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  • Scientists work on the boundaries of the unknown, where every new piece of knowledge forms a path into a void of uncertainty.

    科學家致力於探索未知的邊界,每一次新知的發現都開啓一條通往未知可能性的路。

  • And nothing is more uncertain, or potentially enlightening, than a paradox.

    沒有什麼比悖論更不確定的了—或,更有啟發的潛力。

  • Throughout history, paradoxes have threatened to undermine everything we know, and just as often, they've reshaped our understanding of the world.

    縱觀歷史,悖論一直挑戰著我們所知的一切,但它們同樣經常重新建構我們對世界的了解。

  • Today, one of the biggest paradoxes in the universe threatens to unravel the fields of general relativity and quantum mechanics: the black hole information paradox.

    現今,宇宙中最大的悖論之一威脅著「廣義相對論」與「量子力學」領域:「黑洞資訊悖論」。

  • To understand this paradox, we first need to define what we mean by "information."

    要了解這個悖論,我們先要定義這裡所謂的「資訊」是什麼。

  • Typically, the information we talk about is visible to the naked eye.

    通常,我們所說的資訊是用肉眼可以看見的。

  • For example, this kind of information tells us that an apple is red, round, and shiny.

    比如,這種資訊告訴我們蘋果是紅色的、圓形的、有光澤。

  • But physicists are more concerned with quantum information.

    但物理學家更在乎的是量子資訊。

  • This refers to the quantum properties of all the particles that make up that apple, such as their position, velocity, and spin.

    也就是:構成這顆蘋果的 所有粒子有什麼量子特性,比如它們的位置、速度、自旋。

  • Every object in the Universe is composed of particles with unique quantum properties.

    宇宙中的所有物質都由具有獨特量子特性的粒子所構成。

  • This idea is evoked most significantly in a vital law of physics: "the total amount of quantum information in the Universe must be conserved".

    一個重要的物理定律體現了這個想法:「宇宙中所有量子資訊的總量必須守恆」。

  • Even if you destroy an object beyond recognition, its quantum information is never permanently deleted.

    即使我們把物體摧毀到無法辨識,它的量子資訊也永遠不會消失。

  • And theoretically, knowledge of that information would allow us to recreate the object from its particle components.

    理論上,一旦知道那些資訊,我們就可以用該物體的粒子元件將該物體重建出來。

  • Conservation of information isn't just an arbitrary rule, but a mathematical necessity, upon which much of modern science is built.

    資訊守恆並不只是任意的一條法則,它在數學上有其必要性,且是大部分現代科學的建構基礎。

  • But around black holes, those foundations get shaken.

    但在黑洞附近, 那些根基受到動搖。

  • When an apple enters a black hole, it seems as though it leaves the Universe, and all its quantum information becomes irretrievably lost.

    當一顆蘋果進入黑洞,它就好像離開了這個宇宙,它會失去它所有的量子資訊,且無法挽回。

  • However, this doesn't immediately break the laws of physics.

    然而,這不會馬上破壞物理的法則。

  • The information is out of sight, but it might still exist within the black hole's mysterious void.

    資訊雖然看不見,但它可能仍然存在於黑洞的神秘空洞當中。

  • Alternatively, some theories suggest that information doesn't even make it inside the black hole at all.

    另一種說法是,那些資訊甚至根本沒有進入到黑洞中。

  • Seen from outside, it's as if the apple's quantum information is encoded on the surface layer of the black hole, called the event horizon.

    從外面看,似乎蘋果的量子資訊被編碼在黑洞的表層上,也就是「事相面 (事件視界)」。

  • As the black hole's mass increases, the surface of the event horizon increases as well.

    當黑洞的質量增加,事相面的表面也會增加。

  • So it's possible that as a black hole swallows an object, it also grows large enough to conserve the object's quantum information.

    所以,的確有可能,當黑洞吞噬物體時,它也會長大到一個程度,讓該物體的量子資訊可以守恆。

  • But whether information is conserved inside the black hole or on its surface, the laws of physics remain intactuntil you account for Hawking radiation.

    但,不論資訊守恆是發生在黑洞內或黑洞表面,物理的定律仍然不受影響—除非你要去說明「霍金輻射」。

  • Discovered by Stephen Hawking in 1974, this phenomenon shows that black holes are gradually evaporating.

    1974 年史帝芬霍金發現了這種現象,它顯示黑洞會漸漸蒸發。

  • Over incredibly long periods of time black holes lose mass as they shed particles away from their event horizons.

    經過非常長的時間之後,黑洞的事相面會散失粒子,因而失去一些質量。

  • Critically, it seems as though the evaporating particles are unrelated to the information the black hole encodes, suggesting that a black hole and all the quantum information it contains could be completely erased.

    重要的是,蒸發的粒子看起來似乎和黑洞編碼的資訊沒有關聯—這就意味著,黑洞和它含有的所有量子資訊能被完全抹除。

  • Does that quantum information truly disappear?

    那些量子資訊真的會消失嗎?

  • If not, where does it go?

    如果不會,它們到哪裡去了?

  • While the evaporation process would take an incredibly long time, the questions it raises for physics are far more urgent.

    雖然蒸發過程會花非常長的時間,它帶給物理的問題更急迫。

  • The destruction of information would force us to rewrite some of our most fundamental scientific paradigms.

    資訊的毀滅會迫使我們重寫我們最基礎的科學範式。

  • But fortunately, in science, every paradox is an opportunity for new discoveries.

    但,幸運的是,在科學上,每一個範式都是新發現的機會。

  • Researchers are investigating a broad range of possible solutions to the information paradox.

    針對「資訊悖論」,研究者在探究各種可能的解決方案。

  • Some have theorized that information actually is encoded in the escaping radiation, in some way we can't yet understand.

    有些研究者推理說資訊其實是被編碼在逃逸輻射上,用的是我們尚無法理解的編碼方式。

  • Others have suggested the paradox is just a misunderstanding of how general relativity and quantum field theory interact.

    其他研究者則認為悖論只是誤解,誤會了「廣義相對論」和「量子場論」如何產生交互作用。

  • Respectively, these two theories describe the largest and smallest physical phenomena, and they're notoriously difficult to combine.

    這兩種理論分別描述了最大和最小的物理現象,這兩者本來就是出了名的難結合。

  • Some researchers argue that a solution to this and many other paradoxes will come naturally with a "unified theory of everything."

    有些研究者主張,對這個悖論及許多其他悖論而言,解決方案自然會隨著「統一的萬物論」出現。

  • But perhaps the most mind-bending theory to come from exploring this paradox is the holographic principle".

    但,也許在探究這個悖論時,最難以理解的理論是「全像原理」。

  • Expanding on the idea that the 2D surface of an event horizon can store quantum information, this principle suggests that the very boundary of the observable universe is also a 2D surface encoded with information about real, 3D objects.

    事相面的 2D 表面能夠儲存量子資訊,這個想法延伸出了全像原理,該原理指出,可觀測宇宙的每一條邊界也都是 2D 表面,且有關於真實 3D 物體的資訊被編碼在這表面上。

  • If this is true, it's possible that reality as we know it is just a holographic projection of that information.

    如果這是真的, 有可能我們所知道的真實只是那些資訊的全像投影。

  • If proven, any of these theories would open up new questions to explore, while still preserving our current models of the universe.

    如果得到證明,上述任一個理論都能夠開啟探索的新方向,同時還能沿用我們目前的宇宙模型。

  • But it's also possible that those models are wrong! Either way, this paradox has already helped us take another step into the unknown.

    但,也有可能那些模型是錯的!不管怎樣,這個悖論已經讓我們向未知更進一步了。

  • Ever wonder if a black hole could destroy us?

    有沒有想過黑洞是否可以消滅我們?

  • Or we could destroy a black hole?

    或我們能不能摧毀黑洞?

  • Cast your lot for or against humanity by watching one of these videos next.

    想得知人類是否能與黑洞共存,就繼續看接下來的影片吧!

Scientists work on the boundaries of the unknown, where every new piece of knowledge forms a path into a void of uncertainty.

科學家致力於探索未知的邊界,每一次新知的發現都開啓一條通往未知可能性的路。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 黑洞 悖論 量子 資訊 宇宙

【TED-Ed】近代最偉大的物理學家:霍金之黑洞悖論解析 (Hawking's black hole paradox explained - Fabio Pacucci)

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    Seraya 發佈於 2020 年 02 月 14 日
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