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  • Who are we?

    譯者: du kai 審譯者: Shelley Krishna Tsang

  • That is the big question.

    我們是誰?

  • And essentially we are just an upright-walking, big-brained,

    這是一個很大的問題

  • super-intelligent ape.

    而實質上我們只是直立行走的,有更大大腦的

  • This could be us.

    超級智能的大猩猩

  • We belong to the family called the Hominidae.

    這就是我們

  • We are the species called Homo sapiens sapiens,

    我們屬於名為“人科”的的家庭

  • and it's important to remember that,

    我們是名為“智人”的物種

  • in terms of our place in the world today

    並且記住那個很重要

  • and our future on planet Earth.

    就我們在當今世界上所處的位置

  • We are one species

    和我們在地球的未來而言

  • of about five and a half thousand mammalian species

    我們是

  • that exist on planet Earth today.

    今天地球上所存在的

  • And that's just a tiny fraction of all species

    大約一千五百種哺乳動物之一

  • that have ever lived on the planet in past times.

    而那只是曾經生存在這個星球上的所有物種的

  • We're one species out of approximately,

    極其微小的一部份

  • or let's say, at least 16 upright-walking apes

    我們是

  • that have existed over the past six to eight million years.

    過去六百萬年到八百萬年存在過的

  • But as far as we know, we're the only upright-walking ape

    大約或者說至少16種直立行走的物種之一

  • that exists on planet Earth today, except for the bonobos.

    但就我們所知 我們是現今世界上所存的除了波诺波黑猿外

  • And it's important to remember that,

    唯一直立行走的物種

  • because the bonobos are so human,

    記住這個很重要

  • and they share 99 percent of their genes with us.

    因為波諾波黑猿太像人了

  • And we share our origins with a handful of the living great apes.

    他們與我們有99%相同的基因

  • It's important to remember that we evolved.

    而且起源都是少數的居住类人猿

  • Now, I know that's a dirty word for some people,

    記住我們由猿進化而來

  • but we evolved from common ancestors

    我知道那對於一些人來說很難聽

  • with the gorillas, the chimpanzee and also the bonobos.

    但我們是和大猩猩 黑猩猩 還有波諾波黑猿

  • We have a common past, and we have a common future.

    由共同的祖先進化而來的

  • And it is important to remember that all of these great apes

    我們有共同的過去 而且我們有共同的未來

  • have come on as long and as interesting evolutionary journey

    所有這些偉大的物種都經歷過

  • as we ourselves have today.

    像我們一樣的漫長而有趣的進化歷程

  • And it's this journey that is of such interest to humanity,

    記住這些很重要

  • and it's this journey that has been the focus

    並且這對人類來說是一個很有意義的旅程

  • of the past three generations of my family,

    這個旅程成爲了我家三代人

  • as we've been in East Africa looking for the fossil remains

    一直關注的焦點

  • of our ancestors to try and piece together our evolutionary past.

    我們一直在東非尋找我們祖先的動物化石

  • And this is how we look for them.

    試圖拼合我們的進化史

  • A group of dedicated young men and women walk very slowly

    我們是這樣尋找的

  • out across vast areas of Africa,

    一群具有獻身精神的年輕人

  • looking for small fragments of bone, fossil bone, that may be on the surface.

    在廣袤的非洲地區緩慢行走

  • And that's an example of what we may do as we walk across

    尋找可能在地表上的骨骼碎片化石

  • the landscape in Northern Kenya, looking for fossils.

    舉個例子

  • I doubt many of you in the audience can see

    我們在肯尼亞北部尋找化石時

  • the fossil that's in this picture,

    我不確定你們觀眾是否能看到

  • but if you look very carefully, there is a jaw, a lower jaw,

    圖片中的化石

  • of a 4.1-million-year-old upright-walking ape

    但是如果你仔細看的話 這兒有個

  • as it was found at Lake Turkana on the west side.

    410萬年歷史的直立行走的動物的下顎

  • (Laughter)

    在西部的圖爾卡納湖發現的

  • It's extremely time-consuming, labor-intensive

    (笑聲)

  • and it is something that is going to involve a lot more people,

    這個工作很花時間 勞動量很大

  • to begin to piece together our past.

    當拼合歷史時

  • We still really haven't got a very complete picture of it.

    會涉及更多的人

  • When we find a fossil, we mark it.

    我們仍然沒有得到全貌

  • Today, we've got great technology: we have GPS.

    當我們找到化石時 做好標記

  • We mark it with a GPS fix,

    今天我們有先進的技術 有GPS(全球定位系統)

  • and we also take a digital photograph of the specimen,

    我們用GPS定位做標記

  • so we could essentially put it back on the surface,

    還給標本拍數碼照片

  • exactly where we found it.

    以便基本上能夠把標本還原在地表上

  • And we can bring all this information into big GIS packages, today.

    就在我們發掘到的地方

  • When we then find something very important,

    如今我們還能把信息放入GIS(地理信息系統)軟件里

  • like the bones of a human ancestor,

    當我們發現重要的東西時

  • we begin to excavate it extremely carefully and slowly,

    比如人類祖先的骨骼

  • using dental picks and fine paintbrushes.

    就開始用牙籤和漆刷

  • And all the sediment is then put through these screens,

    小心緩慢的挖掘

  • and where we go again through it very carefully,

    並且所有的沉澱物都要經過篩子過濾

  • looking for small bone fragments, and it's then washed.

    還會很小心的再過濾

  • And these things are so exciting. They are so often the only,

    尋找曉得骨骼碎片 然後清洗

  • or the very first time that anybody has ever seen the remains.

    這些事情令人興奮

  • And here's a very special moment, when my mother and myself

    這是他們面世

  • were digging up some remains of human ancestors.

    這是我母親和我挖掘

  • And it is one of the most special things

    人類祖先遺骨的特殊時刻

  • to ever do with your mother.

    這是跟母親一起做的

  • (Laughter)

    最特殊的事情之一

  • Not many people can say that.

    (笑聲)

  • But now, let me take you back to Africa, two million years ago.

    不是所有人都能這樣

  • I'd just like to point out, if you look at the map of Africa,

    現在 讓我帶你去兩百萬年前的非洲

  • it does actually look like a hominid skull in its shape.

    我聲明一下 你看到的非洲地圖

  • Now we're going to go to the East African and the Rift Valley.

    確實形似古人類頭骨

  • It essentially runs up from the Gulf of Aden,

    現在我們去東非和大裂谷

  • or runs down to Lake Malawi.

    起於亞丁灣

  • And the Rift Valley is a depression.

    延伸到馬拉維湖

  • It's a basin, and rivers flow down from the highlands into the basin,

    大裂谷是一個凹地是一個盆地

  • carrying sediment, preserving the bones of animals that lived there.

    河流帶著沉澱物從高地流入盆地

  • If you want to become a fossil, you actually need to die somewhere

    保存著曾經生活在那兒的動物的遺骨

  • where your bones will be rapidly buried.

    如果要變成化石 你要在你的骨骼能夠

  • You then hope that the earth moves in such a way

    迅速被掩埋的地方死亡

  • as to bring the bones back up to the surface.

    然後期待土壤移動

  • And then you hope that one of us lot

    能把你的骨骼帶回地表

  • will walk around and find small pieces of you.

    然後期待我們中的一員能夠

  • (Laughter)

    在這兒饒走 找到你的一些碎片

  • OK, so it is absolutely surprising that we know as much

    (笑聲)

  • as we do know today about our ancestors,

    好了 現在能知道這麼多關於我們祖先的事情

  • because it's incredibly difficult,

    相當讓人驚訝

  • A, for these things to become -- to be -- preserved,

    因為這些太難了

  • and secondly, for them to have been brought back up to the surface.

    首先 這些東西要被保藏

  • And we really have only spent 50 years looking for these remains,

    其次 要被帶回地表

  • and begin to actually piece together our evolutionary story.

    我們花費了五十年尋找這些遺物

  • So, let's go to Lake Turkana, which is one such lake basin

    然後開始拼合我們的進化史

  • in the very north of our country, Kenya.

    讓我們去圖爾卡納湖 一個湖泊盆地

  • And if you look north here, there's a big river that flows into the lake

    在我的祖國肯尼亞的北部

  • that's been carrying sediment and preserving the remains

    如果你向北看 有一條大河流入這個湖

  • of the animals that lived there.

    帶著曾經在這兒生活過的動物的

  • Fossil sites run up and down both lengths of that lake basin,

    沉澱物和保藏的遺骨

  • which represents some 20,000 square miles.

    化石遺址就是這個湖泊盆地

  • That's a huge job that we've got on our hands.

    也就是大約20,000平方英里

  • Two million years ago at Lake Turkana,

    這是我們手頭的巨大的工作

  • Homo erectus, one of our human ancestors,

    在兩百萬年前的圖爾卡納湖

  • actually lived in this region.

    我們的祖先之一 直立猿人

  • You can see some of the major fossil sites that we've been working

    居住在這個地區

  • in the north. But, essentially, two million years ago,

    你能看到我們在北面工作的主要的化石遺址的一部份

  • Homo erectus, up in the far right corner,

    但事實上 兩百萬年前

  • lived alongside three other species of human ancestor.

    直立猿人 和另外三種人類的祖先

  • And here is a skull of a Homo erectus,

    居住在遠處的右上角

  • which I just pulled off the shelf there.

    這是一個直立猿人的頭蓋骨

  • (Laughter)

    我剛從架子上拿下的

  • But it is not to say that being a single species on planet Earth is the norm.

    (笑聲)

  • In fact, if you go back in time,

    但不是說只有這一個物種

  • it is the norm that there are multiple species of hominids

    事實上 如果你回到從前

  • or of human ancestors that coexist at any one time.

    有多種原始人類或者人類祖先

  • Where did these things come from?

    在同一時間共存

  • That's what we're still trying to find answers to,

    他們來源於哪兒呢?

  • and it is important to realize that there is diversity

    那就是我們一直試圖尋找的答案

  • in all different species, and our ancestors are no exception.

    意識到所有不同物種之間有差異性

  • Here's some reconstructions of some of the fossils

    我們的祖先也不例外 是很重要的

  • that have been found from Lake Turkana.

    這是在圖爾卡納湖發掘的

  • But I was very lucky to have been brought up in Kenya,

    一些化石的復原

  • essentially accompanying my parents to Lake Turkana

    很幸運我在肯尼亞長大

  • in search of human remains.

    陪同我父母去圖爾卡納湖

  • And we were able to dig up, when we got old enough,

    搜尋人類遺物

  • fossils such as this, a slender-snouted crocodile.

    當我們年齡足夠大時 我們能夠挖掘化石

  • And we dug up giant tortoises, and elephants and things like that.

    像這樣的一個狹吻鱷魚

  • But when I was 12, as I was in this picture,

    挖掘大象龜 大象那樣的東西

  • a very exciting expedition was in place on the west side,

    但當我十二歲時 正如在圖片里那樣

  • when they found essentially the skeleton of this Homo erectus.

    在西部一次令人激動的探險

  • I could relate to this Homo erectus skeleton very well,

    當他們發現直立猿人的骨骼時

  • because I was the same age that he was when he died.

    我對這個骨架記憶猶新

  • And I imagined him to be tall, dark-skinned.

    因為我當時跟他死去時的年齡一樣大

  • His brothers certainly were able to run long distances

    而且我想像他很高 深色皮膚

  • chasing prey, probably sweating heavily as they did so.

    他的兄弟當然能跑很遠捕獵

  • He was very able to use stones effectively as tools.

    可能汗流浹背

  • And this individual himself, this one that I'm holding up here,

    他也能使用石頭作為工具

  • actually had a bad back. He'd probably had an injury as a child.

    而他自己 我要說

  • He had a scoliosis and therefore must have been looked after

    實際上很不幸 可能小孩時受過傷

  • quite carefully by other female, and probably much smaller,

    他脊椎側凸

  • members of his family group, to have got to where he did in life, age 12.

    必須被其他女性小心地照顧

  • Unfortunately for him, he fell into a swamp

    他可能是家裡較小的成員 才12歲

  • and couldn't get out.

    很不幸的是他陷入沼澤

  • Essentially, his bones were rapidly buried

    不能出來

  • and beautifully preserved.

    他的骨骼被掩埋

  • And he remained there until 1.6 million years later,

    而且保存地很完整

  • when this very famous fossil hunter, Kamoya Kimeu,

    一直在那兒直到160萬年後

  • walked along a small hillside

    當著名的化石發掘者Kamoya Kimeu

  • and found that small piece of his skull lying on the surface

    沿著小坡走過時

  • amongst the pebbles, recognized it as being hominid.

    發現地表上在卵石中間他的頭蓋骨碎片

  • It's actually this little piece up here on the top.

    認出了這是原始人類

  • Well, an excavation was begun immediately,

    這是頂部的小碎片

  • and more and more little bits of skull

    發掘即刻開始

  • started to be extracted from the sediment.

    越來越多的頭蓋骨碎片

  • And what was so fun about it was this:

    從沉澱物種被發掘出來

  • the skull pieces got closer and closer to the roots of the tree,

    有趣的是

  • and fairly recently the tree had grown up,

    頭蓋骨碎片越來越接近樹根

  • but it had found that the skull had captured nice water in the hillside,

    樹最近長大了

  • and so it had decided to grow its roots in and around this,

    但發現頭蓋骨獲取山坡的水分

  • holding it in place and preventing it from washing away down the slope.

    所以樹根就長在了這裡面和周圍

  • We began to find limb bones; we found finger bones,

    樹根抓著頭蓋骨 避免了頭蓋骨被沖下土坡

  • the bones of the pelvis, vertebrae, ribs, the collar bones,

    我們找到了肢干骨頭 指骨

  • things that had never, ever been seen before in Homo erectus.

    盆骨 脊椎 肋骨 鎖骨

  • It was truly exciting.

    之前從來沒見過這樣的直立猿人

  • He had a body very similar to our own,

    相當讓人興奮

  • and he was on the threshold of becoming human.

    他的身體跟我們很像

  • Well, shortly afterwards, members of his species

    他處於進化為人類的起點

  • started to move northwards out of Africa,

    後來 他的同類

  • and you start to see fossils of Homo erectus

    開始從北部走出非洲

  • in Georgia, China and also in parts of Indonesia.

    你開始在佐治亞 中國 印度尼西亞部份地區

  • So, Homo erectus was the first human ancestor to leave Africa

    看到直立猿人化石

  • and begin its spread across the globe.

    所以 直立猿人是第一個走出非洲的人類祖先

  • Some exciting finds, again, as I mentioned,

    然後開始遍佈全球

  • from Dmanisi, in the Republic of Georgia.

    正如我提到的 一些令人興奮的發現

  • But also, surprising finds

    來自格魯吉亞的馬尼西的

  • recently announced from the Island of Flores in Indonesia,

    也是令人驚訝的發現

  • where a group of these human ancestors have been isolated,

    最近宣佈 在印度尼西亞的佛咯勒斯島

  • and have become dwarfed, and they're only about a meter in height.

    一組被隔離的人類祖先

  • But they lived only 18,000 years ago,

    成為侏儒 他們大約只有一米高

  • and that is truly extraordinary to think about.

    他們只生存於18,000年前

  • Just to put this in terms of generations,

    這個很值得我們研究

  • because people do find it hard to think of time,

    就世代而言

  • Homo erectus left Africa 90,000 generations ago.

    因為記時間比較難

  • We evolved essentially from an African stock.

    直立猿人在90,000代以前離開非洲

  • Again, at about 200,000 years as a fully-fledged us.

    我們都從非洲血統進化而來

  • And we only left Africa about 70,000 years ago.

    我們經歷了20萬年才成熟

  • And until 30,000 years ago, at least three upright-walking apes

    我們離開非洲只有7萬年

  • shared the planet Earth.

    並且直到3萬年前

  • The question now is, well, who are we?

    至少三個直立行走的物種存在於地球

  • We're certainly a polluting, wasteful, aggressive species,

    問題現在是 我們是誰?

  • with a few nice things thrown in, perhaps.

    我們當然是污染環境 浪費資源 好鬥的物種

  • (Laughter)

    可能還夾雜著一些好品質

  • For the most part, we're not particularly pleasant at all.

    (笑聲)

  • We have a much larger brain than our ape ancestors.

    對於大部份人來說 我們不是特別滿意

  • Is this a good evolutionary adaptation, or is it going to lead us

    我們有比猿類祖先更大的大腦

  • to being the shortest-lived hominid species on planet Earth?

    這是好的適應性進化

  • And what is it that really makes us us?

    或者這將導致我們成為地球上最短暫存在的人種?

  • I think it's our collective intelligence.

    到底是什麽造就了我們?

  • It's our ability to write things down,

    我認為是我們的集體智慧

  • our language and our consciousness.

    是我們記錄事情的能力

  • From very primitive beginnings, with a very crude tool kit of stones,

    我們的語言 我們的意識

  • we now have a very advanced tool kit, and our tool use

    最原始的開始我們有石頭工具

  • has really reached unprecedented levels:

    現在我們有先進的工具

  • we've got buggies to Mars; we've mapped the human genome;

    而且工具的使用達到了空前的水平

  • and recently even created synthetic life, thanks to Craig Venter.

    我們能到達火星 也繪製出了人類基因

  • And we've also managed to communicate with people

    最近甚至創造了人造生命 歸功于Craig Venter

  • all over the world, from extraordinary places.

    而且我們也能夠

  • Even from within an excavation in northern Kenya,

    在全世界範圍交流通訊

  • we can talk to people about what we're doing.

    即使在肯尼亞北部的遺跡洞穴

  • As Al Gore so clearly has reminded us,

    我們也能告訴人們我們在做什麽

  • we have reached extraordinary numbers

    Al Gore清楚地提醒了我們

  • of people on this planet.

    我們在這個星球上

  • Human ancestors really only survive on planet Earth,

    有太多的人口

  • if you look at the fossil record,

    人類祖先確實只存在于地球

  • for about, on average, a million years at a time.

    如果你看化石記錄

  • We've only been around for the past 200,000 years as a species,

    平均存活大約一百萬年

  • yet we've reached a population of more than six and a half billion people.

    我們只是200,000年來的一個物種

  • And last year, our population grew by 80 million.

    而現在人口已經超過六十五億

  • I mean, these are extraordinary numbers.

    去年人口增長了八千萬

  • You can see here, again, taken from Al Gore's book.

    我的意思是說這些數字特別龐大

  • But what's happened is our technology

    再看看這兒 從AI Gore的書中摘取的

  • has removed the checks and balances on our population growth.

    但是我們技術的改變已經

  • We have to control our numbers, and I think this is as important

    失去了隊人口增長的約束和平衡

  • as anything else that's being done in the world today.

    我們不得不控制人口數量

  • But we have to control our numbers,

    這跟世界上其他任何所做的事情一樣重要

  • because we can't really hold it together as a species.

    不得不控制人口數

  • My father so appropriately put it,

    因為我們作為一個物種不能團結在一起

  • that "We are certainly the only animal that makes conscious choices

    我父親適當地指出

  • that are bad for our survival as a species."

    我們是唯一能夠有意識的做出

  • Can we hold it together?

    不利於自身生存的選擇的物種

  • It's important to remember