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  • The royal couple of Haiti rode into their coronation to thunderous applause.

    譯者: Clement Fu 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • After receiving his ornate crown and scepter,

    海地皇室伉儷徐徐駛進加冕會場

  • Henry Christophe ascended his throne, towering 20 meters in the air.

    國王在如雷掌聲中接過皇冠、權仗

  • But little did the cheering onlookers know that the first king of Haiti

    亨利·克里斯托夫 (Henry Christophe) 登上離地 20 米的寶座

  • would also be its last.

    夾道歡呼的民眾誰能料到

  • Enslaved at birth on the island of Grenada,

    開國太祖又會是末代後主

  • Christophe spent his childhood being moved between multiple Caribbean islands.

    在島嶼國家格瑞那達 (Grenada) 生為奴隸

  • Just 12 years old in 1779,

    國王的童年遷徙多個加勒比海群島

  • he accompanied his master to aid the American revolutionaries

    1779 年,才 12 歲的他

  • in the Battle of Savannah.

    伴隨主子扶助美國革命

  • This prolonged siege would be Christophe's first encounter with violent revolution.

    身陷薩凡納戰役 (Battle of Savannah)

  • There are few surviving written records

    這場持久城戰讓國王初嘗勇武革命

  • about Christophe's life immediately after the war.

    戰後初期克里斯托夫生活如何

  • Over the next decade,

    記載文獻早已散逸

  • we know he worked as a mason and a waiter at a hotel

    然而隨後十年

  • in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, as Haiti was then known.

    後世知道他當過石匠、客棧小二

  • In 1791, when the colony's slaves rose up in rebellion,

    在法屬殖民地聖多明哥 (Saint-Domingue) 謀生,即今海地

  • Christophe got another opportunity to fight for freedom.

    1791 年,當殖民地奴隸群起叛變

  • Led by Toussaint Louverture, the rebels fought against plantation owners,

    克里斯托夫再遇上爭取自由的契機

  • as well as British and Spanish forces seeking control of the island.

    首領杜桑·盧維杜爾 (Toussaint Louverture) 率同一眾義士

  • Christophe quickly rose through the ranks,

    反抗廠主,以至染指掌控 島嶼的英國和西班牙部隊

  • proving himself the equal of more experienced generals.

    克里斯托夫的階級扶搖直上

  • By 1793,

    力證自己能力堪稱上將

  • Louverture had successfully liberated all of Saint-Domingue's enslaved people,

    到 1793 年

  • and by 1801 he'd established the island as a semi-autonomous colony.

    盧維杜爾成功解放聖多明哥奴民

  • But during this time, Napoleon Bonaparte had assumed power in France,

    1801 年建立起島上半自主殖民地

  • and made it his mission to restore slavery and French authority

    與此同時,拿破崙·波拿巴 (Napoleon Bonaparte) 在法國登位

  • throughout the empire.

    誓要回歸奴隸制及法國主權

  • French attempts to reinstate slavery met fierce resistance,

    一統帝國

  • with General Christophe even burning the capital city

    法軍復施奴隸制遇上頑強抵抗

  • to prevent military occupation.

    克里斯托夫將軍不惜付諸一炬

  • Finally, the rebellion and an outbreak of yellow fever

    也不讓敵軍佔領首都

  • forced French soldiers to withdrawbut the fight was not without casualties.

    最終,反抗巧遇黃熱病爆發

  • Louverture was captured, and left to die in a French prison;

    迫使法軍撤退,但一仗功成豈無枯骨

  • a fate that Christophe's nine-year-old son would share only a few years later.

    盧維杜爾淪為俘虜,法軍牢中終歿

  • Following the revolution,

    就數年後,克里斯托夫 9 歲大的兒子也遭逢同一厄運

  • Christophe and generals Jean-Jacques Dessalines and Alexandretion

    革命之後,克里斯托夫與將領

  • rose to prominent positions in the new government.

    讓-雅克·德薩林 (Jean-Jacques Dessalines) 和亞歷山大·佩蒂翁 (Alexandre Pétion)

  • In 1804, Dessalines was proclaimed the emperor of independent Haiti.

    晉升新政府中顯赫要職

  • But his desire to hold exclusive power alienated his supporters.

    1804 年德薩林自擁海地獨立後始皇

  • Eventually, Dessalines' rule incited a political conspiracy

    獨攬大權的欲望卻為支持者所背棄

  • that ended in his assassination in 1806.

    最終,德薩林治下激起政治圖謀

  • The subsequent power struggle led to a Civil War, which split the country in two.

    1806 年遇刺身亡

  • By 1807, Christophe was governing as president of the north in Cap-Haïtien,

    之後權爭引來內戰,國家一分為二

  • andtion was ruling the south from Port-au-Prince.

    1807 年克里斯托夫北據海地角 (Cap-Haïtien) 成為北方總統

  • tion tried to stay true to the revolution's democratic roots

    佩蒂翁則坐鎮太子港 (Port-au-Prince) 統領南方

  • by modeling his republic after the United States.

    佩蒂翁嘗試忠於革命的民主初心

  • He even supported anti-colonial revolutionaries in other nations.

    塑造心目中仿效美國的共和國

  • These policies endeared him to his people,

    甚至支持異域的反殖民革命

  • but they slowed trade and economic growth.

    這些舉措贏得民心

  • Christophe, conversely, had more aggressive plans for an independent Haiti.

    然而無濟於貿易及經濟增長

  • He redistributed land to the people, while retaining state control of agriculture.

    克里斯托夫卻對獨立海地鴻圖大計

  • He also established trade with many foreign nations,

    他配給人民土地,農業卻集權中央

  • including Great Britain and the United States,

    拓展與殊方異域的經貿往來

  • and pledged non-interference with their foreign policies.

    包括大不列顛和美國

  • He even built a massive Citadel in case the French tried to invade again.

    並揚言對外不干涉的政策

  • To accomplish all of this, Christophe instituted mandatory labor,

    甚至築起巨大堡壘以防法軍再侵襲

  • and to strengthen his authority, he crowned himself king in 1811.

    為樹立偉績,克里斯托夫強徵勞工

  • During his reign, he lived in an elegant palace called Sans Souci

    為鞏固勢力,1811 年更自封為王

  • along with his wife and their three remaining children.

    在位其間他與王后及其餘三名子女

  • Christophe's kingdom oversaw rapid development of trade, industry, culture,

    住在冠冕堂皇的聖蘇西宮 (Sans Souci)

  • and education.

    治下王國貿易、工業、文化、教育

  • He imported renowned European artists to Haiti's cultural scene,

    迅速發展

  • as well as European teachers, in order to establish public education.

    文化方面引進著名歐洲藝術家

  • But while the king was initially popular among his subjects,

    又羅聘歐洲教師籌辦公共教育

  • his labor mandates were an uncomfortable reminder

    儘管國王初時受子民愛戴

  • of the slavery Haitians fought to destroy.

    徵召夫役卻戳中海地人心中

  • Over time, his increasingly authoritarian policies lost support,

    拼生盡死破除奴隸制的痛

  • and his opponents to the south gained strength.

    與日俱增的鐵腕統治終歸失去人心

  • In October 1820, his reign finally reached its tragic conclusion.

    南方宿敵日漸得勢

  • Months after a debilitating stroke left him unable to govern,

    1820 年 10 月,統治終以悲劇收場

  • key members of his military defected to southern forces.

    中風後數個月國王憔悴無力執政

  • Betrayed and despondent, the king committed suicide.

    軍方主將紛紛變節投奔南方

  • Today, the traces of Christophe's complicated history

    國王眾叛落寞下自盡,一死謝天下

  • can still be found in the crumbling remains of his palaces,

    克里斯托夫交錯一生的蹤跡

  • and in Haiti's legacy as the first nation to permanently abolish slavery.

    今散落一眾宮殿的破瓦頹垣

The royal couple of Haiti rode into their coronation to thunderous applause.

譯者: Clement Fu 審譯者: Helen Chang

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 海地 國王 奴隸制 殖民地 島嶼

海地第一任也是最後一任國王----馬琳-多特; (The first and last king of Haiti - Marlene Daut)

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    Harry Huang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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