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  • I have 18 minutes to tell you what happened

    譯者: Calvin Ma 審譯者: Shelley Krishna Tsang

  • over the past six million years.

    在接下來的18分鐘裡,我要向你們講述

  • All right.

    過去六百萬年所發生的事情。

  • We all have come from a long way,

    好的。

  • here in Africa, and converged in this region of Africa,

    我們都歷經了漫長的歷程,

  • which is a place where 90 percent of our evolutionary process took place.

    在非洲這裡,在非洲這地區聚集,

  • And I say that not because I am African,

    這裡是我們 90% 的進化過程的發生之地。

  • but it's in Africa that you find the earliest evidence

    我會這麼說的原因並不是因為我是非洲人,

  • for human ancestors, upright walking traces,

    而是因為在非洲,你可以找到

  • even the first technologies in the form of stone tools.

    人類祖先最早的證據、直立行走的痕跡,

  • So we all are Africans, and welcome home.

    甚至是最早的科技----石頭工具(石器)

  • All right.

    所以我們都是非洲人,歡迎你們回家。

  • I'm a paleoanthropologist, and my job is to define

    好的。

  • man's place in nature and explore what makes us human.

    我是一名古人類學家,我的工作是去定義

  • And today, I will use Selam, the earliest child ever discovered,

    人類在大自然中的地位,並且探索人類的本質,

  • to tell you a story of all of us.

    今天我會透過 Selam -- 至今發現最遠古的小孩,

  • Selam is our most complete skeleton of a three-year-old girl

    來告訴你一個關於我們所有人的故事。

  • who lived and died 3.3 million years ago.

    Selam 是我們所擁有最完整的三歲女孩骸骨,

  • She belongs to the species known as Australopithecus afarensis.

    她生活且死於 330萬年前,

  • You don't need to remember that.

    她屬於的物種是阿法南猿 (古人類種)

  • That's the Lucy species, and was found by my research team

    你不用記住這個。

  • in December of 2000 in an area called Dikika.

    那也是與 Lucy 同一物種,是由我們的研究小組

  • It's in the northeastern part of Ethiopia.

    在2000的12月在一個叫做 Dikika 的地方發現的,

  • And Selam means peace in many Ethiopian languages.

    它在依索比亞東北部。

  • We use that name to celebrate peace in the region and in the planet.

    Selam 在很多依索比亞的語言中都代表著"和平"

  • And the fact that it was the cover story of all these famous magazines

    我們選用了這個名字來祝願這一地區和這個地球的和平。

  • gives you already an idea of her significance, I think.

    事實上它已成為很多著名雜誌的封面故事,

  • After I was invited by TED, I did some digging,

    我想這一點已經告訴了你其重要性。

  • because that's what we do, to know about my host.

    在受到 TED 的邀請後,我做了一些鑽研,

  • You don't just jump into an invitation.

    畢竟這就是我們在幹的事情,去了解關於我們的主顧。

  • And I learned that the first technology appeared

    你總不能亳無準備就接受邀請。

  • in the form of stone tools, 2.6 million years ago.

    通過我的資料搜查,最早出現的科技

  • First entertainment comes evidence from flutes that are 35,000 years old.

    是在 260萬年前的石頭工具 (石器)

  • And evidence for first design comes 75,000 years old -- beads.

    最早有證據證明的娛樂是來自於 35000年前的笛子,

  • And you can do the same with your genes and track them back in time.

    而最早有證據證明的設計是來自於 75,000年前的珠子。

  • And DNA analysis of living humans and chimpanzees

    你也可以用同樣的辦法去追溯你的基因的歷史。

  • teaches us today that we diverged sometime around seven million years ago

    而對現在存的人類和黑猩猩的研究

  • and that these two species share over 98 percent of the same genetic material.

    告訴我們大約在 750萬年前,人類和黑猩猩分道揚鑣,

  • I think knowing this is a very useful context

    這兩個物種有 98%的基因結構是相同的。

  • within which we can think of our ancestry.

    我認為了解這些是對我們想像我們的祖先

  • However, DNA analysis informs us only about

    提供了非常有用的背景資料。

  • the beginning and the end, telling us nothing

    不過,這些分析資料只告訴了我們

  • about what happened in the middle.

    關於開始和結局,卻沒有告訴我們

  • So, for us, paleoanthropologists, our job is to find the hard evidence,

    其中經歷了什麼。

  • the fossil evidence, to fill in this gap

    而對於我們古人類學家而言,我們的工作就是去找出實質的證據,

  • and see the different stages of development.

    化石證據,來填補其中的空白,

  • Because it's only when you do that, that you can talk about --

    及呈現發展過程中定的各個階段,

  • (Laughter) --

    因為你做了這些,你才有東西可以說....

  • it's only when you do that, [that] you can talk about

    (笑聲)

  • how we looked like and how we behaved at different times,

    你做了這些,你才有東西可以說出

  • and how those likes and looks and behaviors changed through time.

    在不同時期我們是長什麼樣,我們的行為是怎樣,

  • That then gives you an access

    以上這些喜好、長相和行為如何隨著時間流逝而變化,

  • to explore the biological mechanisms

    那就可以結我們一個途徑

  • and forces that are responsible for this gradual change

    去探索生物學的機際,

  • that made us what we are today.

    正是這些機際的力量

  • But finding the hard evidence is a very complicated endeavor.

    逐漸把我們變成今天這個樣子。

  • It's a systematic and scientific approach,

    但是要找到實質的證據是一件非常複雜的任務。

  • which takes you to places that are remote, hot, hostile and often with no access.

    這是一個系統的、科學的方法

  • Just to give you an example, when I went to Dikika,

    來帶你去遙遠、炎熱、抗拒並且難以進入的地方,

  • where Selam was found, in '99 -- and it's about 500 kilometers

    例如,當我去了 Dikika,

  • from Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia.

    也就是於 99年 Selam 被發現的地方,

  • It took us only seven hours to do the first 470 kilometers of the 500,

    那裡距離衣索比亞的首都阿地斯阿貝巴 (Addis Ababa) 約有500公里。

  • but took four, solid hours to do the last only 30 kilometers.

    500公里的前470公里只花了我們7個小時的時間,

  • With the help of the locals and using just shovels and picks, I made my way.

    但最後的30個小時足足花了我們整整4個小時。

  • I was the first person to actually drive a car to the spot.

    在當地人使用鏟子和鐵鎬的幫助之下,使得我能前進。

  • When you get there, this is what you see,

    我算是開車到達這個地方的第一人。

  • and it's the vastness of the place which makes you feel helpless and vulnerable.

    當你到達那兒時,這就是你所看到的,

  • And once you make it there, the big question is where to start.

    這片區域的遼闊會讓你感到人類自身的無助和脆弱。

  • (Laughter)

    一旦你到了那裡,最大的問題是該從那裡著手。

  • And you find nothing for years and years.

    (笑聲)

  • When I go to places like this, which are paleontological sites,

    之後年復一年的,你什麼也找不到。

  • it's like going to a game park, an extinct game park.

    當我去到這樣的,屬於古人類學家研究的地點時,

  • But what you find are not the human remains,

    就像是去了野生動物保護區,一個已滅絕了的野生動物保護區。

  • such as Selam and Lucy, on a day-to-day basis.

    但你將找到的並不是人類的遺骨,

  • You find elephants, rhinos, monkeys, pigs, etc.

    就像是 Selam 和 Lucy,

  • But you could ask, how could these large mammals

    一天又一天,你找到的是大象、犀牛、猴子、野豬等等。

  • live in this desert environment?

    但是你可能會問,這樣的大型動物

  • Of course, they cannot, but I'm telling you already

    如何能夠生存在這樣的沙漠環境中?

  • that the environment and the carrying capacity

    他們當然不能,但是我已告訴了你

  • of this region was drastically different from what we have today.

    這個地區的環境和容納生物的最高容量

  • A very important environmental lesson could be learned from this.

    已經和我們今天是截然不同的。

  • Anyway, once we made it there, then it's a game park, as I said, an extinct game park.

    我們可以從這裡學到生態課程非常重要的一課。

  • And our ancestors lived in that game park,

    不管怎樣,一旦我們到了那裡,它就是個野生動物保護區,正如我所說的一個已滅絕的野生動物保護區,

  • but were just the minorities. They were not as successful

    而我們的祖先就是生活在那野生動物保護區了。

  • and as widespread as the Homo sapiens that we are.

    但他們 (人類祖先) 只是少數族群,且他們並不像智人那樣的

  • To tell you just an example, an anecdote about their rarity,

    成功生存且廣泛分布。

  • I was going to this place every year and would do fieldwork here,

    再給你們舉一個例子,一個有關他們稀有的趣事。

  • and the assistants, of course, helped me do the surveys.

    我每年都要去這個地方,去做實地調查,

  • They would find a bone and tell me, "Here is what you're looking for."

    當然的,我的助手們會幫我一起去做這些調查。

  • I would say, "No, that's an elephant."

    他們找到一塊骨頭然後會告訴我:"這就是你要找的。"

  • Again, another one, "That's a monkey." "That's a pig," etc.

    我會說:"不,這是大象的。"

  • So one of my assistants, who never went to school, said to me, "Listen, Zeray.

    再一次,另一回是 ---- "這是猴子的" "那是野豬的" 等等

  • You either don't know what you're looking for,

    因此,我的一位從未上過學的助手對我說:"聽著,Zeray

  • or you're looking in the wrong place," he said.

    或許你不知道你要找什麼,

  • (Laughter)

    或許是你找錯了地方了。" 他說。

  • And I said, "Why?" "Because there were elephants and lions,

    (笑聲)

  • and the people were scared and went somewhere else.

    然後我說:"為什麼?" "因為這裡有大象和獅子,

  • Let's go somewhere else."

    所以人類會感到恐懼,就搬到其他地方去了。

  • Well, he was very tired, and it's really tiring.

    所以我們該去別的地方吧。"

  • It was then, after such hard work and many frustrating years that we found Selam,

    好吧,他非常疲憊了,實際上這事真的很讓人疲憊的。

  • and you see the face here covered by sandstone.

    我們經過了如此艱苦的工作和令人沮喪的歲月后才在找到 Selam

  • And here is actually the spinal column

    你看看這裡被砂岩覆蓋著的面孔,

  • and the whole torso encased in a sandstone block,

    實際上這裡的脊柱和整個軀幹

  • because she was buried by a river.

    是嵌在砂岩中的

  • What you have here seems to be nothing,

    因為她是被埋葬於河流之中 (河葬)

  • but contains an incredible amount of scientific information

    你所看到的這個東西好像什麼都沒有,

  • that helps us explore what makes us human.

    但其實包含了極大量的科學訊息,

  • This is the earliest and most complete juvenile human ancestor

    那是能夠幫助我們探索為什麼我們會成為人類。

  • ever found in the history of paleoanthropology,

    這是古人類學歷史上所找到的

  • an amazing piece of our long, long history.

    最早和最完整的人類祖先----

  • There were these three people and me, and I am taking the pictures,

    一段是我們長久歷史中最嘆為觀止的片段。

  • that's why I am not in.

    這裡有三個人,而我負責拍照,

  • How would you feel if you were me? You have something extraordinary in your hand,

    所以我不在照片中。

  • but you are in the middle of nowhere?

    如果你是我,你手中捧住意義非凡的東西,但你對它一點了解都沒有,

  • The feeling I had was a deep and quiet happiness and excitement,

    你會怎麼想?

  • of course accompanied by a huge sense of responsibility,

    我的感覺即是,深深的快樂和激動,

  • of making sure everything is safe.

    當然隨之而來的是巨大的責任,

  • Here is a close-up of the fossil, after five years of cleaning,

    那種要確保東西一切都安全的責任感。

  • preparation and description, which was very long,

    這是一塊化石的特寫,

  • as I had to expose the bones from the sandstone block

    它經過了五年清理、準備和修飾 --- 那是非常長的時間,

  • I just showed you in the previous slide.

    我需要從砂岩塊中把骨頭取出來,

  • It took five years.

    就是在前一張片子給大家展示的投影片。

  • In a way, this was like the second birth for the child, after 3.3 million years,

    這就花費了5年。

  • but the labor was very long.

    在某種程度下,這就像是這年孩子在330萬年之后的第二次重生,

  • And here is full scale -- it's a tiny bone.

    但勞動的時間是很長的,

  • And in the middle is the minister of Ethiopian tourism,

    這裡是一個真實的比例----這是一塊小骨頭。

  • who came to visit the National Museum of Ethiopia while I was working there.

    中間是衣索比亞的旅遊部長,

  • And you see me worried and trying to protect my child,

    當我在衣索比亞的國家博物館工作的時候來造訪了那裡。

  • because you don't leave anyone with this kind of child,

    你可以看到我很擔心,並且試圖保護我的孩子,

  • even a minister.

    因為你不會把這樣的孩子託付給任何人,

  • So then, once you've done that, the next stage is to know what it is.

    即使是一個部長。

  • (Laughter)

    所以一旦你那樣做了,下一步就是去明白這是為什麼。

  • Once that was done, then it was possible to compare.

    (笑聲)

  • We were able to tell that she belonged

    一旦工作完成了,就有進行比較的可能性了。

  • to the human family tree because the legs, the foot,

    我們能夠告訴大家的是她屬於

  • and some features clearly showed that she walked upright,

    人類大家庭的族譜,因為她的腿、腳

  • and upright walking is a hallmark in humanity.

    和其他一些特徵很明顯的顯示了她是直立行走的,

  • But in addition, if you compare the skull

    而直立行走的是人類的標誌。

  • with a comparably aged chimpanzee and little George Bush here,

    但再進一步,如果你將這個頭骨

  • you see that you have vertical forehead.

    一個對等年齡的黑猩猩以及小布西 (前美國總統) 相比,

  • And you see that in humans, because of the development

    你可以看到你擁有垂直的前額,

  • of the pre-frontal cortex, it's called.

    這是你在人類中看得到的,

  • You don't see that in chimpanzees,

    由於大腦前葉的發展所構成的 ----

  • and you don't see this very projecting canine.

    而你在黑猩猩身上看不到這一點,

  • So she belongs to our family tree, but within that, of course,

    且你也看不到這樣突出的犬齒,

  • you do detailed analysis, and we know now

    所以她是屬於我們這一族譜,當然的,

  • that she belongs to the Lucy species,

    隨著我們進行了詳細的分析,現在我們知道

  • known as Australopithecus afarensis.

    她是屬於跟 Luzy 同一種族的,

  • The next exciting question is, girl or boy?

    這被稱為阿法南猿 (古人類) 的種族。

  • And how old was she when she died?

    下一個令人感興趣的問題是這是女孩還是男孩,

  • You can determine the sex of the individual

    及她死亡的時候是多大?

  • based on the size of the teeth.

    你可以根據牙齒的大小

  • How?

    去判斷她的性別。

  • You know, in primates, there is this phenomenon

    怎麼做到?

  • called sexual dimorphism, which simply means

    大家都知道,在靈長類動物中,有這樣的一種現象

  • males are larger than females and males have larger teeth

    叫做兩性異性,簡單來說就是

  • than the females.

    男性要比女性長得大一些,

  • But to do that, you need the permanent dentition,

    男性的牙齒比女性的更大。

  • which you don't see here, because what you have here

    不過要做到比較,你需要找到恆齒,

  • are the baby teeth.

    在這裡我們是看不到的,因為這是

  • But using the CT scanning technology,

    嬰兒的牙齒。

  • which is normally used for medical purposes,

    但使用CT掃瞄技術,

  • you can go deep into the mouth and come up with this beautiful image

    就是在醫療目的常用的那種------

  • showing you both the baby teeth here

    你可以深入口腔,這細緻的圖象

  • and the still-growing adult teeth here.

    顯示了嬰兒牙齒

  • So when you measure those teeth,

    及正在成長的成人牙齒。

  • it was clear that she turned out to be a girl

    所以當我們檢驗這些牙齒時,

  • with very small canine teeth.

    以這麼小的犬齒來看,

  • And to know how old she was when she died, what you do is

    很明顯的表示了她是個女孩。

  • you do an informed estimate, and you say, how much time would be required

    要想知道她死時是多少歲,你能夠做到的是

  • to form this amount of teeth, and the answer was three.

    去做一個有根據的估計,去知道形成這樣的牙齒要花多久,

  • So, this girl died when she was about three,

    我們得到的答案是三歲。

  • 3.3 million years ago.

    因此這個女孩是約在三歲時夭折,

  • So, with all that information, the big question is --

    是在距今330萬年前。

  • what do we actually -- what does she tell us?

    所以有了這所有的信息後,最大的問題是-----

  • To answer this question, we can phrase another question.

    我們實際上----從她那裡告訴了我們什麼事情?

  • What do we actually know about our ancestors?

    要回答這個問題,我們可以引用另一個問題-----

  • We want to know how they looked like, how they behaved,

    我們實際上對我們祖先有多少了解?

  • how they walked around,

    我們想去了解他們是長什麼樣子、行為是怎樣、

  • and how they lived and grew up.

    是如何行走、

  • And among the answers that you can get from this skeleton

    及她們是如何生活與成長。

  • are included: first, this skeleton documents,

    你可以從這骸骨中找到包含以上的答案------

  • for the first time, how infants looked over three million years ago.

    首先,這具骸骨首次記錄了

  • And second, she tells us that she walked upright,

    距今300萬年前的嬰兒是長什麼樣子。

  • but had some adaptation for tree climbing.

    其次,她告訴了我們她是直立行走的,

  • And more interesting, however,

    不過還是具有一些爬樹的適應性,

  • is the brain in this child was still growing.

    更令人感到有趣的是,然而,

  • At age three, if you have a still-growing brain,

    這個孩子的大腦仍然在成長。

  • it's a human behavior.

    在3歲時,如果你的大腦還在成長,

  • In chimps, by age three, the brain is formed over 90 percent.

    這就是屬於人類的特徵。

  • That's why they can cope with their environment

    三歲時的黑猩猩,其大腦已經90%成型。

  • very easily after birth -- faster than us, anyway.

    這正是他們出生后很快就能適應環境的原因-----

  • But in humans, we continue to grow our brains.

    比我們人類成型得更快,不管怎樣

  • That's why we need care from our parents.

    反觀人類,我們的腦部會繼續發育,

  • But that care means also you learn.

    這也是我們為何還需要父母照顧的原因,

  • You spend more time with your parents.

    不過這樣的照顧也意味著在學習。

  • And that's very characteristic of humans and it's called childhood,

    你跟父母在一起的時間更長,

  • which is this extended dependence of human children

    這是人類很典型的特點,這叫做童年,

  • on their family or parents.

    即小孩對其家庭或父母

  • So, the still-growing brain in this individual

    更長久的依賴。

  • tells us that childhood, which requires

    所以這個大腦正在成長的孩子

  • an incredible social organization,

    告訴我們她有童年,

  • a very complex social organization,

    一個極完善的社會組成才能擁有,

  • emerged over three million years ago.

    一個非常複雜的社會

  • So, by being at the cusp of our evolutionary history,

    組成於300多萬年前。

  • Selam unites us all and gives us a unique account

    因此在我們進化的歷史的頂端,

  • on what makes us human.

    Selam 將我們統合起來,給予我們人之所以為人的

  • But not everything was human, and I will give you

    獨一無二的依據。

  • a very exciting example.

    不過並不是都屬於人類的特徵,我會給你展示

  • This is called the hyoid bone. It's a bone which is right here.

    一個令人感興趣的例子。

  • It supports your tongue from behind.

    這個叫做舌骨,它就是長在這裡的骨頭。

  • It's, in a way, your voice box.

    它從後部支撐著你的舌頭。

  • It determines the type of voice you produce.

    在某種意義上,它就是你的聲匣。

  • It was not known in the fossil record,

    它決定了你發音的聲線,

  • and we have it in this skeleton.

    在化石史中它並不有名,

  • When we did the analysis of this bone, it was clear

    我們在這具骸骨上發現了它。

  • that it looked very chimp-like, chimpanzee-like.

    當我們蔚這骨頭進行分析時,這很明顯的

  • So if you were there 3.3 million years ago,

    發現它非常像黑猩猩的 (舌骨)。

  • to hear when this girl was crying out for her mother,

    因此,如果你在330萬年前,

  • she would have sounded more like a chimpanzee than a human.

    聽這個女孩哭喊著找媽媽時,

  • Maybe you're wondering, "So, you see this ape feature, human feature, ape feature.

    她的哭聲聽起來更像黑猩猩而非人類。

  • What does that tell us?"

    或許你會想:"那麼你看了猿類的特徵,人類的特徵,猿類的特徵。

  • You know, that is very exciting for us,

    這到底意味了什麼?"

  • because it demonstrates that things were changing slowly and progressively,

    要知道,這對我們來說是非常興奮,

  • and that evolution is in the making.

    因為它說明了事物的進展是緩慢而有漸漸的變化著。

  • To summarize the significance of this fossil,

    進化正在慢慢形成。

  • we can say the following.

    總結這個化石的重要性,

  • Up to now, the knowledge that we had about our ancestors

    我們可以談到以下幾點。

  • came essentially from adult individuals

    迄今為止,我們所擁有的關於祖先的知道知識,

  • because the fossils, the baby fossils, were missing.

    基本上來自於成年人的化石,

  • They don't preserve well, as you know.

    因為是嬰孩的化石是缺少的。

  • So the knowledge that we had about our ancestors,

    正如大家所知道的,他們不易保存。

  • on how they looked like, how they behaved,

    所以我們擁有關於我們祖先的知識

  • was kind of biased toward adults.

    如長相如何、行為如何。

  • Imagine somebody coming from Mars

    只是基於成年人的片面觀點。