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  • [6 Minute English, from]

    [ 的六分鐘學英語]

  • Hello, this is 6 Minute English.


  • I'm Rob.

    我是 Rob。

  • And I'm Sam.

    我是 Sam。

  • In this programme, we're talking about biscuits.


  • Really? That's not what I was told...


  • Oh hold on, you're lying.


  • Yes, you're right, Sam.


  • I am lying simply to demonstrate our topiclying and how to detect it.


  • You detected my lie very easily, Sam!


  • I could tell by the smirk on your face that you were telling a fibthat's the word for a small, inoffensive lie.


  • To be honest, talking about lie detecting will be much more interesting than biscuits.


  • But first, let's start with a question for you to answer.


  • A competition is held in Cumbria in the U.K. every year to find and award the title of "The Biggest Liar in the World".


  • But which type of people are not allowed to take part?


  • a) Farmers, b) Lawyers, or c) Estate agents.

    a) 農夫、b) 律師,還是 c) 房地產經紀人?

  • What do you think, Sam?


  • I'd be lying if I said I knew.


  • But based on personal experience, I'd say estate agents.


  • They'd find it too easy!


  • Ha! Well that's your opinion but I'll let you know if you're right at the end of the program.


  • So, lying is something I'm sure a lot of us do.


  • Sometimes to avoid trouble, sometimes to cheat people, or sometimes just to impress someone.


  • Did you know I can speak seven languages, Sam?


  • That's just a barefaced lie, Rob!


  • But I can see how easy lying can be, and that's what neuroscientist Sophie Scott thinks.

    但我可以得知說謊有多容易,而神經科學家 Sophie Scott 也是這麼想的。

  • Here she is on BBC Radio 4's Seriously podcast, explaining how we sometimes lie just to be nice!

    她在 BBC 電台中解釋,有時候說謊是為了表達友善!

  • Often what we mean by lying is someone setting out to deceive us with their words or their actions.


  • But actually normal conversation probably can only happen because we don't actually say all the time exactly what we really think and what we really mean.


  • And that kind of cooperation is at the heart, I think, of a lot of social interactions for humans.


  • And I think that's one of the strong pushes to make conversation polite and therefore, frequently, not actually truthful.


  • So, Sophie mentions two types of lying.

    Sophie 提到兩種類型的謊言。

  • There's the one when we try to deceive someone.


  • So that's trying to hide something by tricking someone to gain an advantage.


  • Hmm, that's like you getting me to pay 10 pounds for a cinema ticket when actually they were only 5 pounds.

    這就好比你叫我付 10 英鎊買電影票,但實際上電影票才 5 鎊。

  • That's just dishonest, but there are also what I like to call white lies, small lies we tell to avoid upsetting someone.


  • Those are lies that aren't intended to give you an advantage.


  • Yes, Sophie Scott says we use them in normal conversation, when we don't say what we really mean.

    沒錯,Sophie 說在日常對話中,當我們不說出真正的意思時,我們就會說善意的謊言,

  • So, we want to make conversation polite because we want to cooperate with each other. She says cooperation is at the heart.

    我們想保持客氣的對話是因為想與他人合作,Sophie 認為關鍵是為了合作。

  • Something that's at the heart is the most important or essential part.

    at the heart 是指很重要或不可或缺的部分。

  • Now telling lies is one thing but how do you know if we're being lied to?


  • Sometimes there are telltale signs, such as someone's face turning red or someone shuffling their feet.


  • But if you really want to know if someone is lying, maybe we should listen to Richard Wiseman, a psychologist at the University of Hertfordshire.

    如果真的想知道一個人是否在說謊,我們應該聽聽赫特福德大學的心理學家 Richard Wiseman 怎麼說。

  • Here he is speaking on the Seriously podcast...

    接下來是 Richard Wiseman 在廣播節目上所說的話...

  • Liars in general say less.


  • They tend to have a longer what's called response latency, which is the time between the end of the question and the beginning of the answer.


  • And there also tends to be an emotional distance in the lie.


  • So the words 'me','my', 'I'—all those things tend to drop away in lies.


  • And it's much much harder for liars to control what they're saying and how they're saying it, so focus your attention there, you become a better lie detector.


  • Some good advice from Richard Wiseman.

    下面是來自 Richard Wiseman 的好建議。

  • So to detect lies we need to listen out for the response latency.


  • A term used in psychology to describe the time taken between a stimulus or question and a response to it.

    反應延遲是用在心理學上, 描述在給予刺激或問題開始到獲得反應,中間所需的時間。

  • The bigger the gap, the more chance there is that someone is lying.


  • Is that a good summary, Sam?


  • Sort of, Rob.


  • Richard also suggests we focus onor concentrate onwhat and how people are saying things too.

    Richard 也建議我們專注在人們說的話與說的方式。

  • There's probably more to it than just that.


  • Well now you know how to detect my lies, Sam, maybe honesty is the best policy, as they say.


  • So I'm now going to give you an honest answer to the question I asked earlier.


  • A competition is held in Cumbria, in the U.K., every year to award the title of "The Biggest Liar in the World"


  • But which type of people are not allowed to take part?


  • a) Farmers, b) Lawyers, or c) Estate agents?

    a) 農夫、b) 律師,還是 c) 房地產經紀人?

  • I guessed c) Estate agents.

    我猜是 c) 房地產經紀人。

  • And you are wrong, I'm afraid.


  • Lawyers, as well as politicians, are not allowed to enter the competition.


  • It's claimed "they are judged to be too skilled at telling porkies."


  • Porkies is an informal word for "pork pies" and that rhymes with "lies."

    Porkies 是 pork pies 的非正式寫法,而 pork pies 與 lies 押韻。

  • Fascinating stuff, Rob and that's no lie!


  • But now, shall we recap some of the vocabulary we've heard today?


  • Yeah, why not.


  • A fib is a small inoffensive lie.

    fib 是指無傷大雅的小謊。

  • A white lie is also a small lie, told to avoid upsetting someone.

    white lie 也是指小謊,目的是避免使他人不開心。

  • When you deceive someone, you try to hide something by tricking them to gain an advantage.

    當你 deceive 他人,是指你為了得到好處,隱藏事情欺騙他人。

  • When something is at the heart of something, it is the most important or essential part of it.

    at the heart of 是指最重要、不可或缺的部分。

  • And we heard about response latency.

    我們也學到 response latency。

  • A term used in psychology to describe the time taken between a stimulus or question and a response to it.

    response latency 是心理學的用語, 描述在給予刺激或問題開始到獲得反應,中間所需的時間。

  • Okay, thank you, Sam.


  • That's all from 6 Minute English.


  • We look forward to your company next time. Goodbye!


  • Bye everyone!


[6 Minute English, from]

[ 的六分鐘學英語]

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BBC 教你如何揭發謊言! (Can you spot a lie? Listen to 6 Minute English)

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    Annie Huang 發佈於 2020 年 04 月 18 日