,

  • and this was very unpleasant.

    這非常令人不快。

  • And about 7 years after I was already out of the hospital,

    我出院大約七年後,

  • after my injury, I had another one of those episodes

    我受傷以後,我又遇到類似的壞事,

  • I checked myself into a hospital and they told me I had hepatitis C.

    我住進了醫院,他們告訴我我得了 C 型肝炎,

  • And the good news was that the FDA was running a clinical trial

    好消息是,美國食品藥品管理局 正在進行一項臨床試驗,

  • to figure out whether interfere on

    爲了要弄清是否要重審

  • and medication that was originally approved for

    毛細胞白血病對於治療 C 型肝炎 的成效,

  • hairy cell leukemia was going to be successful for treating hepatitis C.

    這是原先已被核可的藥物。

  • So I said, "What would happen if I don't join this trial?"

    於是我說:「如果我不參加這次試驗,會怎樣?」

  • They said, "Well, you have a good chance of dying of a liver cirrhosis

    他們說:「嗯,你很有可能會死於肝硬化,

  • and it's not a good thing."

    這不是一件好事。」

  • So, I took the medication.

    所以,我拿了藥。

  • And these injections were kind of the essence of self-control.

    而這些注射藥劑,本質上,是一種自我控制,

  • I had to get myself three injections a week for a year and a half.

    整整一年半下來,我每星期必須注射三次,

  • And if I did it for a year and a half, there was a chance that

    如果我做到了一年半,我很有可能

  • I might not have liver cirrhosis thirty years down the road.

    在接下來的三十年內不會得到肝硬化,

  • But if I took the medication,

    但如果我注射這些藥,

  • for sure I will be sick for about the next 16 hours,

    我一定會在接下來的十六小時感到不適,

  • think something like headache, vomiting, shaking, stuff like that.

    像頭痛、 嘔吐、 顫抖,這類的症狀。

  • Not really terrible compared to liver cirrhosis,

    這些和肝硬化比起來並不可怕,

  • but unpleasant and immediate.

    但是直接地感到不適。

  • And the fact is that when we are facing those decisions

    事實上,當我們面對兩種決定時:

  • between something that is immediate and unpleasant

    一個是直接的、令人不快的事、

  • versus something that is good, really good

    而另一個是真正好、但卻存在長遠未來的事,

  • but in the long-term future, we often over-focus on the present

    我們往往過度地專注於現在,

  • and sacrifice the future. So, anyway,

    並犧牲了未來。

  • this is, of course, not a new problem. We all face this.

    當然,這不是新的問題, 我們都在面對它,

  • This is the problem of Adam and Eve.

    這是亞當與夏娃的問題。

  • You can say, "Who in the right mind

    你們可以說:「有哪個正常人會拿一顆蘋果

  • will ever give an apple for eternity in the garden of Eden?"

    換取伊甸園中的永恆啊?」

  • What a crazy trade-off. But there's a modern version of this

    這是瘋狂的交易, 但這樣的交易有個現代版本,

  • you can say, "Who in the right mind will ever do this?"

    你們可以問:「有哪個正常人會這麼做呢?」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • How many people here ever texted while driving?

    多少人在這裡曾經 一邊開車一邊傳短訊的?

  • I mean, it's an incredible thing, right?

    我的意思是,這是令人難以置信的事,不是嗎?

  • And you say it's not the case that you said to yourself,

    而你用不一樣的方式對自己說:

  • "How much do I enjoy living?"

    「我有多享受生活?」

  • "How much do I not want to kill other people?"

    「我多麼地不想殺死人?」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • "How important is this text message right now?"

    「這個短訊現在有多重要?」

  • And you said, "Yes, let me do this."

    你說:「是的,讓我傳了再說。」

  • No, instead what happened is that

    不,真正發生的

  • the impulse to answer this vibrating phone or to answer the ring

    是那想要接通電話的衝動

  • overtakes us and we do lots of bad things as a consequence.

    已掌控我們,我們因此做了很多不好的事。

  • So think about it the following way.

    所以試著用下面這個方式思考,

  • Imagine I gave you a choice between half a box of chocolate right now

    想像一下,在我給你們的兩種選擇之間做決定: 我現在給你半盒巧克力、

  • or a full box of chocolate in a week.

    或者,在一星期後給你滿滿一盒,

  • And I took this fantastic Lindt chocolate and

    同時呢,我把這條超棒的瑞士巧克力

  • I passed it around and you could see it and smell it

    放在你身邊,你就會看到、 聞到它,

  • and you could choose between a half box of chocolate now

    你可以選擇現在就要半盒巧克力

  • or a full box of chocolate in a week.

    或在一星期後獲得滿滿一盒巧克力。

  • How many people in those conditions would delay the choice,

    多少人在這些條件下會選擇等待?

  • say, I'll wait another week for another half a box of chocolate?

    有人想再等一星期 就爲了得到另外半盒巧克力嗎?

  • Wave a few hands and I'm willing to bet that

    舉一下手,我打賭,

  • if we actually had the chocolate passing around

    如果我們現在把巧克力傳到你們手上

  • (Laughter) there would be few of those.

    (笑聲) 很少人願意等的。

  • But most people say, "Give me the chocolate now,

    但大多數人都會說:「現在就給我巧克力,

  • I'll take less chocolate now than more later."

    我現在拿少一點巧克力,之後再拿更多。」

  • Imagine I pushed the choice to the future and I said,

    想像一下,我把這個選擇推到未來,我說:

  • "What would you rather have: a half of box of chocolate in a year

    「你會選哪個: 在一年內獲得半盒巧克力?

  • or a full box of chocolate in a year and a week?"

    還是在一年又一星期中得到滿滿的一盒?」

  • Now realize it's the same choice.

    現在,請瞭解,這是同樣的選擇,

  • It's asking, whether you'd be willing to wait another week

    這個問題是,是否你願意 為半盒巧克力

  • for a half of box of chocolate,

    再多等待一個星期,

  • but in this case, when both choices are in the future.

    但在這個情況下,當兩種選擇都在未來時

  • How many people would wait another week for a full box of chocolate?

    有多少人會多等另一個星期 以獲得滿滿一盒巧克力?

  • Everybody, right? Because in the future we are wonderful people!

    對吧?因為在未來,我們都是優秀的人!

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • We will be patient, we will not procrastinate,

    我們會耐心等待,我們絕對不耽擱工作,

  • we'll take our medication on time, we will exercise, we will eat.

    我們會按時服用藥物,我們會運動,我們會吃。

  • The problem is that we never get to live in that future.

    問題是,我們永遠不會活在未來,

  • We always live in the present

    我們總是活在當下,

  • and in the present we're not exactly that wonderful people.

    而在當下,我們不是那個優秀的人。

  • So that's a problem with how we treat present and future.

    所以這問題就是關於 我們對待現在和未來的之間的方式。

  • So going back to my case, I took this medication,

    回到我的情況,我服用這個藥,

  • the trial was here when I was a student at Duke.

    這個臨床實驗是我還在 杜克大學當學生的時候所做的。

  • When I finished - they told me the good news:

    當實驗完成時,他們告訴我一個好消息:

  • I got rid of my liver disease, that was fantastic news.

    我根除我的肝病了,這真是一個超棒的消息,

  • The second news was that I was the only person

    第二個消息是,我是

  • in this FDA protocol who always took their medication on time.

    在這個食品藥品管理局約定中 唯一一個按時服藥的人。

  • The question is: How?

    問題是:怎麼做到的?

  • Do I have more patience and self-control?

    我有更多的耐心和自制力嗎?

  • Do I care more about my future? And the answer is no.

    我關心我的未來嗎?答案是,沒有。

  • But the answer is that I developed a little trick for myself.

    答案是,我為自己發明了一個小訣竅,

  • And my trick is that I love movies.

    我的訣竅是,我愛看電影,

  • If I had time, I would watch lots and lots of movies.

    如果我有時間,我會看大量的電影。

  • But I don't have much time and I don't watch that many movies.

    但我沒有很多時間,不能看很多電影。

  • But on Monday, Wednesday and Friday - which were the injection days -

    但在星期一、 星期三和星期五 也就是需要注射的日子,

  • on the way to school I would stop in the video store,

    我去學校的路上,會順道逛逛錄影帶出租店,

  • I would rent a few videos I wanted to watch,

    我會租幾個我想要看的錄影帶,

  • I would carry them in my backpack the whole day

    我會把它們放在我背包裡,放一整天,

  • anticipating watching them,

    期待著看它們,

  • I would get home, I would inject myself and I would put a movie in,

    然後我回家,施打藥劑,接著 把一部電影放到錄影機,

  • I would get the bucket and the blanket for the side effects,

    我會準備水桶和毯子,爲了應付副作用,

  • but I took the injection immediately,

    但我立即施打藥劑,

  • I didn't wait for the side-effects to start

    我沒等副作用開始,

  • I connected something good with something bad

    我把好事和壞事連在一起,

  • and this together with a fact that I don't have a particularly good memory -

    此外,我的記憶力也不太好

  • so I could watch the same movies over and over (Laughter)

    所以我可以一次又一次地 看同一部電影 (笑聲)

  • sustained me through this long time.

    幫助我度過這一段長時間。

  • Now let's think about this.

    現在,讓我們思考一下,

  • If we just thought of what is important in life,

    如果我們思考一下,生命中重要的事是什麽,

  • we would say that livers are really important.

    我們會說肝臟真的很重要。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Nobody could question that. We would also say that

    沒人能質疑它。我們可能還會說,

  • side-effects of the medication are not that important, relatively speaking.

    相對而言,這種藥物的副作用就不是那麼重要了。

  • And this difference in importance should have motivated me and

    這種重要性的差異應該會激勵我,

  • every other patient in the protocol to take our medication on time.

    每一位其他病人在實驗協約的病人 也會因此而按時服藥。

  • But the problem is that this is not how we view life.

    但問題是,這不是我們看待生命的方式,

  • There's also a time domain.

    我們有不同的時間觀。

  • And the liver is not affecting us right now,

    肝臟現在不影響我們,

  • it will be long term in the future.

    它在長遠的未來,會影響我們,

  • And because of that, it is vastly discounted.

    因此,它在相當程度上,被低估了;

  • And the injections are now, which becomes much more focal,

    然而,現在就得施打藥劑,才能更好地治療病因

  • and central, and take more control over our lives.

    並更好地控制我們的生命。

  • Now, what was my trick? Did my trick get me to start caring

    我的秘訣是什麼?我的秘訣是

  • about my liver? No, in fact, I substituted

    我開始關心我的肝臟嗎? 不,事實上,我拿錄影帶代替它。

  • it with videos. It's kind of crazy because

    這聽起來很瘋狂,

  • videos are even less important than side-effects.

    因為錄影帶甚至不比副作用還重要,

  • We call this reward-substitution.

    我們稱這為替代獎勵。

  • And the idea is that there are many things in life,

    這意思是指,我們不關心生活中的許多事,

  • particularly, delayed rewards that we're not designed to care about.

    特別是,我們天生就不關心遲來的獎勵。

  • So can we get people to get excited about them?

    所以,我們可以讓人們為此感到興奮嗎?

  • Very unlikely.

    不太可能。

  • Think about something like global warming.

    想想全球暖化吧,

  • Can we ever get people to wake up in the morning

    我們今天可以使人們在早上醒來

  • and feel really excited about solving global warming today?

    興奮地想要解決全球暖化嗎?

  • Very unlikely aside from a few [unclear].

    不太可能,除了少數人之外。

  • I mean it's just not going to happen.

    我的意思,這就是不會發生,

  • Actually it's worse than that.

    事實上,它比這更糟。

  • Because if you thought the other way,

    因為如果你反過來思考,

  • and you said, let me create a problem

    你說,讓我創造一個

  • that people would not care about, that would maximize

    人們不關心的問題,而這問題可以

  • human apathy, you would come up with global warming.

    最大化人類的冷漠態度, 那答案就是全球暖化。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Think about all the reasons: long term in the future,

    想想所有的理由: 在長遠的未來,

  • will happen to other people first,

    會發生在其他人身上,

  • we don't see it progressing, we don't see anybody suffering,

    我們看不到它的演變, 我們看不到任何人的痛苦,

  • anything we can do is a drop in a bucket.

    我們可以做的任何事 都僅僅只是杯水車薪。

  • Can we really care? No. So what can we do?

    我們真能關心嗎?不。 那我們能做什麼?

  • Can we do something like reward substitution?

    我們能設計一些類似替代獎勵的方案嗎?

  • Can we get people to care or to behave as if they care

    我們能夠使人們因為關心別的東西

  • because they care about something else?

    而使他們關心、或至少 使他們表現得仿佛他們關心全球暖化嗎?

  • This thing is actually part of the solution, right?

    這是實際的解決方案的一部分,對吧?

  • If you think about what makes the Toyota Prius so successful,

    思考一下豐田普銳斯成功的原因,

  • my non-scientific observation is that

    我非科學的觀察是

  • when you watch people who drive Toyota Priuses,

    當你觀察開豐田普銳斯的人

  • they smile more than other people.

    他們笑地比別人多。

  • (Laughter) And I think for a good reason: they drive

    (笑聲)我認為那理由是: 他們開車時

  • and they say to themselves:

    對自己說:

  • "Look at me, I'm a wonderful human being!"

    「看看我,我是個多麼棒的人啊!」

  • ([Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • "And not only that. Other people can see me

    「不僅如此。其他人也可以看到我

  • and they recognize what a wonderful human being I am."

    他們會知道我是個多麼棒的人。」

  • Can we do the same thing with our heating systems

    我們能用同樣的方法 處理我們的暖氣系統嗎?

  • or can we do the same thing with how much insulation we have in our attic

    或,我們能用同樣的方法 促使我們在頂樓裝設隔熱板?

  • or what kind of temperature we keep our houses on in winter and in summer?

    或,在冬天和夏天,以同樣的方法 設定我們屋內的溫度?

  • I think that one solution to self-control problem in general

    我認為這,一般來說,自制力的解決方案

  • is reward substitution. It's taking the environment

    是替代獎勵。它適應環境、

  • and changing it and getting people to behave in the right way

    改變它,讓人們因為錯誤的理由

  • because of the wrong reason.

    而做正確的事。

  • The second solution I want to talk to you about

    我想要和你談的第二個解決方案,

  • is called "self-control contract".

    它叫做「自我控制合約」。

  • This goes back to the story of Ulysses and the Sirens.

    這得回到尤利西斯與海妖的故事。

  • So if you remember the story,

    如果你還記得那個故事的話,故事中

  • Ulysses knew that when the sirens come he will be temped,

    尤利西斯知道海妖塞壬來的時候,他會受誘惑,

  • so he tied himself to the mast,

    所以他把自己綁在桅杆上,

  • asked his men to tie themselves to the mast

    也要他的手下把自己拴在桅杆上

  • and to put dough in their ears,

    並把麵團塞進耳朵裡,

  • so that they wouldn't be tempted, either.

    使他們也不受誘惑。

  • Now what's this situation? It's not exactly reward substitution.

    這是什麼樣的情況? 它不完全是替代獎勵。

  • It's a situation in which we know we will be tempted.

    它是一個我們知道我們 將會遭受誘惑的一種處境,

  • And we're doing something to make [ourselves] not able to be temped.

    而必須做些什麼來來使自己不被引誘。

  • That's another version of dealing with self-control.

    這就是處理自制力的另一個版本。

  • Now before we talk about people,

    在我們談論人們之前,

  • let's think about rats and pigeons for a few minutes.

    讓我們先想想老鼠和鴿子幾分鐘。

  • So imagine you're a rat or a pigeon and I teach you for a while

    想像一下你是一隻老鼠或一隻鴿子, 而我已經教你們一段時間了,

  • that the green button means one pellet of food immediately

    我教你們知道 綠色按鈕代表 立刻獲得一盤食物,

  • and the purple button means you have to wait 10 seconds

    而紫色按鈕代表 你們必須等待 10 秒

  • and then you then get 10 pellets of food.

    然後你再吃 10 盤食物。

  • I teach you this for a long time:

    我教你們一段時間後:

  • green - 1, purple - 10; you learn this and then I give you both

    綠色 -1,紫色 -10 ;你學會了,然後我把它們都給你們

  • and I say, "What would you rather have: green or purple?"

    我問:「你寧願要哪個? 綠色或紫色?」

  • Now, realize that for a rat 10 seconds is like a week for us.

    必須瞭解,老鼠的 10 秒就像我們的一星期。

  • (Laughter) Really long time.

    (笑聲)真的是很長的時間。

  • So what do you think they choose? They choose the green.

    所以你覺得牠們會怎麼選?他們選擇綠色。

  • Not so good. It actually gets a little worse.

    不是很好。實際上,它所得到就只是少一些。

  • You start the trial, the purple button appears

    你們的試驗開始,紫色的按鈕出現了

  • they press on it.

    牠們按它,

  • A couple of seconds pass, the green button appears.

    幾秒鐘過去了, 綠色按鈕出現了,

  • If they can only hold off and not press on anything,

    如果他們能夠忍一會兒,不按任何東西,

  • they'll get 10 pellet of food, but they can't.

    他們會得到 10 盤食物,但他們不能。

  • They press on the green and they get 1 pennant instead of 10.

    他們按綠色的鈕,他們得到 1 盤而不是 10 盤。

  • But there's one interesting version:

    但有一個有趣的版本:

  • the trial starts, the purple button appears,

    在試驗開始時,紫色按鈕出現,

  • they press on it, a second passes a red button appears.

    牠們按它,兩秒鐘後,紅色按鈕出現了。

  • And the red button does nothing good.

    紅色按鈕沒什麼不好,

  • There's no food connected to it, and rats and pigeons

    就只是沒食物,老鼠和鴿子

  • don't enjoy pressing buttons particularly.

    便不特別喜歡按下它了。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But what this red button does is to turn off the green button.

    但這紅色按鈕的功能是關閉綠色按鈕。

  • It's the Ulysses contract, it means that

    這是尤利西斯的契約,它意味著

  • the rat and pigeon can do something that they don't like

    老鼠和鴿子可以做牠們不喜歡的事

  • to make sure that they're not tempted in the future to do something bad.

    以確保他們不在未來受引誘。

  • What do you think? Will they have enough insight,

    你們覺得怎麼樣?牠們會有足夠的洞察力

  • enough foresight, enough self-control ability to do that?

    足夠的遠見、 足夠的自制力 去做到這一點嗎?

  • It doesn't seem like it, but they do.

    看起來似乎不大可能,但牠們就是這麼做。

  • Not all the time, but they often do.

    並非所有時候都這樣,但牠們經常做。

  • And the thing is very optimistic on two grounds.

    於是,這實驗結果非常樂觀,因為兩個理由:

  • First of all, if they can do it, maybe we can do it, too.

    首先,如果牠們能做到,也許我們也可以