字幕列表 影片播放 列印英文字幕 - The United States' economy is the most sophisticated and technology-reliant on Earth probably and that makes us very vulnerable to adversaries who are seeking to disrupt us. - [Cardinale] Adversaries like China, North Korea, Russia, and, of course, Iran. As the Iran Nuclear Agreement quickly unravels, security experts say they've seen an uptick in Iranian cyber attacks specifically targeting the United States. And the questions that experts are asking are what new tactics do hackers have up their sleeves? Will they use more ransomware to hold data hostage or cyber-spying and espionage to access secret information? And, more importantly, is the U.S. actually prepared to defend itself? Because the more technologically-reliant the United States becomes, the more vulnerable it is to disruption. Just look at the top two industries that experts say suffer the most significant cyber attacks. It's finance and high tech. - What's so interesting about cyber is it's a very accessible capability and we're seeing Iran is one of those countries that is actually using third parties in-country, probably contractors, to develop their own capabilities. And they've been doing that really since Stuxnet incident, when they decided to really ramp up their program. - [Cardinale] Stuxnet, the most sophisticated infrastructure hack to date and the most aggressive attack attributed to the U.S. and Israel against Iran's Natanz Uraniaum Enrichment Facility. Stuxnet damaged some 1,000 centrifuges, infected 30,000 computers, and brought the entire operation to a grinding halt. - There's this been fear that more and more actors will be able to do something similar, which is move in through this cyber realm and cause a kind of physical consequence. - [Cardinale] When Iran downed a U.S. drone near the Strait of Hormuz in 2019, the U.S. launched a cyber attack that wiped an Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps database. Without that data, Iran lost a major asset that would help in their attacks on tankers in the Persian Gulf. According to experts, Iran has used cyber attacks as an economic weapon in response to economic sanctions, simply because the U.S. isn't likely to try and defend itself through physical retribution. - Point that our nation needs a comprehensive strategy to deal with all areas, all areas, of Iran's aggression. - Iran has absolutely been disruptive in the past targeting American interests. They engaged in relatively low-sophisticated attacks several years ago, targeting financial institutions with DDoS attacks, essentially spam traffic being sent to their websites in a way that intermittently took those sites down so consumers in the U.S. were not able to access their bank accounts. Even a few minutes of those websites being down or those services being inaccessible can really impact the, not just national, but global economy. - [Cardinale] Ironically, one of the best defenses to these sophisticated hacks is to have an analog backup in case something goes haywire, like having paper ballots that can be counted to give people assurances that their democracy is based off of real results. - The most important thing that businesses can do and individuals can do is make sure that their security posture is as upgraded as possible. This is the simple, routine, and boring art of updating your iPhone, updating your Windows operating system. - [Cardinale] Wall Street Journal reporting found that without regular cyber maintenance, the U.S. is essentially a sitting duck to unique attacks from hostile groups. In 2016, a destructive virus called Shamoon 2 was reportedly executed by the Iranians. It hit several organizations, mostly in Saudi Arabia. That included Sadara, a joint venture between Dow Chemical and Saudi Arabian oil. According to experts, Shamoon 2 wiped enormous amounts of data and even prevented computers from turning back on. That was evidence that the Iranians could not only execute sophisticated attacks, but were also willing to invest in custom attacks. And what's more custom and nearly impossible to fight than a propaganda attack? According to Citizen Lab, the Iranian information operation Endless Mayfly created deceptive imitations of publications, like Bloomberg and the Harvard Belfer Center, as well as entirely fake personas. The challenge here is it's almost impossible for the U.S. to defend against these new and increasingly popular attacks. For now, the government's best bet may be to work with social media publications to try and take down what's recognized as propaganda and hope that it's caused simply minimal damage. - A term you'll hear a lot of experts use when they're talking about cyber attacks is asymmetrical warfare and this is the concept that countries that lack traditional military might make up for it through use of technology and through the use of cyber attacks, and Iran is certainly in that camp. For Iran, this is the great equalizer. This is their way of sending a message loud and clear that we are here and we are upset with these sanctions, we are upset with the U.S. foreign policy, and we're going to make you hurt for it.